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Acquisition et intégration d'un exosquelette en entreprise
Ce guide, destiné aux préventeurs, permet à l'entreprise d'appréhender les nombreuses questions posées par l'intégration d'un exosquelette. Il propose une démarche allant de la définition du besoin d'assistance physique jusqu'à son intégration en situation réelle de travail. Structurée en trois phases, cette méthode vise à accompagner l'entreprise dans sa réflexion d'acquisition d'un exosquelette, à créer les conditions permettant son intégration...
Troubles musculo-squelettiques et facteurs psychosociaux au travail
Ce rapport présente l'état des connaissances scientifiques sur la façon dont les facteurs psychosociaux influencent les troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS). Il analyse l'impact des TMS sur l'aptitude au travail et la qualité du travail. Près de 40 millions de travailleurs en Europe souffrent de TMS des membres et du dos, ce qui en fait la maladie professionnelle la plus répandue dans l'UE. L'objectif de ce rapport est d'influencer les efforts d'intervention et de fournir des recommandations scientifiquement fondées pour...
Exosquelettes au travail : impact sur la santé et la sécurité des opérateurs état des connaissances
Ce guide, destiné aux préventeurs, fait un point sur les connaissances actuelles des exosquelettes afin de mettre en évidence les intérêts et les limites de leur usage en matière de prévention des troubles musculosquelettiques (TMS). L'objectif est d'aider à mieux appréhender l'impact des exosquelettes pour accompagner efficacement l'entreprise dans sa démarche d'acquisition et d'intégration d'un exosquelette. Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=ED%206311
Participatory organizational intervention for improved use of assistive devices in patient transfer
A single-blinded cluster randomized controlled trial Objectives: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the effect of a participatory organizational intervention for improved use of assistive devices (AD) in patient transfer. Methods: We randomly allocated 27 departments from five hospitals in Denmark to a participatory intervention (14 clusters, 316 healthcare workers) or a control group (13 clusters, 309 healthcare workers). The intervention consisted of 2×2 hour workshops with managers, the hospital's health and safety staff, and 2–5 healthcare workers from each department...
An ergonomic field study to evaluate the effects of a rotatable handle piece on muscular stress and fatigue as well as subjective ratings of usability, wrist posture and precision during laparoscopic surgery
An explorative pilot study Purpose: The interface between surgeon and the laparoscopic instrument is an important factor in biomechanical stress that may increase the risk of musculoskeletal complaints in surgeons. This article investigates the effect of a laparoscopic instrument with a rotatable handle piece (rot-HP) on muscular stress and fatigue during routine laparoscopic procedures (LP) as well as usability, wrist posture and working precision. Methods: 40 LP (subtotal hysterectomies) performed by 11 surgeons were investigated. 20 LP were carried out with the rot-HP and 20 with a fixed (standard...
What do Workers do to Reduce Their Sitting Time?
The Relationships of Strategy use and Workplace Support with Desk-Based Workers' Behaviour Changes in a Workplace-Delivered Sitting-Reduction and Activity-Promoting Intervention Objective: To explore workers' sitting-reduction and activity-promoting strategy use following an intervention targeting these changes, and whether strategy use and perceived workplace support impacted on three-month sitting and activity outcomes. Methods: This secondary analysis in desk-based workers (n = 83) utilised data collected on questionnaire-derived strategy use and workplace support, and activPAL3TM-derived...
Economic evaluation of a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to reduce office workers’ sitting time: the "Stand Up Victoria" trial
Multicomponent intervention involving a sit-and-stand desk can reduce sitting time and increase the standing and stepping time during the working hours for office-based workers, and it is likely to promote the cardiovascular fitness. It is cost-effective in the long-term from a societal perspective. This study provides important evidence for policy-makers and workplaces regarding allocation of resources to reduce workplace sitting. Source: Gao, L., Flego, A., Dunstan, D. W., Winkler, E. A., Healy, G. N., Eakin, E. G., ... et Wiesner, G. H. (2018). Scandinavian journal of work, environment &...
The influence of job rotation and task order on muscle responses in females
Job rotation aims to reduce muscle fatigue by switching between functionally different tasks to theoretically lessen the risk of site-specific fatigue and work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The effectiveness of job rotation in mitigating the onset of muscle fatigue is partially known, but there is limited ergonomic data on female populations despite comparatively lower upper body strength and increased risk of WMSDs. Rotating between two functionally different tasks, continuing a single task, and varying task order were assessed in the present study for influence on muscle fatigue...
Workplace interventions for reducing sitting at work
Background: A large number of people are employed in sedentary occupations. Physical inactivity and excessive sitting at workplaces have been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, and all-cause mortality. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of workplace interventions to reduce sitting at work compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. Source: Shrestha, N., Kukkonen-Harjula, K.T., Verbeek, J.H., Ijaz, S., Hermans, V. et Pedisic, Z. (2018). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 6 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD010912.pub4
Appropriation et transfert par des formateurs d’une nouvelle approche de prévention en manutention axée sur l’utilisation de principes d’action
Prenant acte du constat d'échec des formations à la manutention axées sur l'enseignement exclusif de la technique sécuritaire « dos droit – genoux fléchis », une nouvelle approche d'intervention dite « stratégie intégrée de prévention en manutention » (SIPM) a été proposée en 2011. Son originalité repose, entre autres, sur l'utilisation de neuf principes d'action permettant de comprendre et de commenter la richesse des techniques de manutention utilisées...
Ergonomic and psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal complaints in public sector administration
A joint monitoring approach with analysis of association Administration entails a high level of computerization with multiple risk factors (including psychosocial and of ergonomic nature), affecting worker health and well-being. An ergonomics researcher supported by a senior ergonomist and guided by a domain specific checklist assessed physical ergonomics of an organization, including 96 administrative workers in the assessment. Unstructured observations and interviews to the workers were also done. Socio-demographic, musculoskeletal health and psychosocial job data was collected from a composite...
Effectiveness of a vacuum lifting system in reducing spinal load during airline baggage handling
Information on spinal loading for using lift assist systems for airport baggage handling is lacking. We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate a vacuum lift system for reducing lumbar spinal loads during baggage loading/unloading tasks. Ten subjects performed the tasks using the industry average baggage weight of 14.5?kg on a typical two-shelved baggage cart with or without using the lift system (i.e. lifting technique). Repeated measures analysis of variance (2 tasks × 2 shelf heights x 2 techniques) was used. Spinal loads were estimated by an electromyography-driven biomechanical model...
Pour quelles raisons la formation aux techniques sécuritaires de manutention ne fonctionne-t-elle pas?
Revue critique de la littérature La formation en manutention fait l'objet de nombreuses demandes de la part des milieux de travail. Or, malgré leur abondante diffusion, ces formations voient leur efficacité remise en cause par cinq méta-analyses publiées entre 2007 et 2014. La consultation de ces revues de la littérature ne permet pas de comprendre les raisons pour lesquelles il en est ainsi puisque les formations recensées – et dont on tente d'évaluer l'efficacité – n'y sont pas décrites, ou alors...
Participatory approaches to workplace safety management
Bridging the gap between behavioral safety and participatory ergonomics Many researchers and practitioners argue the importance of end-user involvement in workplace safety management, but the research literature and practices remain fractured across orientations. The primary aim of this article is to bridge the gap between two major participatory safety management approaches: behavioral safety and participatory ergonomics. First, an overview and brief history of participative management is presented to provide context for its application to workplace safety. Next, behavioral safety and participatory...
Pratique d’exercices physiques au travail et prévention des TMS
Revue de la littérature Les troubles musculosquelettiques (TMS) sont à l'origine d'une sinistralité très élevée et les entreprises se sentent parfois démunies face à ce problème. La tentation est grande aujourd'hui d'orienter les efforts de prévention vers une approche individuelle. Les entreprises sont très fréquemment sollicitées par des intervenants extérieurs qui leur proposent d'instaurer des programmes d'échauffements, d'étirements, d'exercices de...
Interventions to prevent and reduce the impact of musculoskeletal injuries among nurses
A systematic review Background: Musculoskeletal injuries and musculoskeletal pain are prevalent among nurses compared to many other occupational groups. Objective: To identify interventions that may be effective at reducing the prevalence and impact of musculoskeletal injuries and pain in registered nurses. Results: Twenty studies met criteria for inclusion in the review. Types of interventions reported included: patient lift systems (N?=?8), patient handling training (N?=?3), multi-component interventions (N?=?7), cognitive behavioural therapy (N?=?1), and unstable shoes (N?=?1). Only two studies...
Barriers to the Use of Assistive Devices in Patient Handling
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) are a major safety concern in today’s health care environment due to the manual lifting of patients with higher acuity levels and obesity. Nurses move patients multiple times each day, incurring cumulative stress and trauma resulting in chronic pain and potential injury. The purpose of this study was to assess barriers to the use of assistive devices in safe patient handling and mobility (SPHM) that contribute to WMSD in health care workers. Interpersonal, situational, organizational, and environmental influences have both direct and indirect...
Sit-stand workstations and impact on low back discomfort
A systematic review and meta-analysis Background: Sit-stand workstations are proposed solutions to reduce sedentary time at work. Numerous companies are using them to mitigate health concerns such as musculoskeletal discomfort. Objective: To review the literature on sit-stand workstations and low back discomfort. Method: We conducted a meta-analysis on literature published before 17 November 2016 that addressed the relationship between sit-stand workstations and musculoskeletal discomfort, focusing on the low back. Results: Twelve articles were identified and eight that presented results in means...
Z412-17 - Office ergonomics - An application standard for workplace ergonomics
This is the third edition of CSA Z412, Office ergonomics — An application standard for workplace ergonomics. It supersedes previous editions published as guidelines in 2000 and 1989 under the title Guideline on Office Ergonomics. The present edition includes updates to reflect new technology and work practices, and is now presented in the form of a standard rather than a guideline. The objective of this Standard is to apply ergonomics to enhance user health, safety, and well-being and to optimize system performance in order to prevent occupational injuries and illnesses or to reduce the severity...
Conception des équipements de travail et prévention des TMS Complémentarités et points d’ancrage des démarches
Après un bref rappel sur les démarches de prévention des TMS et de conception des équipements de travail, cet article présente dans un premier temps les difficultés constatées vis-à-vis de leur articulation. Il propose ensuite des « points d’ancrage » pour accompagner, dans un cadre participatif et multidisciplinaire, les temps de recherche de solutions et de décisions. Les interactions ainsi obtenues favorisent le partage des référentiels et explicitent les processus de décision. Elles fonctionnent...
Can beliefs about musculoskeletal pain and work be changed at the national level?
Prospective evaluation of the Danish national Job & Body campaign Using a mixture of networking activities, workplace visits and a mass media campaign, the Danish national Job & Body health campaign improved beliefs about musculoskeletal pain and work among public-sector employees in Denmark. Intensive and long-term national campaigns may be a strategically important tool against musculoskeletal disorders and their consequences in the population. Source: Andersen, L. L., Geisle, N., & Knudsen, B. (2017). Scand J Work Environ Health . http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3692
Les dispositifs d'assistance physique
Exosquelette, cobot, robot collaboratif… Sous ces dénominatifs parfois un peu barbares, se cache une technologie de plus en plus présente dans le monde du travail : les dispositifs d'assistance physique. Qu'ils soient à contention ou sans, ces systèmes sont destinés à aider physiquement des opérateurs dans l'accomplissement de tâches parfois simples en apparence, mais éprouvantes. Objectif : prévenir l'apparition des troubles musculosquelettiques (TMS) et la pénibilité en limitant la charge...
Work-related physical, psychosocial and individual factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms among surgeons
Implications for ergonomic interventions This study evaluated the effect of physical, psychosocial and individual factors on the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) among surgeons (n = 312) in Iran. Data were collected using questionnaires and analysed by multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of MSS, particularly in the knees (48.7%), neck (45.8%), low back (42.3%) and shoulders (40.1%) was relatively high. Work-related factors including time spent on surgeries each week (>25 h/week), number of hours working in standing position per day (>4 h/day), moderate to high levels...
Return on investment of interventions for the prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal
There were two key objectives for the work: - To conduct a literature review to identify which interventions are cost-effective in reducing the complications associated with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee, neck pain or back pain; - To develop an ROI tool that allows the resource and financial consequences of implementing these cost-effective interventions nationally and at local levels. Source: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/653736/musculoskeletal_conditions_return_on_investment_final_report.pdf
Saddle Seat Reduces Musculoskeletal Discomfort in Microsurgery Surgeons
Background. Microsurgery is a surgical procedure that requires a high degree of precision and is commonly facilitated through the use of an intraoperative microscope. When operating the microscope system, the long-term posture and stance lead to fatigue and musculoskeletal disorders in surgeons, and seats are commonly employed to diminish these problems. The present study was conducted to evaluate musculoskeletal discomfort during work with a saddle seat especially designed for people using intraoperative microscopes in comparison with conventional seats for microscopic works. Materials and methods...
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