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Frequent Exertion and Frequent Standing at Work, by Industry and Occupation Group - United States, 2015
Repeated exposure to occupational ergonomic hazards, such as frequent exertion (repetitive bending or twisting) and frequent standing, can lead to injuries, most commonly musculoskeletal disorders. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders have been estimated to cost the United States approximately $2.6 billion in annual direct and indirect costs. A recent literature review provided evidence that prolonged standing at work also leads to adverse health outcomes, such as back pain, physical fatigue, and muscle pain. To determine which industry and occupation groups currently have the highest prevalence...
Pushing and pulling: An assessment tool for OHS practitioners
A tool has been developed for supporting practitioners when assessing manual pushing and pulling operations based on an initiative by two global companies in the manufacturing industry. The aim of the tool is to support occupational health and safety practitioners in risk assessment and risk management of pushing and pulling operations in the manufacturing and logistics industries. It is based on a nine-multiplier equation that includes a wide range of factors affecting an operator's health risk and capacity in pushing and pulling. These multipliers are based on psychophysical, physiological...
Social support modifies association between forward bending of the trunk and low-back pain
Cross-sectional field study of blue-collar workers Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the association between forward bending of the trunk and low-back pain intensity (LBPi) among blue-collar workers in Denmark as well as whether the level of social support modifies the association. Methods: In total, 457 workers were included in the study. The forward bending of ≥30° was computed from accelerometer recordings for several consecutive days during work, categorized into long (highest tertile) and short–moderate (remaining tertiles) duration. LBPi was measured on a 0–10...
Associations between Wage System and Risk Factors for Musculoskeletal Disorders among Construction Workers
Piece rate and performance based wage systems are common in the construction industry. Construction workers are known to have an increased risk of pain and musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). In this cross-sectional questionnaire study, we examined the association between wage system and (1) physical exertion, (2) time pressure, (3) pain, and (4) fatigue. The participants comprised 456 male Danish construction workers working on one of three different wage systems: group based performance wage, individually based performance wage, and time based wage system. The statistical analyses indicated differences...
Ischaemic heart disease among workers in occupations associated with heavy lifting
OBJECTIVES: To investigate a hypothesized positive association between employment in occupations where heavy lifting is likely to occur, and the risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male blue-collar workers from Denmark (N = 516 180) were monitored with respect to hospital treatment or death due to IHD, through national registers over the years 2001-2010. Poisson regression was used to estimate relative rates of IHD between "workers in occupations which, according to an expert opinion, are likely to involve heavy lifting" and "other blue-collar workers."...
Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy
Results from a Danish cohort study Objective: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10–29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. Methods: Data from 51 874 pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996–2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated...
Manual handling: differences in perceived effort, success rate and kinematics between three different pushing techniques
This study examined the perceived effort, success rates and kinematics for three push strategies in a simulated lateral patient transfer (horizontal slide). Thirteen healthy subjects (four males) completed three repetition pushing loads of 6, 10 and 14 kg in random order; with a spontaneous push strategy, then with a straight-back bent-knees (squat) strategy and the preparatory pelvic movement (‘rockback') strategy in random order. Perceived effort and kinematic parameters measured at the onset of movement and at maximum push excursion were compared between strategies and between loads...
Effects of work experience on work methods during dynamic pushing and pulling
Pushing and pulling are potential risk factors for work-related low back disorders (WRLBDs). While several studies have evaluated differences in work methods related to work experience, such evidence for dynamic pushing and pulling is limited. Eight novices and eight experienced workers completed dynamic push/pull tasks using a cart weighted to 250% of individual body mass in two different configurations (preferred vs. elbow handle heights). Multiple measures [hand forces, torso kinematics and kinetics, and required coefficient of friction (RCOF)] were obtained to assess WRLBD and slip risks. Experienced...
Are pushing and pulling work-related risk factors for upper extremity symptoms?
A systematic review of observational studies Systematically review observational studies concerning the question whether workers that perform pushing/pulling activities have an increased risk for upper extremity symptoms as compared to workers that perform no pushing/pulling activities. A search in MEDLINE via PubMed and EMBASE was performed with work-related search terms combined with push/pushing/pull/pulling. Studies had to examine exposure to pushing/pulling in relation to upper extremity symptoms. Two authors performed the literature selection and assessment of the risk of bias in the studies...
Further work for the development of an inspection tool for risk assessment of pushing and pulling force exertion
This work was commissioned to examine more closely the nature of the forces exerted during manual pushing and pulling operations and to provide a pushing and pulling risk assessment tool that aids identification of key workplace risk factors and measures for control of the risks that they present. It builds on the work reported in RR562 (HSE 2007). Magnitude of exerted force is one of several factors that may precipitate injury to the musculoskeletal system during pushing and pulling operations, but the force demands in any pushing and pulling operation are not an independent aspect; they are a...

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