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Two-dimensional biomechanical thumb model for pipetting
Manual pipetting imposes repetitive movements, high force, and awkward postures on the thumb, fingers, and wrist, increasing the risk of musculoskeletal injuries. The purpose of this study is to provide a linear regression model to estimate the optimal pipetting grip height based on the two-dimensional biomechanical static thumb model developed in this study. This biomechanical static thumb model uses hand anatomy and static equilibrium conditions to estimate internal tendon forces against a given external force. Based on the model, we conclude that the optimal grip height is 3 cm in males and...
Occupational biomechanical risk factors for surgically treated ulnar nerve entrapment in a prospective study of male construction workers
Evidence was provided for forceful hand-grip work, with and without vibration, as a risk factor for ulnar nerve entrapment (UNE) surgery in a large cohort of Swedish construction workers. Several individual biomechanical factors comprising such work were associated with increased risk of UNE, including: increased grip force, upper extremity load, frequency of hand-held tool use, and hand arm vibration. Source: Jackson, J. A., Olsson, D., Punnett, L., Burdorf, A., Järvholm, B. et Wahlström, J. (2018). Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health . http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh...
Une atteinte aux capacités de travail : l'usure des articulations
L'usure professionnelle est de plus en plus prise en compte par les politiques de santé publique, car elle pèse sur les organisations et les collectifs de travail, voire sur l'employabilité des individus. Ce 4-pages est centré sur l'usure des articulations, un processus invalidant pour les salariés qui porte atteinte à leurs capacités de travail et les contraint à recourir à des stratégies d'évitement ou de contournement. Il propose une approche statistique longitudinale de la question à partir des...
Integration of active pauses and pattern of muscular activity during computer work
Submaximal isometric muscle contractions have been reported to increase variability of muscle activation during computer work; however, other types of active contractions may be more beneficial. Our objective was to determine which type of active pause vs. rest is more efficient in changing muscle activity pattern during a computer task. Asymptomatic regular computer users performed a standardised 20-min computer task four times, integrating a different type of pause: sub-maximal isometric contraction, dynamic contraction, postural exercise and rest. Surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity was...
Electromyographic analysis of relevant muscle groups during completion of computer tasks using different computer mouse positions
Background: We analyzed muscular activity for different computer mouse positions during the completion of a timed computer task and determined whether the different mouse positions could affect muscular activity, productivity and perceived fatigue. Methods: The subjects were nine healthy young men. Two mouse positions were studied: the distal position (DP), with the forearm rested on the desk; the proximal position (PP), with only the wrist rested on the desk. The subjects performed a 16-min task in each position. Surface electromyography data were recorded for the upper back and shoulder muscles...
Reversible median nerve impairment after three weeks of repetitive work
Little is known about the time relation between entry into a job with high mechanical exposures and median nerve affection. We found that 22 days of seasonal repetitive work led to impaired sensory and motor nerve conduction with recovery within 3-6 weeks post-season. If related to newly increased exposures, median nerve affection is most likely reversible if exposures are reduced. Source: Tabatabaeifar, S., Svendsen, S. W., Johnsen, B., Hansson, G. Å., Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A., & Frost, P. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health . http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh...
Sickness absence and permanent work disability in relation to upper- and lower-body pain and occupational mechanical and psychosocial exposures
Musculoskeletal pain in multiple sites has been associated with sickness absence and permanent work disability. We found that high occupational mechanical exposures were associated with sickness absence, particularly in case of combined pain in the upper and lower body. We also found that combined pain and low social support at work were associated with permanent work disability. Source: Sommer, T. G., Svendsen, S. W., & Frost, P. (2016). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health . http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3600
Effets de la posture de travail sur les patrons musculaires de la région lombaire lors d’une tâche répétitive
En Amérique du Nord, la posture debout prolongée est largement utilisée dans les entreprises, alors que dans d'autres régions du monde, le travail s'effectue plutôt à partir de la position assise. Le travail en station debout prolongée a déjà été associé à divers symptômes comme la douleur lombaire et la fatigue généralisée. Des études récentes ont démontré une association entre la douleur lombaire en posture debout prolongée et des patrons...
High Prevalence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome among Poultry Workers
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) of the upper extremities among poultry processing employees are well documented (Lipscomb et al. 2008; Cartwright et al. 2012). The combination of highly repetitive tasks, forceful movements and working in cold temperatures can increase risk for MSDs such as carpal tunnel syndrome, a disabling medical condition affecting the hands and wrists. In 2014, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was asked to perform a Health Hazard Evaluation at a poultry processing plant in Maryland. Source: http://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2015/04/06...
La grande distribution - Dossier
Vaste secteur aux emplois variés, la grande distribution représente l'un des premiers employeurs de France. Marquée par une forte sinistralité, elle a bénéficié d'un plan national d'actions concertées déployé par le réseau Assurance maladie-risques professionnels. Les efforts commencent à payer et un grand nombre d'entreprises restent suivies par les Caisses régionales de santé au travail, afin d'amplifier les actions de prévention en cours. Source: Travail & Sécurité...
A frequency–duty cycle equation for the ACGIH hand activity level
A new equation for predicting the hand activity level (HAL) used in the American Conference for Government Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value (TLV) was based on exertion frequency (F) and percentage duty cycle (D). The TLV includes a table for estimating HAL from F and D originating from data in Latko et al. (Latko WA, Armstrong TJ, Foulke JA, Herrin GD, Rabourn RA, Ulin SS, Development and evaluation of an observational method for assessing repetition in hand tasks. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 58(4):278–285, 1997) and post hoc adjustments that include extrapolations...
Exposure–response relationships for the ACGIH threshold limit value for hand-activity level
Results from a pooled data study of carpal tunnel syndrome Objectives: This paper aimed to quantify exposure–response relationships between the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) for hand-activity level (HAL) and incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods: Manufacturing and service workers previously studied by six research institutions had their data combined and re-analyzed. CTS cases were defined by symptoms and abnormal nerve conduction. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using proportional hazards regression after...
Evaluation of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Traumatic Injuries Among Employees at a Poultry Processing Plant
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has issued the final report from its Health Hazard Evaluation at a South Carolina poultry processing plant. The plant requested the Health Hazard Evaluation. The final report makes recommendations to improve work conditions and minimize exposures to factors that increase the risk for musculoskeletal disorders and traumatic injuries. The recommendations address changes for reducing the amount of hand activity and force, changing work schedule and rotation patterns and policies, and improving work practices related to tool and equipment...
Validation of the ACGIH TLV for hand activity level in the OCTOPUS cohort: a two-year longitudinal study of carpal tunnel syndrome
Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the risk of musculoskeletal disorders to the hand-wrist system. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) proposed threshold limit values (TLV©) based on hand activity level (HAL) and normalized peak force (PF). We validated ACGIH TLV© in OCTOPUS, a large cohort study on carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Conclusions We found a dose–response relationship between ACGIH TLV© classification and risk of CTS. The increased risk observed for workers exposed between AL and TLV suggests that the current AL and TLV might...
An investigation into mechanical aids and automation for reducing the risks of repetitive handling tasks involving the upper limbs
The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) produced a document (INDG 398[1]) that provides practical advice on mechanical aids that reduce the risk of heavy manual handling. However, there is little information on the mechanisation and automation available to reduce upper limb disorder risks that can arise with repetitive handling (ie handling light loads at least every few seconds). HSE guidance 'Upper limb disorders in the workplace' suggests a hierarchical approach to risk reduction and asks 'can machinery do the highly repetitive functions and leave more varied jobs for the workers?'...
Ergonomic and Safety Climate Evaluation at a Brewery
HHE Program investigators evaluated concerns about musculoskeletal disorders on the can line and in the bottle depalletization areas at a brewery. Investigators determined that employees were at an increased risk for upper extremity work-related musculoskeletal disorders due to awkward postures, forceful exertions, and repetitive motions. Some employees reported that they felt uncomfortable reporting safety incidents or expressing their safety concerns. Investigators recommended that work areas be designed to have a working height between 27-62 inches and add rotating platforms to the height-adjustable...
Élaboration d’un cadre de référence pour l’étude des stratégies : analyse de l’activité et étude de cas multiples dans deux usines de crabe
Le secteur agroalimentaire fait depuis longtemps l'objet d'investigations dans le but de favoriser la prévention des troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS) (Armstrong et coll., 1982; Mergler et coll., 1983, etc.). Les recherches ont cependant surtout été menées dans l'industrie de l'abattage et de la transformation de la viande et de la volaille (Toulouse et coll., 1995; Vézina et coll., 1995; Richard, 1997; Coutarel et coll., 2003; Ouellet et Vézina, 2008) alors que les recherches dans l'industrie des produits de la mer sont rares. Les...
Laboratoire médical - Pipetter en sécurité pour prévenir les TMS chez les technologistes
Cette brochure fournit des informations pratiques pour prévenir les troubles musculosquelettiques (TMS) chez les technologistes. Facteurs de risque ; postures ergonomiques ; types de pipettes et embouts ; décapuchonnage des tubes ; zone de travail ; points de repères pour organiser le travail ; références. Source : http://www.asstsas.qc.ca/documents/Publications/Repertoire%20de%20nos%20publications/Autres/B35_pipetter.pdf
Exercises to reduce musculoskeletal discomfort for people doing a range of static and repetitive work
Previous research has recognised exercise as an intervention that may be effective in reducing the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) amongst the workforce. The aims of this work are to undertake a brief review of literature to identify suggested exercises and any evidence of their benefit with the intention to compile a set of exercises that may be appropriate for inclusion in a leaflet or other publication. Exercices to reduce musculoskeletal discomfort for people doing a range of static and repetitive work. Christine Leah, Health and Safety Laboratory. HSE, 2011. 26 p. (RR743 Research...
New tool launched online to help prevent musculoskeletal disorders
A new downloadable tool is now available to help businesses and organisations reduce the likelihood of their employees suffering from musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) of the upper limbs associated with repetitive tasks. MSDs are the most common occupational illness in Britain affecting more than 500,000 people every year and are often linked to repetitive work tasks such as packing on a production line or the regular use of hand tools. The Assessment of Repetitive Tasks (ART) tool, developed by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL), can help identify where...
Development of an assessment tool for repetitive tasks of the upper limbs
The prevention, control and management of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD) are a priority for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and one of the key ways of improving occupational health in Great Britain. Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and Local Authority (LA) Inspectors play an important role in preventing WRMSD. As well as enforcing health and safety law, they provide advice on risk factors and control measures on a range of health and safety issues. To support this work, assessment tools are required that offer an intuitive and relatively quick process to screen workplaces...
Analyse et exploitation de la variabilité gestuelle dans la prévention des TMS
Cet article présente une étude de la variabilité gestuelle d'opérateurs d'une ligne d'assemblage, inscrite dans une démarche de prévention des TMS et visant la construction individuelle et collective de la santé. A partir d'un positionnement mettant l'accent sur le caractère situé des gestes, ceux-ci sont décrits finement et étudiés du point de vue de leurs déterminants, ressentis et de leurs logiques opératoires. Les méthodes combinent des données d'observation...

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