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Évaluation des processus : comprendre comment le contexte des entreprises influence le déroulement des premières étapes d’interventions ergonomiques
Bien qu'il soit généralement convenu que les ergonomes adaptent leur intervention au contexte de chaque entreprise, la façon précise dont ils y parviennent et sur quels critères cette adaptation se base sont peu renseignés au plan scientifique. Une évaluation des processus a été réalisée en adoptant un devis d'étude de cas multiple, en vue d'identifier les indicateurs de contexte ayant influencé quatre interventions du courant de l'ergonomie de l'activité, réalisées...
Intégration de la préparation physique dans l’approche ergonomique
Quel dispositif pour quel(s) objectif(s)? L'article présente un cas d'intervention ergonomique proposant la préparation physiologique des ouvriers comme levier de prévention des Troubles Musculo-Squelettiques dans le secteur agroalimentaire. Dans une entreprise dont les activités présentent de fortes contraintes organisationnelles et physiologiques, la place des marges de manœuvre dans un tel dispositif est questionnée. La mise en œuvre d'échauffements au sein d'une entreprise nécessite d'une part de disposer...
Intervention, conception et transformations : comment construire une prévention durable des TMS
Cet article a pour but de participer aux réflexions sur le rôle de l'ergonome dans l'intervention en entreprise. Il présente une intervention-formation relative à la prévention de la pénibilité et des TMS au travail. Cette intervention, menée comme une conduite de projet, s'est basée sur l'adoption de principes fondamentaux pour l'ergonomie dite centrée sur l'activité (Daniellou & Rabardel, 2005). Ces principes portent sur (1) la conception et la pérennisation des démarches de prévention...
Ergonomic and psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal complaints in public sector administration
A joint monitoring approach with analysis of association Administration entails a high level of computerization with multiple risk factors (including psychosocial and of ergonomic nature), affecting worker health and well-being. An ergonomics researcher supported by a senior ergonomist and guided by a domain specific checklist assessed physical ergonomics of an organization, including 96 administrative workers in the assessment. Unstructured observations and interviews to the workers were also done. Socio-demographic, musculoskeletal health and psychosocial job data was collected from a composite...
Participatory approaches to workplace safety management
Bridging the gap between behavioral safety and participatory ergonomics Many researchers and practitioners argue the importance of end-user involvement in workplace safety management, but the research literature and practices remain fractured across orientations. The primary aim of this article is to bridge the gap between two major participatory safety management approaches: behavioral safety and participatory ergonomics. First, an overview and brief history of participative management is presented to provide context for its application to workplace safety. Next, behavioral safety and participatory...
Interventions to prevent and reduce the impact of musculoskeletal injuries among nurses
A systematic review Background: Musculoskeletal injuries and musculoskeletal pain are prevalent among nurses compared to many other occupational groups. Objective: To identify interventions that may be effective at reducing the prevalence and impact of musculoskeletal injuries and pain in registered nurses. Results: Twenty studies met criteria for inclusion in the review. Types of interventions reported included: patient lift systems (N?=?8), patient handling training (N?=?3), multi-component interventions (N?=?7), cognitive behavioural therapy (N?=?1), and unstable shoes (N?=?1). Only two studies...
Effectiveness of a participatory physical and psychosocial intervention to balance the demands and resources of industrial workers
A cluster-randomized controlled trial This study evaluated a participatory intervention aiming to improve the work ability and need for recovery of industrial workers. The intervention was not effective and rather showed tendencies for adverse effects. Companies should consider intervention-related potential adverse effects on workers with already high work demands, and we recommend development of better effect evaluation designs specifically for participatory interventions. Source: Gupta, N., Wåhlin-Jacobsen, C. D., Abildgaard, J. S., Henriksen, L. N., Nielsen, K., & Holtermann, A. ...
Organiser en vue de rendement élevé / Organizing for High Performance
Les actes du 48e Congrès annuel de l'Association canadienne d'ergonomie (ACE) et du 12e Symposium international sur l'ergonomie de conception organisationnelle et de gestion qui se sont tenus entre le 31 juillet et le 3 août 2017 sont disponibles en ligne. Source: https://www.ace-ergocanada.ca/files/ACE_2017/ACE-ODAM%202017%20eProceedings_sm.pdf
Conférence sur la contribution des travailleurs à des lieux de travail plus sûrs
En partenariat avec diverses sociétés d'ergonomie, l'ETUI a organisé les 26 et 27 juin 2017 à Bruxelles une conférence sur la manière dont les travailleurs contribuent à l'amélioration des conditions de travail. Intitulée « Travailleurs et créativité : comment améliorer les conditions de travail par des méthodes participatives », la conférence a réuni des ergonomes, des experts en sécurité et santé au travail, des travailleurs et des représentants...
An observational method for Postural Ergonomic Risk Assessment (PERA)
Monotonous, repetitive work characterizes production lines. Repetitive movements and awkward postures are the most prominent physical risk factors in the workplace. Various legislations have been enacted along with technical standards for ergonomic risk evaluation to ensure the safety of the operators. There are numerous methods to assess the ergonomic risk at work. However, most methods are not meant to be used for assessing cyclic work. This paper proposes a method, Postural Ergonomic Risk Assessment (PERA), which is suitable to evaluate the postural ergonomic risk of short cyclic assembly work...
Injury rates before and after the implementation of a safe resident handling program in the long-term care sector
Manual resident handling (RH) tasks increase risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) for clinical staff in nursing homes. To reduce the incidence and cost of MSDs, a large healthcare corporation instituted a Safe Resident Handling Program (SRHP) comprising purchase of mechanical lifting equipment, worker training, and detailed usage/maintenance protocols. The program was initially administered by a third-party company; after three years, program responsibility shifted to individual centers. Workers' compensation claim rates were compared before and after SRHP implementation. Claims and FTEs...
New NIOSH Android App Addresses Ergonomics in Mining
A new mobile app for ergonomic audits in the mining industry is now available from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The app, ErgoMine, is available for Android devices and provides an ergonomic assessment for three types of operations in the mining industry: bagging, maintenance and repair, and haul truck operations. By asking users a series of questions about work tasks and worksite conditions, ErgoMine produces recommendations for ergonomic improvements in a final summary which details the results of the audit. The app also provides the option for users to email...
Une intervention ergonomique dans une entreprise utilisant des nanomatériaux
Cet article présente une intervention ergonomique dans une entreprise du secteur industriel amenée à fabriquer du papier contenant des nanoparticules. Les salariés du laboratoire de recherche et développement de l'entreprise, chargés d'étudier les caractéristiques du produit, ont refusé de le manipuler. À la demande du CHSCT de l'entreprise, l'INRS est intervenu afin de mieux comprendre les pratiques réelles de travail et d'aider à mettre en oeuvre, au cas par cas, une démarche de prévention...
Ergonomics Climate Assessment
A measure of operational performance and employee well-being Ergonomics interventions have the potential to improve operational performance and employee well-being. We introduce a framework for ergonomics climate, the extent to which an organization emphasizes and supports the design and modification of work to maximize both performance and well-being outcomes. We assessed ergonomics climate at a large manufacturing facility twice during a two-year period. When the organization used ergonomics to promote performance and well-being equally, and at a high level, employees reported less work-related...
Prevention of musculoskeletal disorders within management systems
A scoping review of practices, approaches, and techniques The purpose of this study was to identify and summarize the current research evidence on approaches to preventing musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) within Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS). Databases in business, engineering, and health and safety were searched and 718 potentially relevant publications were identified and examined for their relevance. Twenty-one papers met the selection criteria and were subjected to thematic analysis. There was very little literature describing the integration of MSD risk assessment...
Similarities between work related musculoskeletal disorders and slips, trips and falls
Most occupational risks manifest themselves through movements performed at work, for example musculoskeletal disorders, slips, trips and falls. Research focusing on such risks often differentiates diseases from accidents. All these risks prove to be diffuse, widespread, emergent and devoid of an external harmful hazard, when analysed through their common vector, i.e. through the movements manifesting them. These characteristics have a strong impact on risk perception and on approaches necessary to ensure sustainable prevention. A participative search for local solutions to preventing these risks...
Anthropometric Study of U.S. Truck Drivers
Methods, Summary Statistics, and Multivariate Accommodation Models Since up-to-date anthropometric data, which plays an important role in improving ergonomic design of truck cabs, has not been collected for decades, NIOSH launched the first-ever federal anthropometric study of U.S. truck drivers. This document summarizes the results of the study that, we hope, will be used by truck manufacturers, parts suppliers, transportation researchers, fleet managers, and other interested parties for decades to come. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2015-116/
Ergonomic design of crane cabin interior
The path to improved safety Many procedures in the development process of crane cabins today are still based on the specific experience of manufacturers and historical guidelines. It is not surprising that they fail to meet the needs of a large proportion of operators. Accordingly, the need for more objective, theoretically justified and consistent models, that will minimize crane operators' biomechanical and visual problems through anthropometric characteristic analysis to improve safety and prevent crane related fatalities and injuries, arises. In that aim we firstly identified the critical...
L’analyse ergonomique du travail et de la formation
Quelques contributions récentes Ce numéro spécial est dédié aux travaux récents des membres du groupe Ergonomics analysis of work and training (EAWT) qui se réunit périodiquement, depuis 1991, dans le cadre du Congrès de l'Association internationale d'ergonomie (IEA). Les six contributions présentées ici découlent du dernier congrès tenu à Recife en 2012 et des collaborations subséquentes entre des chercheurs de plusieurs pays. Vous pourrez découvrir les particularités...
Effect of a multidisciplinary program for the prevention of low back pain in hospital employees
A randomized controlled trial BACKGROUND: Hospital workers with physically demanding jobs are at risk for developing recurrent LBP. There is a lack of studies evaluating multidisciplinary prevention of low back pain (LBP) in hospital workers. OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled trial evaluates the effect of a multidisciplinary prevention program, focusing on a client-centred approach, on hospital workers at risk for developing LBP. METHODS: Caregiving hospital workers were allocated to an experimental (12-week lasting multidisciplinary prevention program) or control group (no intervention). They...
How compatible are participatory ergonomics programs with occupational health and safety management systems?
Objectives :Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a major cause of pain, disability, and costs. Prevention of MSD at work is frequently described in terms of implementing an ergonomics program, often a participatory ergonomics (PE) program. Most other workplace injury prevention activities take place under the umbrella of a formal or informal occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS). This study assesses the similarities and differences between OHSMS and PE as such knowledge could help improve MSD prevention activities. Methods: Using the internationally recognized Occupational Health...
Design method for multi-user workstations utilizing anthropometry and preference data
Past efforts have been made to design single-user workstations to accommodate users' anthropometric and preference distributions. However, there is a lack of methods for designing workstations for group interaction. This paper introduces a method for sizing workstations to allow for a personal work area for each user and a shared space for adjacent users. We first create a virtual population with the same anthropometric and preference distributions as an intended demographic of college-aged students. Members of the virtual population are randomly paired to test if their extended reaches overlap...
Ergonomic checkpoints in agriculture second edition
Approximately 100 of the illustrations accompanying the checkpoints were improved and revised in this second edition of the manual. The first edition was published in 2012 and it was well received by the ergonomic and occupational safety and health (OSH) practitioners and professional bodies around the world. Certain users recommended improving the illustrations so that they reflect the best available ergonomic techniques and practice globally, rather than in a few project countries. ILO specialists and external experts reviewed and commented on the illustrations. Source: http://www.ilo.org/safework...
Are work disability prevention interventions effective for the management of neck pain or upper extremity disorders?
A systematic review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration Purpose We conducted a systematic review to critically appraise and synthesize literature on the effectiveness of work disability prevention (WDP) interventions in workers with neck pain, whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), or upper extremity disorders. Methods We searched electronic databases from 1990 to 2012. Random pairs of independent reviewers critically appraised eligible studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. Scientifically admissible studies were summarized...
Results of a Pilot Intervention to Improve Health and Safety for Health Care Workers
Objective: To test the feasibility of a multicomponent pilot intervention to improve worker safety and wellness in two Boston hospitals. Methods: A 3-month intervention was conducted on seven hospital units. Pre- (374 workers) and postsurveys (303 workers) assessed changes in safety/ergonomic behaviors and practices, and social support. Wellness outcomes included self-reported pain/aching in specific body areas (musculoskeletal disorders or MSDs) and physical activity (PA). Results: Pain was reported frequently (81%), and PA averaged 4 hours per week. There was a postintervention increase in safe...
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