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Economic evaluation of a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to reduce office workers’ sitting time: the "Stand Up Victoria" trial
Multicomponent intervention involving a sit-and-stand desk can reduce sitting time and increase the standing and stepping time during the working hours for office-based workers, and it is likely to promote the cardiovascular fitness. It is cost-effective in the long-term from a societal perspective. This study provides important evidence for policy-makers and workplaces regarding allocation of resources to reduce workplace sitting. Source: Gao, L., Flego, A., Dunstan, D. W., Winkler, E. A., Healy, G. N., Eakin, E. G., ... et Wiesner, G. H. (2018). Scandinavian journal of work, environment &...
Effects of standing on typing task performance and upper limb discomfort, vascular and muscular indicators
Standing is a popular alternative to traditionally seated computer work. However, no studies have described how standing impacts both upper body muscular and vascular outcomes during a computer typing task. Twenty healthy adults completed two 90-min simulated work sessions, seated or standing. Upper limb discomfort, electromyography (EMG) from eight upper body muscles, typing performance and neck/shoulder and forearm blood flow were collected. Results showed significantly less upper body discomfort and higher typing speed during standing. Lower Trapezius EMG amplitude was higher during standing...
Associations of office workers’ objectively assessed occupational sitting, standing and stepping time with musculoskeletal symptoms
We examined the association of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) with workplace sitting, standing and stepping time, as well as sitting and standing time accumulation (i.e. usual bout duration of these activities), measured objectively with the activPAL3 monitor. Using baseline data from the Stand Up Victoria trial (216 office workers, 14 workplaces), cross-sectional associations of occupational activities with self-reported MSS (low-back, upper and lower extremity symptoms in the last three months) were examined using probit regression, correcting for clustering and adjusting for confounders. Sitting...
A detailed description of the short-term musculoskeletal and cognitive effects of prolonged standing for office computer work
Due to concerns about excessive sedentary exposure for office workers, alternate work positions such as standing are being trialled. However, prolonged standing may have health and productivity impacts, which this study assessed. Twenty adult participants undertook two hours of laboratory-based standing computer work to investigate changes in discomfort and cognitive function, along with muscle fatigue, movement, lower limb swelling and mental state. Over time, discomfort increased in all body areas (total body IRR [95% confidence interval]: 1.47[1.36–1.59]). Sustained attention reaction...
Sit-stand workstations and impact on low back discomfort
A systematic review and meta-analysis Background: Sit-stand workstations are proposed solutions to reduce sedentary time at work. Numerous companies are using them to mitigate health concerns such as musculoskeletal discomfort. Objective: To review the literature on sit-stand workstations and low back discomfort. Method: We conducted a meta-analysis on literature published before 17 November 2016 that addressed the relationship between sit-stand workstations and musculoskeletal discomfort, focusing on the low back. Results: Twelve articles were identified and eight that presented results in means...
Work-related physical, psychosocial and individual factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms among surgeons
Implications for ergonomic interventions This study evaluated the effect of physical, psychosocial and individual factors on the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) among surgeons (n = 312) in Iran. Data were collected using questionnaires and analysed by multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of MSS, particularly in the knees (48.7%), neck (45.8%), low back (42.3%) and shoulders (40.1%) was relatively high. Work-related factors including time spent on surgeries each week (>25 h/week), number of hours working in standing position per day (>4 h/day), moderate to high levels...
Saddle Seat Reduces Musculoskeletal Discomfort in Microsurgery Surgeons
Background. Microsurgery is a surgical procedure that requires a high degree of precision and is commonly facilitated through the use of an intraoperative microscope. When operating the microscope system, the long-term posture and stance lead to fatigue and musculoskeletal disorders in surgeons, and seats are commonly employed to diminish these problems. The present study was conducted to evaluate musculoskeletal discomfort during work with a saddle seat especially designed for people using intraoperative microscopes in comparison with conventional seats for microscopic works. Materials and methods...
The Relationship Between Occupational Standing and Sitting and Incident Heart Disease Over a 12-Year Period in Ontario, Canada
While a growing body of research is examining the impacts of prolonged occupational sitting on cardiovascular and other health risk factors, relatively little work examined the effects of occupational standing. The objectives of this paper were to examine the relationship between occupations that require predominantly sitting, and those that require predominantly standing, and incident heart disease. A prospective cohort study combining responses to a population health survey with administrative health care records, linked at the individual level was conducted in Ontario, Canada. The sample included...
Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life and risk of sickness absence and disability pension
Prospective cohort study Using a biomechanical job exposure matrix combined with Danish registers, cumulative occupational mechanical exposures throughout life (ie, more years with heavy and frequent lifting, and kneeling work) predicted risk of long-term sickness absence among older workers. Importantly, heavy lifting throughout working life was associated with disability pension. Source: Sundstrup E, Hansen ÅM, Mortensen EL, Poulsen OM, Clausen T, Rugulies R, Møller A, Andersen LL. (2017). Scand J Work Environ Health . http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3663
Evaluating biomechanics of user-selected sitting and standing computer workstation
A standing computer workstation has now become a popular modern work place intervention to reduce sedentary behavior at work. However, user's interaction related to a standing computer workstation and its differences with a sitting workstation need to be understood to assist in developing recommendations for use and set up. The study compared the differences in upper extremity posture and muscle activity between user-selected sitting and standing workstation setups. Twenty participants (10 females, 10 males) volunteered for the study. 3-D posture, surface electromyography, and user-reported...
Associations of objectively measured sitting and standing with low-back pain intensity
A 6-month follow-up of construction and healthcare workers This study investigated associations between sitting and standing, respectively, and low-back pain with objectively measured exposures for several days and a prospective design. Sitting at work and during full-day is negatively associated with cross-sectional- and prospective low-back pain intensity. This association was seen for the healthcare sector, but not for the construction sector. Source: Lunde, L. K., Koch, M., Knardahl, S., & Veiersted, K. B. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health . http://dx.doi.org...
Evaluating the low back biomechanics of three different office workstations: Seated, standing, and perching
The objective of this study was to evaluate how different workstations may influence physical behavior in office work through motion and how that may affect spinal loads and discomfort. Twenty subjects performed a typing task in three different workstations (seated, standing, and perching) for one hour each. Measures of postural transitions, spinal loads, discomfort, and task performance were assessed in order to understand the effects of workstation interaction over time. Results indicated that standing had the most amount of motion (6–8 shifts/min), followed by perching (3–7 shifts...
A Psychophysical Protocol to Develop Ergonomic Recommendations for Sitting and Standing Workstations
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine user self-selected setup for both sitting and standing computer workstations and identify major differences. Background: No current ergonomic setup guideline for standing computer workstations is available. Methods: Twenty adult participants completed four 45-min sessions of simulated office computer work with an adjustable sit-stand computer workstation. Placement and relative position of all workstation components, including a cordless mouse, a cordless keyboard, a height-adjustable desk, and a 22-inch monitor mounted on a mechanical-assisted...
Impact of a Sit-Stand Workstation on Chronic Low Back Pain
Results of a Randomized Trial Objective: The aim of the study was to determine whether chronic low back pain (LBP) might be attenuated through the introduction of a sit-stand workstation (SSW) in office employees. Methods: Participants were randomized to receive a SSW at the beginning or at the end of a 3-month study period. Participants responded to a short survey at the end of each workday and a comprehensive survey at weeks 1, 6, and 12. Surveys consisted of a modified brief pain inventory and the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Results: Forty-six university employees with self-reported...
Association of objectively measured occupational walking and standing still with low back pain
A cross-sectional study Objectives: This cross-sectional study investigated the association of objectively measured walking and standing still time at work with low back pain (LBP) intensity among blue-collar workers. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: 187 workers attached two accelerometers for diurnal standing still and walking measurements, which were categorised using tertiles. Workers' self-reported LBP intensity (scale 0–9) was categorised into low (0–5) and high pain (6–9). Results: Of the 187 workers, 17% reported a high level of LBP. Results of the multi-adjusted...
Long-Term Muscle Fatigue After Standing Work
Objective: The aims of this study were to determine long-term fatigue effects in the lower limbs associated with standing work and to estimate possible age and gender influences. Background: The progressive accumulation of muscle fatigue effects is assumed to lead to musculoskeletal disorders, as fatigue generated by sustained low-level exertions exhibits long-lasting effects. However, these effects have received little attention in the lower limbs. Method: Fourteen men and 12 women from two different age groups simulated standing work for 5 hr including 5-min seated rest breaks and a 30-min lunch...

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