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Troubles musculosquelettiques et risques psychosociaux dans une population de conducteurs ambulanciers hospitaliers
Objectif: L'objectif de notre étude a été de déterminer la prévalence des TMS et des RPS au sein d'une population de conducteurs ambulanciers (CA) d'un centre hospitalier public et d'évaluer les liens entre eux. Méthodologie: Nous avons étudié une population de 65 agents de la Fonction publique, à l'aide d'un hétéro-questionnaire tiré du guide des bonnes pratiques de l'INRS. Les caractéristiques générales des sujets, les plaintes liées aux TMS, le vécu...
Caractéristiques socioprofessionnelles, reconnaissance en maladie professionnelle et devenir fonctionnel et professionnel de patients opérés d’un syndrome du canal carpien en Île-de-France (2009-2012)
Points clés Cette étude menée par Santé publique France en partenariat avec le Réseau Prévention Main Île-de-France (IdF), chez des patients opérés d'un syndrome du canal carpien (SCC), décrit les caractéristiques socio-professionnelles (CSP, déclaration en maladie professionnelle…) des patients et leurs liens avec la durée d'arrêt de travail. Parmi les patients en activité au cours des 10 ans précédant l'intervention, 59 % considéraient leur travail comme...
Mechanical and psychosocial work exposures: the construction and evaluation of a gender-specific job exposure matrix (JEM)
Objectives: The aim of this study was to (i) construct and evaluate a gender-specific job exposure matrix (JEM) for mechanical and psychosocial work exposures and (ii) test its predictive validity for low-back pain. Methods: We utilized data from the Norwegian nationwide Survey of Living Conditions on work environment in 2006 and 2009. We classified occupations on a 4-digit level based on the Norwegian version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88). The mechanical and psychosocial exposure information was collected by personal telephone interviews and included exposures...
Overall risk index for patient transfers in total assistance mode executed by emergency medical technician-paramedics in real work situations
Few studies have quantified the risk of musculoskeletal disorders during patient transfers in total assistance mode in real-life prehospital emergency care situations. An index to assess the overall risk of patient transfers was created; it makes it possible to quantify risk based on the patient's position and the height of the patient's location. An analysis of 71 transfers executed by paramedics in actual work situations showed that moving a patient from the ground was characterized by acute sagittal flexions and axial rotations, respectively, 42% and 12% of the time. When the patient...
A comparison of lumbar spine and muscle loading between male and female workers during box transfers
There is a clear relationship between lumbar spine loading and back musculoskeletal disorders in manual materials handling. The incidence of back disorders is greater in women than men, and for similar work demands females are functioning closer to their physiological limit. It is crucial to study loading on the spine musculoskeletal system with actual handlers, including females, to better understand the risk of back disorders. Extrapolation from biomechanical studies conducted on unexperienced subjects (mainly males) might not be applicable to actual female workers. For male workers, expertise...
The influence of external load configuration on trunk biomechanics and spinal loading during sudden loading
Sudden loading is a major risk factor for work-related lower back injuries among occupations involving manual material handling (MMH). The current study explored the effects of external weight configuration on trunk biomechanics and trunk rotational stiffness in the sagittal plane during sudden loading. Fifteen asymptomatic volunteers experienced sudden loadings using the same magnitude of weight (9 kg) with two different configurations (medially- or laterally-distributed) at three levels of height (low, middle and high). Results of this study showed that the medially distributed weight...
Overall risk index for patient transfers in total assistance mode executed by emergency medical technician-paramedics in real work situations
Few studies have quantified the risk of musculoskeletal disorders during patient transfers in total assistance mode in real-life prehospital emergency care situations. An index to assess the overall risk of patient transfers was created; it makes it possible to quantify risk based on the patient's position and the height of the patient's location. An analysis of 71 transfers executed by paramedics in actual work situations showed that moving a patient from the ground was characterized by acute sagittal flexions and axial rotations, respectively, 42% and 12% of the time. When the patient...
Hand forces exerted by long-term care staff when pushing wheelchairs on compliant and non-compliant flooring
Purpose-designed compliant flooring and carpeting have been promoted as a means for reducing fall-related injuries in high-risk environments, such as long-term care. However, it is not known whether these surfaces influence the forces that long-term care staff exert when pushing residents in wheelchairs. We studied 14 direct-care staff who pushed a loaded wheelchair instrumented with a triaxial load cell to test the effects on hand force of flooring overlay (vinyl versus carpet) and flooring subfloor (concrete versus compliant rubber [brand: SmartCells]). During straight-line pushing, carpet overlay...
The influence of job rotation and task order on muscle responses in females
Job rotation aims to reduce muscle fatigue by switching between functionally different tasks to theoretically lessen the risk of site-specific fatigue and work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The effectiveness of job rotation in mitigating the onset of muscle fatigue is partially known, but there is limited ergonomic data on female populations despite comparatively lower upper body strength and increased risk of WMSDs. Rotating between two functionally different tasks, continuing a single task, and varying task order were assessed in the present study for influence on muscle fatigue...
Surface electromyography for risk assessment in work activities designed using the “revised NIOSH lifting equation”
The aims of this study were: to identify surface electromyography (sEMG)-based indices of trunk muscles acquired during the execution of lifting tasks designed using the revised NIOSH lifting equation and featuring a progressively increasing lifting index (LI); to study changes of these indices in relation to the LI; to evaluate the relationship between the identified indices and forces (FL5−S1) and moments (ML5−S1) at the L5-S1 joint. sEMG, kinematic and kinetic data of 20 male workers were recorded in three conditions. We computed the average rectified value (ARV), root mean square...
How does the biomechanical exposure of the upper body in manual box handling differ from exposure in other tasks in the real industrial context?
The assessment of biomechanical exposure during handling tasks in relation to other activities that are performed in industrial settings can be crucial to understand the biomechanical demands of manual box handling for the upper limbs. This study aims to evaluate the representativeness of the handling task to the upper body in comparison with the other tasks in a real setting, compare the biomechanical exposure between tasks, and identify the differences in exposure during manual box handling from job exposure. Twelve workers had biomechanical exposure assessed through trapezius muscle activity...
The effect of a passive trunk exoskeleton on functional performance in healthy individuals
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a passive trunk exoskeleton on functional performance for various work related tasks in healthy individuals. 18 healthy men performed 12 tasks. Functional performance in each task was assessed based on objective outcome measures and subjectively in terms of perceived task difficulty, local and general discomfort. Wearing the exoskeleton tended to increase objective performance in static forward bending, but decreased performance in tasks, such as walking, carrying and ladder climbing. A significant decrease was found in perceived task difficulty...
Dose-response relationship between cumulative physical workload and osteoarthritis of the hip
A meta-analysis applying an external reference population for exposure assignment Background: There is consistent evidence from observational studies of an association between occupational lifting and carrying of heavy loads and the diagnosis of hip osteoarthritis. However, due to the heterogeneity of exposure estimates considered in single studies, a dose-response relationship between cumulative physical workload and hip osteoarthritis could not be determined so far. Methods: This study aimed to analyze the dose-response relationship between cumulative physical workload and hip osteoarthritis...
Aide et soin à la personne - Dossier
En France, plus de 3,5 millions de professionnels travaillent dans l'aide et le soin à la personne. Ce secteur, qui emploie majoritairement du personnel féminin, est toujours en pleine croissance et marqué par une grande diversité d'acteurs. Certains exercent en établissement, d'autres au domicile d'un bénéficiaire avec, d'un lieu à l'autre, des conditions d'intervention et des moyens extrêmement variables. Source: (2018). Travail & sécurité (794). http://www.travail-et-securite.fr/ts/dossier...
Évaluation de la prévalence des plaintes de troubles musculosquelettiques et du lien avec les contraintes de travail chez des électriciens du BTP
La prévalence des troubles musculosquelettiques (TMS) et les liens avec les contraintes de travail dans une population d'électriciens ont été étudiés par le questionnaire TMS de l'INRS, les échelles de Borg, des mesures de vibrations et des études de poste ergonomiques. Les principaux TMS concernaient le rachis, notamment lombaire, et le poignet droit, en lien avec une exposition intense à des contraintes posturales. Les TMS du poignet et de l'épaule étaient également liés à l'exposition...
Une atteinte aux capacités de travail : l'usure des articulations
L'usure professionnelle est de plus en plus prise en compte par les politiques de santé publique, car elle pèse sur les organisations et les collectifs de travail, voire sur l'employabilité des individus. Ce 4-pages est centré sur l'usure des articulations, un processus invalidant pour les salariés qui porte atteinte à leurs capacités de travail et les contraint à recourir à des stratégies d'évitement ou de contournement. Il propose une approche statistique longitudinale de la question à partir des...
Développement d’un système de mesures et d’un protocole de mesures permettant de quantifier l’exposition physique des manutentionnaires
L'objectif principal de ce projet était de combiner différents senseurs et instruments pour expérimenter, en laboratoire et sur le terrain, un système de mesures permettant d'estimer quantitativement l'exposition physique des manutentionnaires. Ce type de système pourrait éventuellement servir à évaluer objectivement l'efficacité d'approches de prévention. Un second objectif consistait à mettre au point une stratégie d'échantillonnage pour optimiser la mesure de l'exposition physique...
Accuracy of identification of low or high risk lifting during standardised lifting situations
The aim was to classify lifting activities into low and high risk categories (according to The Danish Working Environment Authority guidelines) based on surface electromyography (sEMG) and trunk inclination (tri-axial accelerometer) measurements. Lifting tasks with different weights, horizontal distance and technique were performed. The lifting tasks were characterised by a feature vector composed of either the 90th, 95th or 99th percentile of sEMG activity level and trunk inclinations during the task. Linear Discriminant Analysis and a subject-specific threshold scheme were applied and lifting...
Développement du monoripage et conditions de travail
Depuis quelques années se développe la pratique du monoripage, c'est-à-dire la collecte des déchets par un équipage constitué d'un opérateur de collecte et d'un chauffeur. Une étude menée par l'INRS révèle que dans les conditions observées une telle collecte est physiquement plus intense que celle réalisée en biripage. Elle présente alors un risque plus élevé de troubles musculosquelettiques et une astreinte cardiaque excessive. L'étude montre qu'il...
Identifying the critical physical demanding tasks of paramedic work
Towards the development of a physical employment standard Public safety related occupations including police, fire and military commonly apply physical employment standard (PES) to facilitate job matching, an approach to evaluate if candidates demonstrate acceptable physical capabilities as required to perform the job safely and effectively. In Canada, paramedics remain as one of the few public safety occupations without an evidence-based, validated PES. The purpose of this study was to document and describe the physical demands of paramedic work and to identify the most physically demanding tasks...
NIOSH Lifting Equation App: NLE Calc
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Lifting Equation mobile application, NLE Calc, is a tool to calculate the overall risk index for single and multiple manual lifting tasks. This application provides risk estimates to help evaluate lifting tasks and reduce the incidence of low back injuries in workers. Source: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/ergonomics/nlecalc.html
Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life and risk of sickness absence and disability pension
Prospective cohort study Using a biomechanical job exposure matrix combined with Danish registers, cumulative occupational mechanical exposures throughout life (ie, more years with heavy and frequent lifting, and kneeling work) predicted risk of long-term sickness absence among older workers. Importantly, heavy lifting throughout working life was associated with disability pension. Source: Sundstrup E, Hansen ÅM, Mortensen EL, Poulsen OM, Clausen T, Rugulies R, Møller A, Andersen LL. (2017). Scand J Work Environ Health . http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3663
Work-related biomechanical exposure and job strain in midlife separately and jointly predict disability after 28 years
A Finnish longitudinal study Higher level of work-related biomechanical exposure and job strain in midlife separately and jointly carried a higher risk for increase in disability after 28 years. Mitigation of both of these co-occurring exposures at work in midlife could reduce the risk of disability in later life. Thus the workplace should be promoted as an arena for preventive interventions regarding disability in old age. Source: Prakash KC, Neupane S, Leino-Arjas P, von Bonsdorff MB, Rantanen T, von Bonsdorff ME, Seitsamo J, Ilmarinen J, Nygård C-H. (2017). Scand J Work Environ Health...
Méthode d'analyse de la charge physique de travail - Secteur sanitaire et social
La méthode d'analyse de la charge physique de travail dans le secteur sanitaire et social a été conçue pour être utilisée dans les établissements spécialisés (hôpitaux, cliniques, hébergements pour personnes âgées, handicapés, enfants) et les services d'aide et de soins à domicile. Elle permet de repérer et d'analyser les facteurs de risques pour l'appareil locomoteur en tenant compte de la globalité des composantes de l'activité. Elle propose une conduite...
Temporal relationships between job strain and low-back pain
To our knowledge this is one of the first studies to examine reciprocal relationships between job strain and back pain and which accounts for time-invariant characteristics. The study highlights a need for more work to establish if there are bidirectional relationships, with more frequent repeat measurements and which account for time-stable individual factors. Source: Hanson, L. L. M., Madsen, I. E., Rugulies, R., Peristera, P., Westerlund, H., & Descatha, A. Scandinavian Journal of Work . http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3654
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