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Musculoskeletal disorders of agricultural workers in the greenhouses of Almería (Southeast Spain)
In southeast Spain (Almería), we find the highest concentration of greenhouse crops in Europe, an agricultural sector that directly employs 55,000 people. The objective of this research was to evaluate the musculoskeletal working conditions of greenhouse workers through the standardized Nordic questionnaire. This questionnaire presents 28 multiple choice questions referring to different parts of the body. A total of 1002 questionnaires were completed, and information was collected on nine socio-demographic variables for each worker: sex, age, height, weight, surface area, cultivation, staking...
Overall risk index for patient transfers in total assistance mode executed by emergency medical technician-paramedics in real work situations
Few studies have quantified the risk of musculoskeletal disorders during patient transfers in total assistance mode in real-life prehospital emergency care situations. An index to assess the overall risk of patient transfers was created; it makes it possible to quantify risk based on the patient's position and the height of the patient's location. An analysis of 71 transfers executed by paramedics in actual work situations showed that moving a patient from the ground was characterized by acute sagittal flexions and axial rotations, respectively, 42% and 12% of the time. When the patient...
Hand forces exerted by long-term care staff when pushing wheelchairs on compliant and non-compliant flooring
Purpose-designed compliant flooring and carpeting have been promoted as a means for reducing fall-related injuries in high-risk environments, such as long-term care. However, it is not known whether these surfaces influence the forces that long-term care staff exert when pushing residents in wheelchairs. We studied 14 direct-care staff who pushed a loaded wheelchair instrumented with a triaxial load cell to test the effects on hand force of flooring overlay (vinyl versus carpet) and flooring subfloor (concrete versus compliant rubber [brand: SmartCells]). During straight-line pushing, carpet overlay...
Facteurs organisationnels et psychosociaux associés aux contraintes posturales en milieu professionnel
Résultats à partir de l'enquête Sumer 2010 Contexte: Parmi les contraintes biomécaniques associées aux troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS), les contraintes posturales (CP) font partie des plus fréquemment observées chez les travailleurs. L'objectif de cette étude était d'évaluer les associations entre l'exposition à des facteurs organisationnels et psychosociaux et celle à au moins une CP ≥10 h par semaine dans la population salariée française. Méthodes: Cette étude...
Accuracy of identification of low or high risk lifting during standardised lifting situations
The aim was to classify lifting activities into low and high risk categories (according to The Danish Working Environment Authority guidelines) based on surface electromyography (sEMG) and trunk inclination (tri-axial accelerometer) measurements. Lifting tasks with different weights, horizontal distance and technique were performed. The lifting tasks were characterised by a feature vector composed of either the 90th, 95th or 99th percentile of sEMG activity level and trunk inclinations during the task. Linear Discriminant Analysis and a subject-specific threshold scheme were applied and lifting...
Frequent Exertion and Frequent Standing at Work, by Industry and Occupation Group - United States, 2015
Repeated exposure to occupational ergonomic hazards, such as frequent exertion (repetitive bending or twisting) and frequent standing, can lead to injuries, most commonly musculoskeletal disorders. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders have been estimated to cost the United States approximately $2.6 billion in annual direct and indirect costs. A recent literature review provided evidence that prolonged standing at work also leads to adverse health outcomes, such as back pain, physical fatigue, and muscle pain. To determine which industry and occupation groups currently have the highest prevalence...
A screening tool for the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders
Objective: This study aimed to develop and validate a risk screening tool using a points system to assess the risk of future disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Methods: The development population, the Health 2000 Survey, consisted of a nationally representative sample of Finnish employees aged 30–60 years (N=3676) and the validation population, the Helsinki Health Study, consisted of employees of the City of Helsinki aged 40–60 years (N=6391). Both surveys were linked to data on disability retirement awards due to MSD from national register for an 11-year...
Workplace risk management practices to prevent musculoskeletal and mental health disorders: What are the gaps?
Introduction: A large body of evidence demonstrates substantial effects of work-related psychosocial hazards on risks of both musculoskeletal and mental health disorders (MSDs and MHDs), which are two of the most costly occupational health problems in many countries. This study investigated current workplace risk management practices in two industry sectors with high risk of both MSDs and MHDs and evaluated the extent to which risk from psychosocial hazards is being effectively managed. Method: Nineteen, mostly large, Australian organisations were each asked to provide documentation of their relevant...
Identifying the critical physical demanding tasks of paramedic work
Towards the development of a physical employment standard Public safety related occupations including police, fire and military commonly apply physical employment standard (PES) to facilitate job matching, an approach to evaluate if candidates demonstrate acceptable physical capabilities as required to perform the job safely and effectively. In Canada, paramedics remain as one of the few public safety occupations without an evidence-based, validated PES. The purpose of this study was to document and describe the physical demands of paramedic work and to identify the most physically demanding tasks...
Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life and risk of sickness absence and disability pension
Prospective cohort study Using a biomechanical job exposure matrix combined with Danish registers, cumulative occupational mechanical exposures throughout life (ie, more years with heavy and frequent lifting, and kneeling work) predicted risk of long-term sickness absence among older workers. Importantly, heavy lifting throughout working life was associated with disability pension. Source: Sundstrup E, Hansen ÅM, Mortensen EL, Poulsen OM, Clausen T, Rugulies R, Møller A, Andersen LL. (2017). Scand J Work Environ Health . http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3663
Méthode d'analyse de la charge physique de travail - Secteur sanitaire et social
La méthode d'analyse de la charge physique de travail dans le secteur sanitaire et social a été conçue pour être utilisée dans les établissements spécialisés (hôpitaux, cliniques, hébergements pour personnes âgées, handicapés, enfants) et les services d'aide et de soins à domicile. Elle permet de repérer et d'analyser les facteurs de risques pour l'appareil locomoteur en tenant compte de la globalité des composantes de l'activité. Elle propose une conduite...
Development and validation of an easy-to-use risk assessment tool for cumulative low back loading
The Lifting Fatigue Failure Tool (LiFFT) Recent evidence suggests that musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) may be the result of a fatigue failure process in affected tissues. This paper describes a new low back exposure assessment tool (the Lifting Fatigue Failure Tool [LiFFT]), which estimates a “daily dose” of cumulative loading on the low back using fatigue failure principles. Only three variables are necessary to derive the cumulative load associated with a lifting task: the weight of the load, the maximum horizontal distance from the spine to the load, and the number of repetitions...
Work-Related Psychosocial Factors and Mental Health Problems Associated with Musculoskeletal Pain in Nurses
A Cross-Sectional Study Background . Musculoskeletal pain is the most common cause of incapacity among nurses. This study aimed to report the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among hospital nurses and to explore the associations of work-related psychosocial factors and mental health problems with musculoskeletal pain. Methods . A cross-sectional survey was carried out among registered nurses at Tartu University Hospital during April and May 2011. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the associations between dependent and independent variables. Results . Analysis was based on 404 nurses...
Influence of Manual Labor at Work on Muscular Fitness and Its Relationship With Work Performance
Objective: The present study examined the influence of workplace manual labor on measures of muscular fitness, with a secondary aim to investigate the relationship between muscular fitness and work performance in blue-collar (BC) workers. Methods: Leg extension isokinetic strength at slow and fast velocities, hamstring and hip-flexor flexibility, and low back muscular endurance were examined in young and older BC workers and white-collar (WC) controls, while work performance was examined in the BC cohort. Results: There were no differences in muscular fitness variables between BC and WC groups;...
Sickness absence and permanent work disability in relation to upper- and lower-body pain and occupational mechanical and psychosocial exposures
Musculoskeletal pain in multiple sites has been associated with sickness absence and permanent work disability. We found that high occupational mechanical exposures were associated with sickness absence, particularly in case of combined pain in the upper and lower body. We also found that combined pain and low social support at work were associated with permanent work disability. Source: Sommer, T. G., Svendsen, S. W., & Frost, P. (2016). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health . http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3600
Estimation du chargement au dos
Développement d'une méthode ambulatoire intégrant la cinématique du dos et de l'électromyographie De nombreux travailleurs1 sont atteints de maux de dos chaque année. La région lombaire est de loin celle qui est la plus fréquemment atteinte, et ce type de troubles musculosquelettiques est principalement occasionné par des efforts excessifs, surtout en soulevant quelque chose, et les chargements aux tissus de la colonne qu'ils engendrent. Il n'existe pas de méthode de mesure directe de ces chargements qui puisse...
Social support modifies association between forward bending of the trunk and low-back pain
Cross-sectional field study of blue-collar workers Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the association between forward bending of the trunk and low-back pain intensity (LBPi) among blue-collar workers in Denmark as well as whether the level of social support modifies the association. Methods: In total, 457 workers were included in the study. The forward bending of ≥30° was computed from accelerometer recordings for several consecutive days during work, categorized into long (highest tertile) and short–moderate (remaining tertiles) duration. LBPi was measured on a 0–10...
Observed use of voluntary controls to reduce physical exposures among sheet metal workers of the mechanical trade
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the transfer into the workplace of interventions designed to reduce the physical demands of sheet metal workers. METHODS: We reviewed videos from a case series of 15 sheet metal worksite assessments performed in 2007-2009 to score postures and physical loads, and to observe the use of recommended interventions to reduce physical exposures in sheet metal activities made by a NIOSH stakeholder meeting in 2002. RESULTS: Workers showed consistent use of material handling devices, but we observed few uses of recommended interventions to reduce exposures during overhead...
Effect of individually tailored biopsychosocial workplace interventions on chronic musculoskeletal pain and stress among laboratory technicians
Randomized controlled trial BACKGROUND: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is prevalent among laboratory technicians and work-related stress may aggravate the problem. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effect of a multifaceted worksite intervention on pain and stress among laboratory technicians with chronic musculoskeletal pain using individually tailored physical and cognitive elements. STUDY DESIGN: This trial uses a single-blind randomized controlled design with allocation concealment in a 2-armed parallel group format among laboratory technicians. The trial "Implementation of physical...
Apports et limites des mannequins "virtuels" pour la conception des postes de travail
La journée technique organisée par l'INRS, en partenariat avec l'Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l'aménagement et des réseaux (Ifsttar), avait pour objectif de montrer les atouts et les limites des logiciels de conception des postes de travail utilisant des mannequins numériques. Des retours d'expérience et des résultats d'études ont permis de confronter les fonctionnalités proposées par les éditeurs aux besoins des industriels. Source: http://www.hst.fr/inrs...
Temporal changes in occupational sitting time in the Danish workforce and associations with all-cause mortality
Results from the Danish work environment cohort study BACKGROUND: Prolonged sitting has been negatively associated with a range of non-communicably diseases. However, the role of occupational sitting is less clear, and little is known on the changes of occupational sitting in a working population over time. The present study aimed to determine 1) temporal changes in occupational sitting time between 1990 and 2010 in the Danish workforce; 2) the association and possible dose-response relationship between occupational sitting time and all-cause mortality. METHODS: This study analysed data from the...
Influences on the use of observational methods by practitioners when identifying risk factors in physical work
Most observational methods for musculoskeletal disorder risk assessment have been developed by researchers to be applied in specific situations, and practitioners could find difficulties in their use in real-work conditions. The main objective of this study was to identify the factors which have an influence on how useful the observational techniques are perceived to be by practitioners and to what extent these factors influence their perception. A survey was conducted on practitioners regarding the problems normally encountered when implementing these methods, as well as the perceived overall...
Patterns of biomechanical demands are associated with musculoskeletal pain in the beginning of professional life
A population-based study Objectives: This study aimed to describe patterns of occupational biomechanical demands in the beginning of professional life and to quantify their association with the presence and intensity of regional musculoskeletal pain. Methods :Cross-sectional data from 21-year-old participants were collected during the third wave of the EPITeen cohort study (N=1733, 37.5% were workers). Ten different work-related biomechanical tasks were characterized. Latent class analysis was conducted to identify empirical patterns of occupational biomechanical demands. The presence and intensity...
Estimation du chargement lombaire au moyen de modèles biomécaniques articulaires
Évaluation et application Les troubles musculosquelettiques (TMS) et tout particulièrement les affections vertébrales constituent un fardeau autant pour la société que pour les personnes qui en sont affectées. Au Québec, le nombre d'affections vertébrales s'établissait en 2011 à 21 228 et elles représentaient près de 30 % de l'ensemble des lésions professionnelles indemnisées. C'est la région lombaire de la colonne vertébrale qui est la zone la plus touchée (60...
A frequency–duty cycle equation for the ACGIH hand activity level
A new equation for predicting the hand activity level (HAL) used in the American Conference for Government Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value (TLV) was based on exertion frequency (F) and percentage duty cycle (D). The TLV includes a table for estimating HAL from F and D originating from data in Latko et al. (Latko WA, Armstrong TJ, Foulke JA, Herrin GD, Rabourn RA, Ulin SS, Development and evaluation of an observational method for assessing repetition in hand tasks. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 58(4):278–285, 1997) and post hoc adjustments that include extrapolations...
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