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Exosquelettes au travail : impact sur la santé et la sécurité des opérateurs état des connaissances
Ce guide, destiné aux préventeurs, fait un point sur les connaissances actuelles des exosquelettes afin de mettre en évidence les intérêts et les limites de leur usage en matière de prévention des troubles musculosquelettiques (TMS). L'objectif est d'aider à mieux appréhender l'impact des exosquelettes pour accompagner efficacement l'entreprise dans sa démarche d'acquisition et d'intégration d'un exosquelette. Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=ED%206311
Occupational biomechanical risk factors for surgically treated ulnar nerve entrapment in a prospective study of male construction workers
Evidence was provided for forceful hand-grip work, with and without vibration, as a risk factor for ulnar nerve entrapment (UNE) surgery in a large cohort of Swedish construction workers. Several individual biomechanical factors comprising such work were associated with increased risk of UNE, including: increased grip force, upper extremity load, frequency of hand-held tool use, and hand arm vibration. Source: Jackson, J. A., Olsson, D., Punnett, L., Burdorf, A., Järvholm, B. et Wahlström, J. (2018). Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health . http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh...
What workplace programs help prevent upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders?
Upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) include painful conditions and injuries of the muscles, tendons, joints and nerves that affect the neck, shoulders, elbows, wrists and hands. In Canada, upper extremity MSDs and low-back pain are the leading causes of disabling work-related injuries. While there is general agreement that work hazards (such as repetitive, awkward and static postures, heavy loads, vibration, low job control and poor social support) can contribute to the development of upper extremity MSDs, there is less agreement on the most appropriate ways to reduce or eliminate...
Musculoskeletal injury as "part of the job"
Health and safety in hand-intensive healthcare occupations Preventing work-related upper limb disorders The main focus of previous research on musculoskeletal injuries in healthcare workers has been on back injuries, in particular to nurses. Less attention has been given to work-related upper limb disorders (WRULDs) specifically for those who are performing hand-intensive tasks as part of their work; that include precision hand and wrist movements, repetitive hand motions and sustained awkward postures. Professional healthcare workers such as physiotherapists, physical therapists, sports therapists...
Impact of Work Organizational Factors on Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Epicondylitis
Objective: The aim of this study was to identify relationships between work organizational variables (job rotation, overtime work, having a second job, and work pacing) (These work organizational variables and their relationships with biomechanical and psychosocial exposures were studied previously and published in a separate paper.) and health outcome measures [carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), lateral and medial epicondylitis (LEPI/MEPI)]. Methods: Using a pooled baseline cohort of 1834 subjects, the relationships were studied using logistic regression models. Results: Varied degrees of associations...
Effects of participatory ergonomic intervention on the development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and disability in office employees using a computer
Objective: To evaluate the participatory ergonomic method on the development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and disability in office employees. Methods: This study is a randomized controlled intervention study. It comprised 116 office workers using computers. Those in the intervention group were taught office ergonomics and the risk assessment method. Cox proportional hazards model and generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used. Results: In the 10-month postintervention follow-up, the possibility of developing symptoms was 50.9%. According to multivariate analysis results,...
Associations between biopsychosocial factors and chronic upper limb pain among slaughterhouse workers
Cross sectional study BACKGROUND: Knowledge of factors associated with chronic pain is necessary for preventive strategies. The present study investigates biopsychosocial differences, with specific focus on rate of force development (RFD) and work ability, between workers with and without chronic upper limb pain. METHODS: Eighty-two male slaughterhouse workers, 49 with chronic upper limb pain and 33 pain-free controls participated in the study. Maximal muscle strength, RFD, and muscle activity was determined from fast and forceful maximal voluntary contractions for the shoulder and hand. Participants...
Association Between Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Pooled Occupational Cohorts
Objective: The aim of the study was to ascertain if cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors are carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) risk factors. Methods: Analysis of pooled baseline data from two large prospective cohort studies (n?=?1824) assessed the relationships between a modified Framingham Heart Study CVD risk score both CTS and abnormal nerve conduction study prevalence. Quantified job exposures, personal and psychosocial confounders were statistically controlled. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for individual risk scores. Results: There was a strong relationship between CVD...
Effectiveness of workplace interventions in the prevention of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and symptoms
An update of the evidence The burden of disabling musculoskeletal pain and injuries (musculoskeletal disorders, MSDs) arising from work-related causes in many workplaces remains substantial. There is little consensus on the most appropriate interventions for MSDs. Our objective was to update a systematic review of workplace-based interventions for preventing and managing upper extremity MSD (UEMSD). We followed a systematic review process developed by the Institute for Work & Health and an adapted best evidence synthesis. 6 electronic databases were searched (January 2008 until April 2013 inclusive...
Systematic review of biochemical biomarkers for neck and upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders
Objective: This study systematically summarizes biochemical biomarker research in non-traumatic musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Two research questions guided the review: (i) Are there biochemical markers associated with neck and upper-extremity MSD? and (ii) Are there biochemical markers associated with the severity of neck and upper-extremity MSD? Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed and SCOPUS, and 87 studies met primary inclusion criteria. Following a quality screen, data were extracted from 44 articles of sufficient quality. Results: Most of the 87 studies were cross-sectional...
Long-Term Muscle Fatigue After Standing Work
Objective: The aims of this study were to determine long-term fatigue effects in the lower limbs associated with standing work and to estimate possible age and gender influences. Background: The progressive accumulation of muscle fatigue effects is assumed to lead to musculoskeletal disorders, as fatigue generated by sustained low-level exertions exhibits long-lasting effects. However, these effects have received little attention in the lower limbs. Method: Fourteen men and 12 women from two different age groups simulated standing work for 5 hr including 5-min seated rest breaks and a 30-min lunch...
High Prevalence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome among Poultry Workers
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) of the upper extremities among poultry processing employees are well documented (Lipscomb et al. 2008; Cartwright et al. 2012). The combination of highly repetitive tasks, forceful movements and working in cold temperatures can increase risk for MSDs such as carpal tunnel syndrome, a disabling medical condition affecting the hands and wrists. In 2014, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was asked to perform a Health Hazard Evaluation at a poultry processing plant in Maryland. Source: http://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2015/04/06...
Prévalence des symptômes musculo-squelettiques du membre supérieur chez les travailleurs de l'agriculture en France en 2010
Introduction: La phase pilote du programme Coset-MSA a permis d'évaluer la prévalence des symptômes musculo-squelettiques du membre supérieur parmi les travailleurs de l'agriculture et, notamment, parmi les agriculteurs exploitants et les ouvriers agricoles couverts par la Mutualité sociale agricole (MSA). Méthode: Les travailleurs ont été recrutés, dans cinq départements, par tirage au sort dans les bases de données de la MSA et invités à remplir un auto-questionnaire. L'échantillon d'analyse...
Workers' compensation claims for musculoskeletal disorders and injuries of the upper extremity and knee among union carpenters in Washington State, 1989-2008
BACKGROUND: Numerous aspects of construction place workers at risk of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries (MSDIs). Work organization and the nature of MSDIs create surveillance challenges. METHODS: By linking union records with workers' compensation claims, we examined 20-year patterns of MSDIs involving the upper extremity (UE) and the knee among a large carpenter cohort. RESULTS: MSDIs were common and accounted for a disproportionate share of paid lost work time (PLT) claims; UE MSDIs were three times more common than those of the knee. Rates declined markedly over time and were most pronounced...
Les troubles musculo-squelettiques du membre supérieur en France
Ce document de synthèse porte sur les troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS) du membre supérieur. Dans ce document, le lecteur trouvera des données sur leur fréquence en termes de prévalence et d'incidence, ainsi que sur la fréquence des expositions aux principaux facteurs de risque connus, selon le sexe, l'âge, les catégories professionnelles et les grands secteurs d'activité. Il trouvera également des informations sur la part des TMS des membres supérieurs attribuable au travail, selon les catégories...
Acute effect of topical menthol on chronic pain in slaughterhouse workers with carpal tunnel syndrome
Triple-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial Topical menthol gels are classified "topical analgesics" and are claimed to relieve minor aches and pains of the musculoskeletal system. In this study we investigate the acute effect of topical menthol on carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We screened 645 slaughterhouse workers and recruited 10 participants with CTS and chronic pain of the arm/hand who were randomly distributed into two groups to receive topical menthol (Biofreeze) or placebo (gel with a menthol scent) during the working day and 48 hours later the other treatment (crossover...
Exposure–response relationships for the ACGIH threshold limit value for hand-activity level
Results from a pooled data study of carpal tunnel syndrome Objectives: This paper aimed to quantify exposure–response relationships between the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) for hand-activity level (HAL) and incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods: Manufacturing and service workers previously studied by six research institutions had their data combined and re-analyzed. CTS cases were defined by symptoms and abnormal nerve conduction. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using proportional hazards regression after...
Occupational and Biopsychosocial Risk Factors for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Objective: To investigate a biopsychosocial model of risk for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In addition, a host of exploratory psychosocial variables was investigated as potential risk factors for CTS. Methods: A case–control design was used comparing 87 CTS and 74 sex-matched general orthopedic patients from an outpatient orthopedic clinic. All participants underwent the same diagnostic protocol (ie, physical evaluation and electrodiagnostic testing) and completed a self-report questionnaire assessing a wide range of potential occupational, personological, and psychosocial risk factors....
The Effectiveness of Post-Offer Pre-Placement Nerve Conduction Screening for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Objective: We evaluated post-offer pre-placement (POPP) nerve conduction studies (NCS) for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), testing diagnostic yield and cost-effectiveness. Methods: A total of 1027 newly hired workers underwent baseline NCS and were followed for an average of 3.7 years for diagnosed CTS. Measures of diagnostic yield included sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV). Cost-effectiveness of POPP screening was evaluated using a range of inputs. Results: Abnormal NCS was strongly associated with future CTS with univariate hazard ratios ranging from 2.95 to 11.25, depending...
Upper limb musculoskeletal disorders in healthcare personnel
The literature on upper limb musculoskeletal disorders (UL-MSD) in different groups of healthcare workers was reviewed: 65 relevant studies were collected. In dentists, the neck was the most frequently affected segment, with prevalences up to 73% and exceeding 50% in 7 out of 12 studies. In dental hygienists and in laboratory technicians, the hand/wrist had the highest prevalence in the majority of the studies. In nurses, the most seriously affected anatomic sites were the neck and shoulders. Physiotherapists had the lowest prevalence of UL-MSD. A high prevalence of upper limb disease, mainly carpal...
Natural History of Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Resulting Work Limitations Over 3 Years in a Newly Hired Working Population
Objective: To describe the proportions of workers with upper extremity (UE) symptoms and work limitations because of symptoms in a newly hired working population over a 3-year study period and to describe transitions between various outcome states. Methods: A total of 827 subjects completed repeat self-reported questionnaires including demographics, medical and work history, symptoms, and work status. Outcomes of interest were UE symptoms and work limitations because of symptoms. Results: Up to 72% of workers reported symptoms at least once during the study, with 12% reporting persistent symptoms...
Outils vibrants
Paramètres biomécaniques et sensorimoteurs affectant la réponse biodynamique du système main-bras L'exposition aux vibrations est une préoccupation importante au regard de la prévention des troubles musculo-squelettiques aux membres supérieurs. Les vibrations main-bras sont spécifiquement reconnues pour être la cause du syndrome des vibrations, une maladie atteignant les doigts et la main en matière vasculaire, musculo-squelettique et neurosensoriel. De longues durées et de fortes intensités de vibration peuvent...
Evaluation of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Traumatic Injuries Among Employees at a Poultry Processing Plant
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has issued the final report from its Health Hazard Evaluation at a South Carolina poultry processing plant. The plant requested the Health Hazard Evaluation. The final report makes recommendations to improve work conditions and minimize exposures to factors that increase the risk for musculoskeletal disorders and traumatic injuries. The recommendations address changes for reducing the amount of hand activity and force, changing work schedule and rotation patterns and policies, and improving work practices related to tool and equipment...
Is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Related to Computer Exposure at Work?
A Review and Meta-Analysis Objective: A meta-analysis on epidemiological studies was undertaken to assess association between carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and computer work. Methods: Four databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Base de Donnees de Sante Publique) were searched with cross-references from published reviews. We included recent studies, original epidemiological studies for which the association was assessed with blind reviewing with control group. Relevant associations were extracted, and a metarisk was calculated using the generic variance approach (meta–odds ratio [meta...
Cost-efficient assessment of biomechanical exposure in occupational groups, exemplified by posture observation and inclinometry
Objectives : This study compared the cost efficiency of observation and inclinometer assessment of trunk and upper-arm inclination in a population of flight baggage handlers, as an illustration of a general procedure for addressing the trade-off between resource consumption and statistical performance in occupational epidemiology. Methods : Trunk and upper-arm inclination with respect to the line of gravity were assessed for three days on each of 27 airport baggage handlers using simultaneous inclinometer and video recordings. Labor and equipment costs associated with data collection and processing...
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