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Ergonomic interventions for preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limb and neck among office workers
Work-related upper limb and neck musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the most common occupational disorders worldwide. Studies have shown that the percentage of office workers that suffer from MSDs ranges from 20 to 60 per cent. The direct and indirect costs of work-related upper limb MSDs have been reported to be high in Europe, Australia, and the United States. Although ergonomic interventions are likely to reduce the risk of office workers developing work-related upper limb and neck MSDs, the evidence is unclear. This is an update of a Cochrane Review which was last published in 2012...
Évaluation des processus : comprendre comment le contexte des entreprises influence le déroulement des premières étapes d’interventions ergonomiques
Bien qu'il soit généralement convenu que les ergonomes adaptent leur intervention au contexte de chaque entreprise, la façon précise dont ils y parviennent et sur quels critères cette adaptation se base sont peu renseignés au plan scientifique. Une évaluation des processus a été réalisée en adoptant un devis d'étude de cas multiple, en vue d'identifier les indicateurs de contexte ayant influencé quatre interventions du courant de l'ergonomie de l'activité, réalisées...
Intervention, conception et transformations : comment construire une prévention durable des TMS
Cet article a pour but de participer aux réflexions sur le rôle de l'ergonome dans l'intervention en entreprise. Il présente une intervention-formation relative à la prévention de la pénibilité et des TMS au travail. Cette intervention, menée comme une conduite de projet, s'est basée sur l'adoption de principes fondamentaux pour l'ergonomie dite centrée sur l'activité (Daniellou & Rabardel, 2005). Ces principes portent sur (1) la conception et la pérennisation des démarches de prévention...
Démarche multidisciplinaire appliquée à l’analyse d’une activité dans un environnement dynamique
La conduite de véhicules légers à La Poste pour la distribution du courrier et des colis Activité complexe différente de la conduite personnelle, la conduite professionnelle de véhicules légers prend une importance croissante dans le secteur de la livraison/messagerie confronté aux nouveaux modes de consommation. Peu étudiés, les risques pour la santé autres que les accidents de la route ont été approchés dans une étude exploratoire multidisciplinaire menée en collaboration avec le groupe...
Ergonomic and psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal complaints in public sector administration
A joint monitoring approach with analysis of association Administration entails a high level of computerization with multiple risk factors (including psychosocial and of ergonomic nature), affecting worker health and well-being. An ergonomics researcher supported by a senior ergonomist and guided by a domain specific checklist assessed physical ergonomics of an organization, including 96 administrative workers in the assessment. Unstructured observations and interviews to the workers were also done. Socio-demographic, musculoskeletal health and psychosocial job data was collected from a composite...
Participatory approaches to workplace safety management
Bridging the gap between behavioral safety and participatory ergonomics Many researchers and practitioners argue the importance of end-user involvement in workplace safety management, but the research literature and practices remain fractured across orientations. The primary aim of this article is to bridge the gap between two major participatory safety management approaches: behavioral safety and participatory ergonomics. First, an overview and brief history of participative management is presented to provide context for its application to workplace safety. Next, behavioral safety and participatory...
Z412-17 - Office ergonomics - An application standard for workplace ergonomics
This is the third edition of CSA Z412, Office ergonomics — An application standard for workplace ergonomics. It supersedes previous editions published as guidelines in 2000 and 1989 under the title Guideline on Office Ergonomics. The present edition includes updates to reflect new technology and work practices, and is now presented in the form of a standard rather than a guideline. The objective of this Standard is to apply ergonomics to enhance user health, safety, and well-being and to optimize system performance in order to prevent occupational injuries and illnesses or to reduce the severity...
Work-related physical, psychosocial and individual factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms among surgeons
Implications for ergonomic interventions This study evaluated the effect of physical, psychosocial and individual factors on the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) among surgeons (n = 312) in Iran. Data were collected using questionnaires and analysed by multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of MSS, particularly in the knees (48.7%), neck (45.8%), low back (42.3%) and shoulders (40.1%) was relatively high. Work-related factors including time spent on surgeries each week (>25 h/week), number of hours working in standing position per day (>4 h/day), moderate to high levels...
Effectiveness of a participatory physical and psychosocial intervention to balance the demands and resources of industrial workers
A cluster-randomized controlled trial This study evaluated a participatory intervention aiming to improve the work ability and need for recovery of industrial workers. The intervention was not effective and rather showed tendencies for adverse effects. Companies should consider intervention-related potential adverse effects on workers with already high work demands, and we recommend development of better effect evaluation designs specifically for participatory interventions. Source: Gupta, N., Wåhlin-Jacobsen, C. D., Abildgaard, J. S., Henriksen, L. N., Nielsen, K., & Holtermann, A. ...
Proceedings of the 5th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium
The proceedings present the the peer-reviewed articles of the 5th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium. The symposium was held from June 26-28, 2017 at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Communication, Information Processing and Ergonomics (FKIE), in cooperation with the unit "Human factors and ergonomics" of the Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA). Source: https://www.baua.de/EN/Service/Publications/Report/Gd91.html
Organiser en vue de rendement élevé / Organizing for High Performance
Les actes du 48e Congrès annuel de l'Association canadienne d'ergonomie (ACE) et du 12e Symposium international sur l'ergonomie de conception organisationnelle et de gestion qui se sont tenus entre le 31 juillet et le 3 août 2017 sont disponibles en ligne. Source: https://www.ace-ergocanada.ca/files/ACE_2017/ACE-ODAM%202017%20eProceedings_sm.pdf
An observational method for Postural Ergonomic Risk Assessment (PERA)
Monotonous, repetitive work characterizes production lines. Repetitive movements and awkward postures are the most prominent physical risk factors in the workplace. Various legislations have been enacted along with technical standards for ergonomic risk evaluation to ensure the safety of the operators. There are numerous methods to assess the ergonomic risk at work. However, most methods are not meant to be used for assessing cyclic work. This paper proposes a method, Postural Ergonomic Risk Assessment (PERA), which is suitable to evaluate the postural ergonomic risk of short cyclic assembly work...
New NIOSH Android App Addresses Ergonomics in Mining
A new mobile app for ergonomic audits in the mining industry is now available from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The app, ErgoMine, is available for Android devices and provides an ergonomic assessment for three types of operations in the mining industry: bagging, maintenance and repair, and haul truck operations. By asking users a series of questions about work tasks and worksite conditions, ErgoMine produces recommendations for ergonomic improvements in a final summary which details the results of the audit. The app also provides the option for users to email...
Une intervention ergonomique dans une entreprise utilisant des nanomatériaux
Cet article présente une intervention ergonomique dans une entreprise du secteur industriel amenée à fabriquer du papier contenant des nanoparticules. Les salariés du laboratoire de recherche et développement de l'entreprise, chargés d'étudier les caractéristiques du produit, ont refusé de le manipuler. À la demande du CHSCT de l'entreprise, l'INRS est intervenu afin de mieux comprendre les pratiques réelles de travail et d'aider à mettre en oeuvre, au cas par cas, une démarche de prévention...
Quelle prévention des TMS dans l’activité de l’encadrement de proximité en sous-traitance interne?
Un cas dans le secteur de la découpe de viande Cet article vise à documenter, à partir d'un cas, comment un encadrant de proximité exerçant en sous-traitance interne dans le secteur de la découpe de viande peut participer à la conception d'une organisation du travail favorable à la prévention des TMS des opérateurs encadrés. Le recueil de données porte sur le travail de régulation de l'encadrant de proximité et ses déterminants. La méthodologie mobilise principalement des...
Ergonomics Climate Assessment
A measure of operational performance and employee well-being Ergonomics interventions have the potential to improve operational performance and employee well-being. We introduce a framework for ergonomics climate, the extent to which an organization emphasizes and supports the design and modification of work to maximize both performance and well-being outcomes. We assessed ergonomics climate at a large manufacturing facility twice during a two-year period. When the organization used ergonomics to promote performance and well-being equally, and at a high level, employees reported less work-related...
Prevention of musculoskeletal disorders within management systems
A scoping review of practices, approaches, and techniques The purpose of this study was to identify and summarize the current research evidence on approaches to preventing musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) within Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS). Databases in business, engineering, and health and safety were searched and 718 potentially relevant publications were identified and examined for their relevance. Twenty-one papers met the selection criteria and were subjected to thematic analysis. There was very little literature describing the integration of MSD risk assessment...
Anthropometric Study of U.S. Truck Drivers
Methods, Summary Statistics, and Multivariate Accommodation Models Since up-to-date anthropometric data, which plays an important role in improving ergonomic design of truck cabs, has not been collected for decades, NIOSH launched the first-ever federal anthropometric study of U.S. truck drivers. This document summarizes the results of the study that, we hope, will be used by truck manufacturers, parts suppliers, transportation researchers, fleet managers, and other interested parties for decades to come. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2015-116/
Ergonomic design of crane cabin interior
The path to improved safety Many procedures in the development process of crane cabins today are still based on the specific experience of manufacturers and historical guidelines. It is not surprising that they fail to meet the needs of a large proportion of operators. Accordingly, the need for more objective, theoretically justified and consistent models, that will minimize crane operators' biomechanical and visual problems through anthropometric characteristic analysis to improve safety and prevent crane related fatalities and injuries, arises. In that aim we firstly identified the critical...
L’analyse ergonomique du travail et de la formation
Quelques contributions récentes Ce numéro spécial est dédié aux travaux récents des membres du groupe Ergonomics analysis of work and training (EAWT) qui se réunit périodiquement, depuis 1991, dans le cadre du Congrès de l'Association internationale d'ergonomie (IEA). Les six contributions présentées ici découlent du dernier congrès tenu à Recife en 2012 et des collaborations subséquentes entre des chercheurs de plusieurs pays. Vous pourrez découvrir les particularités...
How compatible are participatory ergonomics programs with occupational health and safety management systems?
Objectives :Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a major cause of pain, disability, and costs. Prevention of MSD at work is frequently described in terms of implementing an ergonomics program, often a participatory ergonomics (PE) program. Most other workplace injury prevention activities take place under the umbrella of a formal or informal occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS). This study assesses the similarities and differences between OHSMS and PE as such knowledge could help improve MSD prevention activities. Methods: Using the internationally recognized Occupational Health...
Design method for multi-user workstations utilizing anthropometry and preference data
Past efforts have been made to design single-user workstations to accommodate users' anthropometric and preference distributions. However, there is a lack of methods for designing workstations for group interaction. This paper introduces a method for sizing workstations to allow for a personal work area for each user and a shared space for adjacent users. We first create a virtual population with the same anthropometric and preference distributions as an intended demographic of college-aged students. Members of the virtual population are randomly paired to test if their extended reaches overlap...
Ergonomic checkpoints in agriculture second edition
Approximately 100 of the illustrations accompanying the checkpoints were improved and revised in this second edition of the manual. The first edition was published in 2012 and it was well received by the ergonomic and occupational safety and health (OSH) practitioners and professional bodies around the world. Certain users recommended improving the illustrations so that they reflect the best available ergonomic techniques and practice globally, rather than in a few project countries. ILO specialists and external experts reviewed and commented on the illustrations. Source: http://www.ilo.org/safework...
Are work disability prevention interventions effective for the management of neck pain or upper extremity disorders?
A systematic review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration Purpose We conducted a systematic review to critically appraise and synthesize literature on the effectiveness of work disability prevention (WDP) interventions in workers with neck pain, whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), or upper extremity disorders. Methods We searched electronic databases from 1990 to 2012. Random pairs of independent reviewers critically appraised eligible studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. Scientifically admissible studies were summarized...
Estimating dynamic external hand forces during manual materials handling based on ground reaction forces and body segment accelerations
Direct measurement of hand forces during assessment of manual materials handling is infeasible in most field studies and some laboratory studies (e.g., during patient handling). Therefore, this study proposed and evaluated the performance of a novel hand force estimation method based on ground reaction forces (GRFs) and body segment accelerations. Ten male subjects performed a manual lifting/carrying task while an optoelectronic motion tracking system measured 3D full body kinematics, a force plate measured 3D GRFs and an instrumented box measured 3D hand forces. The estimated 3D hand forces were...
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