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Mechanical and psychosocial work exposures: the construction and evaluation of a gender-specific job exposure matrix (JEM)
Objectives: The aim of this study was to (i) construct and evaluate a gender-specific job exposure matrix (JEM) for mechanical and psychosocial work exposures and (ii) test its predictive validity for low-back pain. Methods: We utilized data from the Norwegian nationwide Survey of Living Conditions on work environment in 2006 and 2009. We classified occupations on a 4-digit level based on the Norwegian version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88). The mechanical and psychosocial exposure information was collected by personal telephone interviews and included exposures...
Exosquelettes au travail : impact sur la santé et la sécurité des opérateurs état des connaissances
Ce guide, destiné aux préventeurs, fait un point sur les connaissances actuelles des exosquelettes afin de mettre en évidence les intérêts et les limites de leur usage en matière de prévention des troubles musculosquelettiques (TMS). L'objectif est d'aider à mieux appréhender l'impact des exosquelettes pour accompagner efficacement l'entreprise dans sa démarche d'acquisition et d'intégration d'un exosquelette. Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=ED%206311
Recurrent back pain during working life and exit from paid employment
A 28-year follow-up of the Whitehall II Study Objectives To examine the impact of recurrent, as compared with single, reports of back pain on exit from paid employment over decades of follow-up. Methods The study sample was from the British Whitehall II Study cohort (n=8665, 69% men, aged 35–55 at baseline), who had provided information about their reports of back pain between 1985 and 1994. Data about exit from paid employment (health-related and non-health related exit, unemployment and other exit) were collected between 1995 and 2013. Repeated measures logistic regression models were fitted...
The influence of external load configuration on trunk biomechanics and spinal loading during sudden loading
Sudden loading is a major risk factor for work-related lower back injuries among occupations involving manual material handling (MMH). The current study explored the effects of external weight configuration on trunk biomechanics and trunk rotational stiffness in the sagittal plane during sudden loading. Fifteen asymptomatic volunteers experienced sudden loadings using the same magnitude of weight (9 kg) with two different configurations (medially- or laterally-distributed) at three levels of height (low, middle and high). Results of this study showed that the medially distributed weight...
Surveillance de la lombalgie en lien avec le travail
Comparaison de quatre sources de données et perspectives pour la prévention •Quatre sources de données sur les lombalgies en lien avec le travail sont comparées dans les Pays de la Loire : trois issues du réseau multi-volets de surveillance épidémiologique des TMS de Santé publique France et de l’Université d’Angers, et une issue du système de réparation des maladies professionnelles de l’Assurance maladie. •Pour chaque source, les secteurs d’activité prioritaires pour la prévention...
The impact of workplace ergonomics and neck-specific exercise versus ergonomics and health promotion interventions on office worker productivity
A cluster-randomized trial A 12-week workplace combined ergonomics and neck-specific exercise intervention improves sickness presenteeism and monetized health-related productivity loss among a general population of office workers and longer-term sickness absenteeism for those with neck pain, when compared to ergonomics and health promotion education combined. This study provides employers of office workers sought-after evidence of health-related productivity benefit from such workplace interventions. Source: Pereira, M., Comans, T., Sjøgaard, G., Straker, L., Melloh, M., O'Leary, S....
Surface electromyography for risk assessment in work activities designed using the “revised NIOSH lifting equation”
The aims of this study were: to identify surface electromyography (sEMG)-based indices of trunk muscles acquired during the execution of lifting tasks designed using the revised NIOSH lifting equation and featuring a progressively increasing lifting index (LI); to study changes of these indices in relation to the LI; to evaluate the relationship between the identified indices and forces (FL5−S1) and moments (ML5−S1) at the L5-S1 joint. sEMG, kinematic and kinetic data of 20 male workers were recorded in three conditions. We computed the average rectified value (ARV), root mean square...
How does the biomechanical exposure of the upper body in manual box handling differ from exposure in other tasks in the real industrial context?
The assessment of biomechanical exposure during handling tasks in relation to other activities that are performed in industrial settings can be crucial to understand the biomechanical demands of manual box handling for the upper limbs. This study aims to evaluate the representativeness of the handling task to the upper body in comparison with the other tasks in a real setting, compare the biomechanical exposure between tasks, and identify the differences in exposure during manual box handling from job exposure. Twelve workers had biomechanical exposure assessed through trapezius muscle activity...
Elongation of the surface of the spine during lifting and lowering, and implications for design of an upper body industrial exoskeleton
The aim of this study was to assess the elongation of the skin surface of the spine for simulated industrial lifting and lowering tasks to aid the design of industrial exoskeletons worn on the back. Eighteen male participants lifted and lowered a box of varying loads (5?kg, 10?kg, 15?kg) using three techniques (squat, semi-squat, stooped) from the ground to a table. Motion capture sensors attached to the spine from C7 to S1 measured movement. Stoop lifting involved significantly more elongation (mean 71.1?mm; margin of error ±6.9) than squat lifting (mean 36.8?mm; margin of error ±6...
Effectiveness of a vacuum lifting system in reducing spinal load during airline baggage handling
Information on spinal loading for using lift assist systems for airport baggage handling is lacking. We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate a vacuum lift system for reducing lumbar spinal loads during baggage loading/unloading tasks. Ten subjects performed the tasks using the industry average baggage weight of 14.5?kg on a typical two-shelved baggage cart with or without using the lift system (i.e. lifting technique). Repeated measures analysis of variance (2 tasks × 2 shelf heights x 2 techniques) was used. Spinal loads were estimated by an electromyography-driven biomechanical model...
The efficacy of interventions for low back pain in nurses
A systematic review OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy of interventions for the prevention and treatment of low back pain in nurses. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: The review was registered on the PROSPERO database (CRD42015026941) and followed the PRISMA statement guidelines. A two phase approach was used. In phase one, all randomised controlled trials included in the systematic review of Dawson et al. (2007) which reviewed interventions for low back pain in nurses until 2004 were selected. In phase two, relevant randomised controlled trials and cluster randomised controlled trials...
Prediction models to identify workers at risk of sick leave due to low-back pain in the Dutch construction industry
Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model based on variables measured in occupational health checks to identify non-sick listed workers at risk of sick leave due to non-specific low-back pain (LBP). Methods: This cohort study comprised manual (N=22 648) and non-manual (N=9735) construction workers who participated in occupational health checks between 2010 and 2013. Occupational health check variables were used as potential predictors and LBP sick leave was recorded during 1-year follow-up. The prediction model was developed with logistic regression analysis among the manual...
Can beliefs about musculoskeletal pain and work be changed at the national level?
Prospective evaluation of the Danish national Job & Body campaign Using a mixture of networking activities, workplace visits and a mass media campaign, the Danish national Job & Body health campaign improved beliefs about musculoskeletal pain and work among public-sector employees in Denmark. Intensive and long-term national campaigns may be a strategically important tool against musculoskeletal disorders and their consequences in the population. Source: Andersen, L. L., Geisle, N., & Knudsen, B. (2017). Scand J Work Environ Health . http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3692
Effects of prolonged microscopic work on neck and back strain amongst male ENT clinicians and the benefits of a prototype postural support chair
Musculoskeletal pain is a common occupational hazard experienced by surgeons. Otologists are predisposed to neck and back pain due to regular prolonged microscopic work. We conducted a prospective pilot study to investigate the effects of sustained microscopic work on the neck and back, its correlation to surgical experience and to assess the benefits of a prototype postural support chair (PSC) amongst 10 male ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinicians. We used a subjective measure of time to fatigue and pain for the neck and back as well as objective readings from a surface electromyogram (sEMG). We...
Exercise for the Prevention of Low Back Pain
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of exercise in population-based interventions to prevent low back pain (LBP) and associated disability. Comprehensive literature searches were conducted in multiple databases including PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library from their inception through June 2017. Thirteen randomized controlled trials and three non-randomized controlled trials qualified for meta-analyses. Exercise alone reduced the risk of LBP by 33% (risk ratio = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.85, I2 = 23%...
Is objectively measured sitting at work associated with low back pain?
A cross sectional study in the DPhacto cohort Objectives: Low-back pain (LBP) is a substantial health challenge due to the risk for long-term sickness absence and early retirement. Several biomechanical exposures at work, including sitting, have been suggested to increase the risk for LBP. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) the extent to which temporal patterns and total amount of objectively measured sitting is associated with LBP intensity and (ii) whether selected modifiers influence these associations. Methods: This cross sectional study uses baseline data from the Danish PHysical...
NIOSH Lifting Equation App: NLE Calc
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Lifting Equation mobile application, NLE Calc, is a tool to calculate the overall risk index for single and multiple manual lifting tasks. This application provides risk estimates to help evaluate lifting tasks and reduce the incidence of low back injuries in workers. Source: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/ergonomics/nlecalc.html
Temporal relationships between job strain and low-back pain
To our knowledge this is one of the first studies to examine reciprocal relationships between job strain and back pain and which accounts for time-invariant characteristics. The study highlights a need for more work to establish if there are bidirectional relationships, with more frequent repeat measurements and which account for time-stable individual factors. Source: Hanson, L. L. M., Madsen, I. E., Rugulies, R., Peristera, P., Westerlund, H., & Descatha, A. Scandinavian Journal of Work . http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3654
Pre-existing low-back symptoms impact adversely on sitting time reduction in office workers
Objectives: Initiatives to reduce office-workplace sitting are proliferating, but the impact of pre-existing musculoskeletal symptoms on their effectiveness has not been determined. We assessed the influence of musculoskeletal symptoms on the outcomes of a workplace sitting intervention. Methods: Baseline and 3-month data from a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a workplace sitting intervention (Stand Up Victoria; trial registration number ACTRN12611000742976) were used. Office workers (n = 231) from 14 work teams within one organisation were randomised (by worksite) to a multicomponent program...
Development and validation of an easy-to-use risk assessment tool for cumulative low back loading
The Lifting Fatigue Failure Tool (LiFFT) Recent evidence suggests that musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) may be the result of a fatigue failure process in affected tissues. This paper describes a new low back exposure assessment tool (the Lifting Fatigue Failure Tool [LiFFT]), which estimates a “daily dose” of cumulative loading on the low back using fatigue failure principles. Only three variables are necessary to derive the cumulative load associated with a lifting task: the weight of the load, the maximum horizontal distance from the spine to the load, and the number of repetitions...
Les lombalgies liées au travail
Les lombalgies représentent aujourd'hui 20 % des accidents du travail : c'est le chiffre révélé par une étude inédite de l'Assurance Maladie - Risques professionnels. Le nombre des lombalgies d'origine professionnelle ne diminue pas depuis dix ans en dépit de la baisse de la sinistralité. Elles coûtent près d'un milliard d'euros par an, soit l'équivalent du coût des autres troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS). Certains secteurs d'activité présentent un sur-risque en matière...
Associations of objectively measured sitting and standing with low-back pain intensity
A 6-month follow-up of construction and healthcare workers This study investigated associations between sitting and standing, respectively, and low-back pain with objectively measured exposures for several days and a prospective design. Sitting at work and during full-day is negatively associated with cross-sectional- and prospective low-back pain intensity. This association was seen for the healthcare sector, but not for the construction sector. Source: Lunde, L. K., Koch, M., Knardahl, S., & Veiersted, K. B. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health . http://dx.doi.org...
Neck posture during lifting and its effect on trunk muscle activation and lumbar spine posture
Neck and head posture have been found to have a significant influence on the posture of the lower spine region during lifting and both an extended/upward gaze and a flexed/downward gaze have been hypothesized to lead to increased pain and/or overuse of the neck musculature. As a result, strength training recommendations have turned to the use of a retracted neck posture as being the safer posture to assume during lifting. This study examined trunk and neck muscle activity and lumbar spine posture in seven participants while performing moderate load lifts using a retracted neck posture (chin drawn...
Pushing and pulling: An assessment tool for OHS practitioners
A tool has been developed for supporting practitioners when assessing manual pushing and pulling operations based on an initiative by two global companies in the manufacturing industry. The aim of the tool is to support occupational health and safety practitioners in risk assessment and risk management of pushing and pulling operations in the manufacturing and logistics industries. It is based on a nine-multiplier equation that includes a wide range of factors affecting an operator's health risk and capacity in pushing and pulling. These multipliers are based on psychophysical, physiological...
A multi-component patient-handling intervention improves attitudes and behaviors for safe patient handling and reduces aggression experienced by nursing staff
A controlled before-after study This study evaluated an intervention for patient-handling equipment aimed to improve nursing staffs' use of patient handling equipment and improve their general health, reduce musculoskeletal problems, aggressive episodes, days of absence and work-related accidents. As a controlled before-after study, questionnaire data were collected at baseline and 12-month follow-up among nursing staff at intervention and control wards at two hospitals. At 12-month follow-up, the intervention group had more positive attitudes towards patient-handling equipment and increased...
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