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Workplace interventions for reducing sitting at work
Background: A large number of people are employed in sedentary occupations. Physical inactivity and excessive sitting at workplaces have been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, and all-cause mortality. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of workplace interventions to reduce sitting at work compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. Source: Shrestha, N., Kukkonen-Harjula, K.T., Verbeek, J.H., Ijaz, S., Hermans, V. et Pedisic, Z. (2018). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 6 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD010912.pub4
Visual and psychological stress during computer work in healthy, young females - physiological responses
Purpose: Among computer workers, visual complaints, and neck pain are highly prevalent. This study explores how occupational simulated stressors during computer work, like glare and psychosocial stress, affect physiological responses in young females with normal vision. Methods: The study was a within-subject laboratory experiment with a counterbalanced, repeated design. Forty-three females performed four 10-min computer-work sessions with different stress exposures: (1) minimal stress; (2) visual stress (direct glare); (3) psychological stress; and (4) combined visual and psychological stress...
Facteurs organisationnels et psychosociaux associés aux contraintes posturales en milieu professionnel
Résultats à partir de l'enquête Sumer 2010 Contexte: Parmi les contraintes biomécaniques associées aux troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS), les contraintes posturales (CP) font partie des plus fréquemment observées chez les travailleurs. L'objectif de cette étude était d'évaluer les associations entre l'exposition à des facteurs organisationnels et psychosociaux et celle à au moins une CP ≥10 h par semaine dans la population salariée française. Méthodes: Cette étude...
Ergonomic study on wrist posture when using laparoscopic tools in four different techniques regarding minimally invasive surgery
Purpose: With reference to four different minimally invasive surgery (MIS) cholecystectomy the aims were: to recognize the factors influencing dominant wrist postures manifested by the surgeon; to detect risk factors involved in maintaining deviated wrist postures; to compare the wrist postures of surgeons while using laparoscopic tools. Materials and methods: Video films were recorded during live surgeries. The films were synchronized with wrist joint angles obtained from wireless electrogoniometers placed on the surgeon's hand. The analysis was conducted for five different laparoscopic tools...
Differences in postural loading between primary and assistant surgeons during vaginal surgery
While increasing attention has been given to the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDs) among surgeons in various medical specialties, there is no quantitative information about the potential work-related risk factors that contribute to WMDs among vaginal surgeons in the operating room (OR). This study aimed to quantify the frequency and duration of awkward postures, as well as musculoskeletal discomfort experienced by primary and assistant vaginal surgeons during surgery in order to provide a first step of informing ergonomics interventions that reduce postural loading during...
Frequent Exertion and Frequent Standing at Work, by Industry and Occupation Group - United States, 2015
Repeated exposure to occupational ergonomic hazards, such as frequent exertion (repetitive bending or twisting) and frequent standing, can lead to injuries, most commonly musculoskeletal disorders. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders have been estimated to cost the United States approximately $2.6 billion in annual direct and indirect costs. A recent literature review provided evidence that prolonged standing at work also leads to adverse health outcomes, such as back pain, physical fatigue, and muscle pain. To determine which industry and occupation groups currently have the highest prevalence...
Perceived affordances and postures for lifting in child care
Childcare work appears to be full of the physical and mental risk factors frequently associated with chronic exertion leading to injury of the musculoskeletal system. The purpose of this study was to examine the affordances and mechanics for lifting a child, and to associate those mechanics with physical demands reports provided by experienced childcare workers. Participants perceived a smaller safe reaching distance to a child compared to a conventional handling target, despite the identical load and similar load distribution. This difference may reflect the influence of coupling (suitcase had...
Neck posture during lifting and its effect on trunk muscle activation and lumbar spine posture
Neck and head posture have been found to have a significant influence on the posture of the lower spine region during lifting and both an extended/upward gaze and a flexed/downward gaze have been hypothesized to lead to increased pain and/or overuse of the neck musculature. As a result, strength training recommendations have turned to the use of a retracted neck posture as being the safer posture to assume during lifting. This study examined trunk and neck muscle activity and lumbar spine posture in seven participants while performing moderate load lifts using a retracted neck posture (chin drawn...
Evaluation of a Training Program to Reduce Stressful Trunk Postures in the Nursing Professions
A Pilot Study Objectives: The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate metrologically the effectiveness of a training program on the reduction of stressful trunk postures in geriatric nursing professions. Methods: A training program, consisting of instruction on body postures in nursing, practical ergonomic work methods at the bedside or in the bathroom, reorganization of work equipment, and physical exercises, was conducted in 12 wards of 6 nursing homes in Germany. The Computer-Assisted Recording and Long-Term Analysis of Musculoskeletal Loads (CUELA) measurement system was used to evaluate all...
An observational method for Postural Ergonomic Risk Assessment (PERA)
Monotonous, repetitive work characterizes production lines. Repetitive movements and awkward postures are the most prominent physical risk factors in the workplace. Various legislations have been enacted along with technical standards for ergonomic risk evaluation to ensure the safety of the operators. There are numerous methods to assess the ergonomic risk at work. However, most methods are not meant to be used for assessing cyclic work. This paper proposes a method, Postural Ergonomic Risk Assessment (PERA), which is suitable to evaluate the postural ergonomic risk of short cyclic assembly work...
Effects of natural posture imbalance on posture deviation caused by load carriage
The purpose of this study was to explore posture deviation variability caused by load carriages depending on natural posture imbalance to provide information about a carrying habit exaggerating an individual's posture imbalance. All people exhibit some imbalance from the standard anatomical pose which assumes alignment with the frontal and median planes. In this study natural posture imbalance is the starting point for determining posture deviation which is posture imbalance resulting from an activity, carrying an item. Source: Lyu, S., & LaBat, K. L. (2016). International Journal of Industrial...
Sickness absence and permanent work disability in relation to upper- and lower-body pain and occupational mechanical and psychosocial exposures
Musculoskeletal pain in multiple sites has been associated with sickness absence and permanent work disability. We found that high occupational mechanical exposures were associated with sickness absence, particularly in case of combined pain in the upper and lower body. We also found that combined pain and low social support at work were associated with permanent work disability. Source: Sommer, T. G., Svendsen, S. W., & Frost, P. (2016). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health . http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3600
Les départs précoces des pâtissiers salariés de l'artisanat
Comprendre pour agir en prévention Le départ précoce de la plupart des pâtissiers salariés de l'artisanat, survenant bien avant l'âge légal de la retraite, constitue à la fois un paradoxe et un défi de prévention en santé au travail. Le présent article fondé sur une analyse pluridisciplinaire décrit l'activité et les altérations de santé caractéristiques de ce métier, ses contraintes et la tension entre deux configurations différentes d'exercice...
Posture and lifting exposures for daycare workers
Daycare employees, specifically caregivers, are a distinct population that may experience increased risk of injury due to the high exposure to bent postures, lifting conditions and high stress associated with their work. The objectives of the study were to collect up to date data on daycare workers and to compare the data between groups working with children of different ages (Infant, Toddler and Preschool). The study consisted of two distinct phases: Phase 1 – Questionnaire distribution, Phase 2 – Observation and analysis involving three dimensional postural monitoring and video recording...
Collaborating with mammographers to address their work-related musculoskeletal discomfort
Mammographers are an understudied group of health care workers, yet the prevalence of musculoskeletal (MSK) symptoms in mammographers appears to be elevated, similar to many occupations in health care. In this study, we used a participatory approach to identify needs and opportunities for developing interventions to reduce mammographers' exposures to risk factors that lead to the development of MSK symptoms. In this paper, we present a number of those needs and several intervention concepts along with evaluations of those concepts from experienced mammographers. We include findings from a preliminary...
Sedentary Work
Summary of the Literature Review Evidence on an Emergent Work Health and Safety Issue Overall exposure to sedentary behaviour (especially prolonged, unbroken sitting time) is associated with a range of poor health outcomes, including musculoskeletal problems, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, some cancers and premature mortality. The majority of these associations remain even after allowing for the impact of physical inactivity, thereby highlighting that sedentary behaviour and physical inactivity need to be considered as separate health hazards. While most of the evidence to date relates...
Workplace interventions for reducing sitting at work
Background: Office work has changed considerably over the previous couple of decades and has become sedentary in nature. Physical inactivity at workplaces and particularly increased sitting has been linked to increase in cardiovascular disease, obesity and overall mortality. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of workplace interventions to reduce sitting at work compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. Main results: We included 20 studies, two cross-over RCTs, 11 RCTs, three cRCTs and four CBAs, with a total of 2180 participants from high income nations. The studies evaluated physical...
Social support modifies association between forward bending of the trunk and low-back pain
Cross-sectional field study of blue-collar workers Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the association between forward bending of the trunk and low-back pain intensity (LBPi) among blue-collar workers in Denmark as well as whether the level of social support modifies the association. Methods: In total, 457 workers were included in the study. The forward bending of ≥30° was computed from accelerometer recordings for several consecutive days during work, categorized into long (highest tertile) and short–moderate (remaining tertiles) duration. LBPi was measured on a 0–10...
Effets de la posture de travail sur les patrons musculaires de la région lombaire lors d’une tâche répétitive
En Amérique du Nord, la posture debout prolongée est largement utilisée dans les entreprises, alors que dans d'autres régions du monde, le travail s'effectue plutôt à partir de la position assise. Le travail en station debout prolongée a déjà été associé à divers symptômes comme la douleur lombaire et la fatigue généralisée. Des études récentes ont démontré une association entre la douleur lombaire en posture debout prolongée et des patrons...
Gravitational demand on the neck musculature during tablet computer use
Tablet computer use requires substantial head and neck flexion, which is a risk factor for neck pain. The goal of this study was to evaluate the biomechanics of the head–neck system during seated tablet computer use under a variety of conditions. A physiologically relevant variable, gravitational demand (the ratio of gravitational moment due to the weight of the head to maximal muscle moment capacity), was estimated using a musculoskeletal model incorporating subject-specific size and intervertebral postures from radiographs. Gravitational demand in postures adopted during tablet computer...
Observation-Based Posture Assessment
Review of Current Practice and Recommendations for Improvement This document is a joint effort between NIOSH and the Canadian Centre of Research Expertise for the Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders (CRE-MSD). The purpose of this document is to help practitioners assess working posture for the prevention and control of occupational musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Quantitative or semiquantitative descriptions of posture are inputs to many job analysis tools applied in MSD prevention and control. Studies of the relationship between risk factors (such as posture, repetition, and force) and resulting...
NIOSH Takes a Stand
Over the past year, NIOSH and its Total Worker HealthTM Program have been traveling the country sharing the evidence and benefits of comprehensively integrating health protection with health promotion, including workplace programs that encourage physical activity, weight loss and stress management. Recently, we launched an internal NIOSH pilot program to explore the use of sit and stand work stations as part of a workplace health and wellbeing initiative to reduce sedentary work in our workplace. Source : http://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2012/12/sit-stand/
Qu'est-ce qui fait la pénibilité d'une posture contraignante ?
Une exploration à partir des données 2009-2010 du dispositif Evrest La pénibilité est entrée dans le débat social en tant qu’élément justifiant une éventuelle différenciation des conditions de départ en retraite. Les incapacités faisant suite à l’exposition à certaines contraintes seraient l’un des critères pris en compte pour justifier des départs plus précoces, mais aussi pour fonder une démarche de prévention. Source : http://evrest.istnf.fr/_admin...
Office work can really harm you
Better workstations and posture are not delivering the anticipated benefits as computer-bound office workers creak under the strain of escalating workloads. A new study has found even good posture and ergonomic office equipment do not prevent back, neck, wrist and shoulder injuries and are failing to protect overburdened sedentary workers from a raised risk of heart disease, obesity and diabetes. Researchers from the University of Sydney blamed the overall workplace environment for the poor health of office workers. Their survey of nearly 1,000 Australian workers across six government departments...
Body posture as an indicator of workload in mental work
OBJECTIVE: For this article, the relationships between body posture and workload for four mental tasks simulated on a computer were studied. BACKGROUND: Human behaviors are observable during work and are related to human mental activities. A novel supplementary method, based on human behavior but not directly related to task execution, is proposed to assess the workload in mental work situations. METHOD: Body posture was quantitatively analyzed with the use of a video-based analysis system. The distance between a participant's head and the display, the distance between the shoulder and the...
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