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Two-dimensional biomechanical thumb model for pipetting
Manual pipetting imposes repetitive movements, high force, and awkward postures on the thumb, fingers, and wrist, increasing the risk of musculoskeletal injuries. The purpose of this study is to provide a linear regression model to estimate the optimal pipetting grip height based on the two-dimensional biomechanical static thumb model developed in this study. This biomechanical static thumb model uses hand anatomy and static equilibrium conditions to estimate internal tendon forces against a given external force. Based on the model, we conclude that the optimal grip height is 3 cm in males and...
An ergonomic field study to evaluate the effects of a rotatable handle piece on muscular stress and fatigue as well as subjective ratings of usability, wrist posture and precision during laparoscopic surgery
An explorative pilot study Purpose: The interface between surgeon and the laparoscopic instrument is an important factor in biomechanical stress that may increase the risk of musculoskeletal complaints in surgeons. This article investigates the effect of a laparoscopic instrument with a rotatable handle piece (rot-HP) on muscular stress and fatigue during routine laparoscopic procedures (LP) as well as usability, wrist posture and working precision. Methods: 40 LP (subtotal hysterectomies) performed by 11 surgeons were investigated. 20 LP were carried out with the rot-HP and 20 with a fixed (standard...
Hand forces exerted by long-term care staff when pushing wheelchairs on compliant and non-compliant flooring
Purpose-designed compliant flooring and carpeting have been promoted as a means for reducing fall-related injuries in high-risk environments, such as long-term care. However, it is not known whether these surfaces influence the forces that long-term care staff exert when pushing residents in wheelchairs. We studied 14 direct-care staff who pushed a loaded wheelchair instrumented with a triaxial load cell to test the effects on hand force of flooring overlay (vinyl versus carpet) and flooring subfloor (concrete versus compliant rubber [brand: SmartCells]). During straight-line pushing, carpet overlay...
Ergonomic study on wrist posture when using laparoscopic tools in four different techniques regarding minimally invasive surgery
Purpose: With reference to four different minimally invasive surgery (MIS) cholecystectomy the aims were: to recognize the factors influencing dominant wrist postures manifested by the surgeon; to detect risk factors involved in maintaining deviated wrist postures; to compare the wrist postures of surgeons while using laparoscopic tools. Materials and methods: Video films were recorded during live surgeries. The films were synchronized with wrist joint angles obtained from wireless electrogoniometers placed on the surgeon's hand. The analysis was conducted for five different laparoscopic tools...
Reversible median nerve impairment after three weeks of repetitive work
Little is known about the time relation between entry into a job with high mechanical exposures and median nerve affection. We found that 22 days of seasonal repetitive work led to impaired sensory and motor nerve conduction with recovery within 3-6 weeks post-season. If related to newly increased exposures, median nerve affection is most likely reversible if exposures are reduced. Source: Tabatabaeifar, S., Svendsen, S. W., Johnsen, B., Hansson, G. Å., Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A., & Frost, P. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health . http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh...
Musculoskeletal injury as "part of the job"
Health and safety in hand-intensive healthcare occupations Preventing work-related upper limb disorders The main focus of previous research on musculoskeletal injuries in healthcare workers has been on back injuries, in particular to nurses. Less attention has been given to work-related upper limb disorders (WRULDs) specifically for those who are performing hand-intensive tasks as part of their work; that include precision hand and wrist movements, repetitive hand motions and sustained awkward postures. Professional healthcare workers such as physiotherapists, physical therapists, sports therapists...
Carpal tunnel syndrome and manual work
The OCTOPUS cohort, results of a ten-year longitudinal study This large longitudinal cohort study provides a prospective validation of the ACGIH TLV® method for the assessment of biomechanical exposures at work. It confirmed that “forceful hand exertions” more than “any exertion” significantly increase the risk of CTS. This study suggests that the current limits (AL and TLV) might not be sufficiently protective for some workers. Source: Violante FS, Farioli A, Graziosi F, Marinelli F, Curti S, Armstrong TJ, Mattioli S, Bonfiglioli R. Scand J Work Environ Health , 2016...
Effectiveness of workplace interventions in the prevention of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and symptoms
An update of the evidence The burden of disabling musculoskeletal pain and injuries (musculoskeletal disorders, MSDs) arising from work-related causes in many workplaces remains substantial. There is little consensus on the most appropriate interventions for MSDs. Our objective was to update a systematic review of workplace-based interventions for preventing and managing upper extremity MSD (UEMSD). We followed a systematic review process developed by the Institute for Work & Health and an adapted best evidence synthesis. 6 electronic databases were searched (January 2008 until April 2013 inclusive...
High Prevalence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome among Poultry Workers
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) of the upper extremities among poultry processing employees are well documented (Lipscomb et al. 2008; Cartwright et al. 2012). The combination of highly repetitive tasks, forceful movements and working in cold temperatures can increase risk for MSDs such as carpal tunnel syndrome, a disabling medical condition affecting the hands and wrists. In 2014, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was asked to perform a Health Hazard Evaluation at a poultry processing plant in Maryland. Source: http://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2015/04/06...
A frequency–duty cycle equation for the ACGIH hand activity level
A new equation for predicting the hand activity level (HAL) used in the American Conference for Government Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value (TLV) was based on exertion frequency (F) and percentage duty cycle (D). The TLV includes a table for estimating HAL from F and D originating from data in Latko et al. (Latko WA, Armstrong TJ, Foulke JA, Herrin GD, Rabourn RA, Ulin SS, Development and evaluation of an observational method for assessing repetition in hand tasks. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 58(4):278–285, 1997) and post hoc adjustments that include extrapolations...
Evaluating the effect of four different pointing device designs on upper extremity posture and muscle activity during mousing tasks
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of different types of computer pointing devices and placements on posture and muscle activity of the hand and arm. A repeated measures laboratory study with 12 adults (6 females, 6 males) was conducted. Participants completed two mouse-intensive tasks while using a conventional mouse, a trackball, a stand-alone touchpad, and a rollermouse. A motion analysis system and an electromyography system monitored right upper extremity postures and muscle activity, respectively. The rollermouse condition was associated with a more neutral hand posture (lower...
Exposure–response relationships for the ACGIH threshold limit value for hand-activity level
Results from a pooled data study of carpal tunnel syndrome Objectives: This paper aimed to quantify exposure–response relationships between the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) for hand-activity level (HAL) and incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods: Manufacturing and service workers previously studied by six research institutions had their data combined and re-analyzed. CTS cases were defined by symptoms and abnormal nerve conduction. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using proportional hazards regression after...
Is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Related to Computer Exposure at Work?
A Review and Meta-Analysis Objective: A meta-analysis on epidemiological studies was undertaken to assess association between carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and computer work. Methods: Four databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Base de Donnees de Sante Publique) were searched with cross-references from published reviews. We included recent studies, original epidemiological studies for which the association was assessed with blind reviewing with control group. Relevant associations were extracted, and a metarisk was calculated using the generic variance approach (meta–odds ratio [meta...
Prévention des troubles musculo-squelettiques du membre supérieur chez le personnel administratif du centre hospitalier de Niort
Enquête de satisfaction prospective après la mise à disposition de repose-poignets clavier et souris Une enquête de satisfaction prospective concernant l'utilisation de repose-poignets a été réalisée auprès de 135 personnes équipées. La satisfaction globale était de 59,3% pour pour le repose-poignets clavier et de 81,5% pour le repose-poignets souris. Les repose-poignets pourraient donc être un moyen efficace de prévention primaire des TMS du membre supérieur et améliorer les conditions...
Does a history of physical exposures at work affect hand-grip strength in midlife?
A retrospective cohort study in Denmark This retrospective cohort study evaluates the associations between physical exposures throughout working life and late midlife hand-grip strength (HGS). Exposure to lifting, standing/walking, and kneeling were analyzed in multiple regression models. Physical exposures in working life were associated with a slightly higher HGS among men but no associations between physical exposures and HGS were seen among women. Source : Møller A, Reventlow S, Hansen ÅM, Andersen LL, Siersma V, Lund R, Avlund K, Andersen JH, Mortensen OS. Scand J Work Environ...
Validation of the ACGIH TLV for hand activity level in the OCTOPUS cohort: a two-year longitudinal study of carpal tunnel syndrome
This study aimed to evaluate the risk of musculoskeletal disorders to the hand-wrist system. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) proposed threshold limit values (TLV©) based on hand activity level (HAL) and normalized peak force (PF). We validated ACGIH TLV© in OCTOPUS, a large cohort study on carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Source: http://www.sjweh.fi/show_abstract.php?abstract_id=3312&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+Sjweh-Online-firstArticles+%28SJWEH+-+Online-first+articles%29
Physical workload in neck, shoulders and wrists/hands in dental hygienists during a work-day
Physical workload was recorded by electromyography, inclinometry and goniometry for twelve female dental hygienists during authentic work. Their work was, in relation to other types of work, characterised by pronounced head flexion (90th percentile 46°), high loads on the forearm extensor muscles (90th percentile 23% and 18% of maximal EMG (MVE), for the right and left sides, respectively), average loads on trapezius muscles (90th percentile 15% and 14% MVE), average arm elevation (99th percentile 83° and 72°) and average wrist flexion and velocities (50th percentiles 17° of extension...
Reducing Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Rodbusters
NIOSH evaluated reinforcing ironworkers' (rodbusters) exposures to risk factors for developing low-back and hand disorders when tying together reinforcing steel bars (rebar) on a freeway bridge. Rodbusters used three techniques to tie rebar together—a pliers and a tie wire wheel, a battery operated power tier (PT), and a PT with an extension handle (PTE). NIOSH found that using the PT and PTE reduced the rodbusters' exposures to risk factors for work-related low-back and hand-wrist disorders. In addition, power tying was twice as fast as than pliers tying. Source : http://www.cdc...

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