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Acute Effects of Interrupting Sitting on Discomfort and Alertness of Office Workers
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 4 hours of sitting interrupted with hourly bouts of standing and/or pedaling versus uninterrupted sitting on alertness and discomfort among sedentary office workers. Methods: Fifteen middle-aged sedentary workers were randomized to three 4-hour conditions: (1) uninterrupted sitting; (2) sitting interrupted with 10 minutes of standing/hour; and (3) sitting interrupted with 10 minutes of pedaling/hour. Self-reported measures of alertness and discomfort were collected. Results: Uninterrupted sitting significantly increased discomfort (P...
What do Workers do to Reduce Their Sitting Time?
The Relationships of Strategy use and Workplace Support with Desk-Based Workers' Behaviour Changes in a Workplace-Delivered Sitting-Reduction and Activity-Promoting Intervention Objective: To explore workers' sitting-reduction and activity-promoting strategy use following an intervention targeting these changes, and whether strategy use and perceived workplace support impacted on three-month sitting and activity outcomes. Methods: This secondary analysis in desk-based workers (n = 83) utilised data collected on questionnaire-derived strategy use and workplace support, and activPAL3TM-derived...
Economic evaluation of a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to reduce office workers’ sitting time: the "Stand Up Victoria" trial
Multicomponent intervention involving a sit-and-stand desk can reduce sitting time and increase the standing and stepping time during the working hours for office-based workers, and it is likely to promote the cardiovascular fitness. It is cost-effective in the long-term from a societal perspective. This study provides important evidence for policy-makers and workplaces regarding allocation of resources to reduce workplace sitting. Source: Gao, L., Flego, A., Dunstan, D. W., Winkler, E. A., Healy, G. N., Eakin, E. G., ... et Wiesner, G. H. (2018). Scandinavian journal of work, environment &...
Workplace interventions for reducing sitting at work
Background: A large number of people are employed in sedentary occupations. Physical inactivity and excessive sitting at workplaces have been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, and all-cause mortality. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of workplace interventions to reduce sitting at work compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. Source: Shrestha, N., Kukkonen-Harjula, K.T., Verbeek, J.H., Ijaz, S., Hermans, V. et Pedisic, Z. (2018). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 6 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD010912.pub4
Blood Pressure Response to Interrupting Workplace Sitting Time With Non-Exercise Physical Activity
Results of a 12-month Cohort Study Objective: To evaluate the blood pressure (BP) effects of a yearlong e-health solution designed to interrupt prolonged occupational sitting time. Methods: BP data of 228 desk-based employees (45.1 ± 10.5 years) were analyzed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Results: Systolic BP significantly reduced from baseline for the first 9 months (1.0 to 3.4 mmHg; P < 0.01) while diastolic and mean arterial pressure decreased for the full 12-months (4 to 5 mmHg for diastolic pressure and 3.6 to 4.2 mmHg for MAP; all P < 0.01). Participants used the e-health...
Associations of office workers’ objectively assessed occupational sitting, standing and stepping time with musculoskeletal symptoms
We examined the association of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) with workplace sitting, standing and stepping time, as well as sitting and standing time accumulation (i.e. usual bout duration of these activities), measured objectively with the activPAL3 monitor. Using baseline data from the Stand Up Victoria trial (216 office workers, 14 workplaces), cross-sectional associations of occupational activities with self-reported MSS (low-back, upper and lower extremity symptoms in the last three months) were examined using probit regression, correcting for clustering and adjusting for confounders. Sitting...
A detailed description of the short-term musculoskeletal and cognitive effects of prolonged standing for office computer work
Due to concerns about excessive sedentary exposure for office workers, alternate work positions such as standing are being trialled. However, prolonged standing may have health and productivity impacts, which this study assessed. Twenty adult participants undertook two hours of laboratory-based standing computer work to investigate changes in discomfort and cognitive function, along with muscle fatigue, movement, lower limb swelling and mental state. Over time, discomfort increased in all body areas (total body IRR [95% confidence interval]: 1.47[1.36–1.59]). Sustained attention reaction...
Sit-stand workstations and impact on low back discomfort
A systematic review and meta-analysis Background: Sit-stand workstations are proposed solutions to reduce sedentary time at work. Numerous companies are using them to mitigate health concerns such as musculoskeletal discomfort. Objective: To review the literature on sit-stand workstations and low back discomfort. Method: We conducted a meta-analysis on literature published before 17 November 2016 that addressed the relationship between sit-stand workstations and musculoskeletal discomfort, focusing on the low back. Results: Twelve articles were identified and eight that presented results in means...
Saddle Seat Reduces Musculoskeletal Discomfort in Microsurgery Surgeons
Background. Microsurgery is a surgical procedure that requires a high degree of precision and is commonly facilitated through the use of an intraoperative microscope. When operating the microscope system, the long-term posture and stance lead to fatigue and musculoskeletal disorders in surgeons, and seats are commonly employed to diminish these problems. The present study was conducted to evaluate musculoskeletal discomfort during work with a saddle seat especially designed for people using intraoperative microscopes in comparison with conventional seats for microscopic works. Materials and methods...
Is objectively measured sitting at work associated with low back pain?
A cross sectional study in the DPhacto cohort Objectives: Low-back pain (LBP) is a substantial health challenge due to the risk for long-term sickness absence and early retirement. Several biomechanical exposures at work, including sitting, have been suggested to increase the risk for LBP. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) the extent to which temporal patterns and total amount of objectively measured sitting is associated with LBP intensity and (ii) whether selected modifiers influence these associations. Methods: This cross sectional study uses baseline data from the Danish PHysical...
A practical guidance for assessments of sedentary behavior at work
A PEROSH initiative Sedentary behavior is defined as sitting or lying with low energy expenditure. Humans in industrialized societies spend an increasing amount of time in sedentary behaviors every day. This has been associated with detrimental health outcomes. Despite a growing interest in the health effects of sedentary behavior at work, associations remain unclear, plausibly due to poor and diverse methods for assessing sedentary behavior. Thus, good practice guidance for researchers and practitioners on how to assess occupational sedentary behavior are needed. The aim of this paper is to provide...
The Relationship Between Occupational Standing and Sitting and Incident Heart Disease Over a 12-Year Period in Ontario, Canada
While a growing body of research is examining the impacts of prolonged occupational sitting on cardiovascular and other health risk factors, relatively little work examined the effects of occupational standing. The objectives of this paper were to examine the relationship between occupations that require predominantly sitting, and those that require predominantly standing, and incident heart disease. A prospective cohort study combining responses to a population health survey with administrative health care records, linked at the individual level was conducted in Ontario, Canada. The sample included...
Pre-existing low-back symptoms impact adversely on sitting time reduction in office workers
Objectives: Initiatives to reduce office-workplace sitting are proliferating, but the impact of pre-existing musculoskeletal symptoms on their effectiveness has not been determined. We assessed the influence of musculoskeletal symptoms on the outcomes of a workplace sitting intervention. Methods: Baseline and 3-month data from a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a workplace sitting intervention (Stand Up Victoria; trial registration number ACTRN12611000742976) were used. Office workers (n = 231) from 14 work teams within one organisation were randomised (by worksite) to a multicomponent program...
Reducing Office Workers' Sitting Time at Work Using Sit-Stand Protocols
Results From a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial Objective: To examine the effects of different sit-stand protocols on work-time sitting and physical activity (PA) of office workers. Methods: Participants (n = 26, 77% women, mean age 42) were randomly allocated to usual sitting (control) or one of three sit-stand protocols (intervention) facilitated by height-adjustable workstations for a 4-week period between June and August 2015. Sitting, standing, and stepping time were assessed by inclinometry (activPAL); leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) by self-report. One-way analysis of covariance ...
Effects on musculoskeletal pain from “Take a Stand!”
A cluster-randomized controlled trial reducing sitting time among office workers The intervention in Take a Stand! was effective in reducing sitting time among office workers, additionally this study shows that pain in neck-shoulders was reduced after the 3-month intervention period. For other pain sites, there were no changes, but for total pain score there was a slight reduction. This is relevant as musculoskeletal pain is very common among office workers. Source: Danquah, I. H., Kloster, S., Holtermann, A., Aadahl, M., & Tolstrup, J. S. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment &...
Integration of active pauses and pattern of muscular activity during computer work
Submaximal isometric muscle contractions have been reported to increase variability of muscle activation during computer work; however, other types of active contractions may be more beneficial. Our objective was to determine which type of active pause vs. rest is more efficient in changing muscle activity pattern during a computer task. Asymptomatic regular computer users performed a standardised 20-min computer task four times, integrating a different type of pause: sub-maximal isometric contraction, dynamic contraction, postural exercise and rest. Surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity was...
Associations of objectively measured sitting and standing with low-back pain intensity
A 6-month follow-up of construction and healthcare workers This study investigated associations between sitting and standing, respectively, and low-back pain with objectively measured exposures for several days and a prospective design. Sitting at work and during full-day is negatively associated with cross-sectional- and prospective low-back pain intensity. This association was seen for the healthcare sector, but not for the construction sector. Source: Lunde, L. K., Koch, M., Knardahl, S., & Veiersted, K. B. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health . http://dx.doi.org...
Total Worker Health® Concepts to Reduce the Health Risks from Sedentary Work
U.S. workplaces have become increasingly sedentary, with resulting negative health effects. Through its Total Worker Health® Program, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends an integrated approach to addressing sedentary work environments. An integrated approach is one that protects workers from work-related injury and illness and helps them advance their overall health and well-being, on and off the job. This document describes organizational practices that can reduce the risks associated with sedentary work. Source: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/wp-solutions...
A qualitative review of existing national and international occupational safety and health policies relating to occupational sedentary behaviour
Prolonged sedentary time is now recognised as an emergent ergonomics issue. We aimed to review current occupational safety and health policies relevant to occupational sedentary behaviour. An electronic search for documents was conducted on websites of ergonomics and occupational safety and health organisations from 10 countries and six international/pan-European agencies. Additionally, 43 informants (nine countries) were contacted and an international conference workshop held. 119 documents (e.g. legislation, guidelines, codes of practice) were identified. Using a qualitative synthesis, it was...
Feasibility and acceptability of reducing workplace sitting time
A qualitative study with Australian office workers Office workers spend a large proportion of their working hours sitting. This may contribute to an increased risk of chronic disease and premature mortality. While there is growing interest in workplace interventions targeting prolonged sitting, few qualitative studies have explored workers' perceptions of reducing occupational sitting outside of an intervention context. This study explored barriers to reducing office workplace sitting, and the feasibility and acceptability of strategies targeting prolonged sitting in this context. Source: Hadgraft...
How Does Definition of Minimum Break Length Affect Objective Measures of Sitting Outcomes Among Office Workers?
BACKGROUND: Harmful health effects associated with sedentary behaviour may be attenuated by breaking up long periods of sitting by standing or walking. However, studies assess interruptions in sitting time differently, making comparisons between studies difficult. It has not previously been described how the definition of minimum break duration affects sitting outcomes. Therefore, the aim was to address how definitions of break length affect total sitting time, number of sit-to-stand transitions, prolonged sitting periods and time accumulated in prolonged sitting periods among office workers. METHODS...
Longitudinal Relationship Between Sitting Time on a Working Day and Vitality, Work Performance, Presenteeism, and Sickness Absence
Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the longitudinal relationship between sitting time on a working day and vitality, work performance, presenteeism, and sickness absence. Methods: At the start and end of a five-month intervention program at the workplace, as well as 10 months after the intervention, sitting time and work-related outcomes were measured using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and company records. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the longitudinal relationship between sitting time and work-related outcomes, and possible interaction effects...
Evaluating the low back biomechanics of three different office workstations: Seated, standing, and perching
The objective of this study was to evaluate how different workstations may influence physical behavior in office work through motion and how that may affect spinal loads and discomfort. Twenty subjects performed a typing task in three different workstations (seated, standing, and perching) for one hour each. Measures of postural transitions, spinal loads, discomfort, and task performance were assessed in order to understand the effects of workstation interaction over time. Results indicated that standing had the most amount of motion (6–8 shifts/min), followed by perching (3–7 shifts...
Call Center Productivity Over 6 Months Following a Standing Desk Intervention
Background: Many office employees are spending up to 90% of their workday seated, and employers are considering stand-capable desks as a way to increase physical activity throughout the day. When deciding on adoption of stand-capable workstations, a major concern for employers is that the benefits, over time, may not offset the initial cost of implementation. Methods: This study compared objective measures of productivity over time between a group of stand-capable desk users and a seated control group in a call center. Comparison analysis was completed for continuous six-month secondary data for...
Take a Stand!
Amulti-component intervention aimed at reducing sitting time among office workers - A cluster randomized trial BACKGROUND: Prolonged sitting time has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Interventions at work may contribute to reduced sitting. The objective was to test if a multicomponent work-based intervention can reduce sitting time and the number of prolonged sitting periods (> 30 min), increase the number of sit-to-stand transitions and decrease waist circumference and body fat percentage among office workers. Primary outcomes were: change in sitting time, prolonged sitting periods...
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