2018-04-01 12:00 - Messages

Effects of work surface and task difficulty on neck-shoulder posture and trapezius activity during a simulated mouse task

Objectives. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of the work surface and task difficulty on the head, upper back and upper arm postures and activity of the descending trapezius during a simulated mouse task. Methods. Healthy female university students (N = 15) were evaluated. The work surface was positioned at elbow height (EH) and above elbow height (AEH) and the task difficulty was set at low (LD) and high (HD) levels. The postures were recorded by inclinometers. Trapezius activity was normalized by the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Results. Significantly higher head flexion was found at EH compared to the AEH condition, with an average difference of 2°–5° at the same difficulty level. The HD task significantly increased head (3°–6°) and upper back flexion (6°–7°) at the same table height. For upper arm elevation and trapezius activation, the AEH condition presented higher upper arm elevation (about 6°–8°) and trapezius activity (0.8–1.4% of MVIC), regardless of the difficulty level of the task. Conclusions. Head posture was influenced by the table height and task difficulty; the upper back posture by high difficulty; and upper arm posture and trapezius activity were only influenced by table height.

Source: Gonçalves, J. S., Moriguchi, C. S., Takekawa, K. S. et Sato, T. D. O. (2018). International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2018.1438960

Pratique d’exercices physiques au travail et prévention des TMS

Revue de la littérature
Les troubles musculosquelettiques (TMS) sont à l'origine d'une sinistralité très élevée et les entreprises se sentent parfois démunies face à ce problème. La tentation est grande aujourd'hui d'orienter les efforts de prévention vers une approche individuelle. Les entreprises sont très fréquemment sollicitées par des intervenants extérieurs qui leur proposent d'instaurer des programmes d'échauffements, d'étirements, d'exercices de renforcement musculaire… en vue de prévenir l'apparition de TMS. Ces pratiques posent de nombreuses questions. Après un état des lieux des différentes techniques proposées, une revue de la littérature analyse leur pertinence et leur place dans la prévention des TMS. Enfin, des points de repères sur les conditions de leur mise en oeuvre sont également présentés.

Source: Claudon, L., Aublet-Cuvelier, A., Gautier, M.A. et Kerlot-Brusset, M. (2018). Références en santé au travail (153), 25-40.
http://www.inrs.fr/dms/inrs/CataloguePapier/DMT/TI-TC-161/tc161.pdf

Differences in postural loading between primary and assistant surgeons during vaginal surgery

While increasing attention has been given to the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDs) among surgeons in various medical specialties, there is no quantitative information about the potential work-related risk factors that contribute to WMDs among vaginal surgeons in the operating room (OR). This study aimed to quantify the frequency and duration of awkward postures, as well as musculoskeletal discomfort experienced by primary and assistant vaginal surgeons during surgery in order to provide a first step of informing ergonomics interventions that reduce postural loading during surgery. Thirteen primary and 14 assistant surgeons were evaluated during 13 surgical cases. Surgeon pre- and post-operative musculoskeletal discomfort ratings were collected with surveys. During surgery, real-time observations systematically characterized the frequency and duration of awkward neck, trunk and shoulder postures using tablet-based ergonomics software. Surgeons experienced postoperative increases in musculoskeletal discomfort of the neck, wrists, hands, back and feet. Assistant surgeons experienced greater right and left shoulder discomfort than primary surgeons (p < .05 and p < .034). The frequencies and durations of observed awkward postures were high for both primary and assistant surgeons. Assistant surgeons spent twice as long in trunk flexion than the primary surgeons. These results suggest that the postural loading experienced by assistant vaginal surgeons is for some postures higher than that of primary surgeons, and that ergonomics interventions aimed at reducing the frequency of neck, shoulder and trunk postures during surgery could potentially benefit vaginal surgeons.

Source: Yurteri-Kaplan, L. A., Zhu, X., Iglesia, C. B., Gutman, R. E., Sokol, A. I., Paquet, V. et Park, A. J. (2018). International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 65, 60-67.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2018.01.003

Interventions to prevent and reduce the impact of musculoskeletal injuries among nurses

A systematic review
Background: Musculoskeletal injuries and musculoskeletal pain are prevalent among nurses compared to many other occupational groups.
Objective: To identify interventions that may be effective at reducing the prevalence and impact of musculoskeletal injuries and pain in registered nurses.
Results: Twenty studies met criteria for inclusion in the review. Types of interventions reported included: patient lift systems (N?=?8), patient handling training (N?=?3), multi-component interventions (N?=?7), cognitive behavioural therapy (N?=?1), and unstable shoes (N?=?1). Only two studies received a ‘strong' quality rating according to quality assessment criteria. One of these found no evidence for the effectiveness of patient handling training; the other found preliminary support for unstable shoes reducing self-reported pain and disability among nurses. Overall, evidence for each intervention type was limited.
Conclusions: There is an absence of high quality published studies investigating interventions to protect nurses from musculoskeletal injuries and pain. Further research (including randomised controlled trials) is needed to identify interventions that may reduce the high rates of injury and pain among nurses.

Source: Richardson, A., McNoe, B., Derrett, S. et Harcombe, H. (2018). International journal of nursing studies.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2018.03.018

Une atteinte aux capacités de travail : l'usure des articulations

L'usure professionnelle est de plus en plus prise en compte par les politiques de santé publique, car elle pèse sur les organisations et les collectifs de travail, voire sur l'employabilité des individus.
 Ce 4-pages est centré sur l'usure des articulations, un processus invalidant pour les salariés qui porte atteinte à leurs capacités de travail et les contraint à recourir à des stratégies d'évitement ou de contournement. Il propose une approche statistique longitudinale de la question à partir des données recueillies par l'observatoire Evrest sur le travail et la santé.
 Au-delà des déclarations des salariés, cette approche statistique permet de mettre en évidence les facteurs générateurs d'usure physique ainsi que les liens entre exposition répétée à des contraintes et santé dégradée, caractérisée par des douleurs et des gênes dans le travail.

Source: http://www.cee-recherche.fr/publications/connaissance-de-lemploi/une-atteinte-aux-capacites-de-travail-lusure-des-articulations

Accuracy, precision and reliability in anthropometric surveys for ergonomics purposes in adult working populations

A literature review
Anthropometric surveys are the most common method of gathering human morphometric data, used to design clothing, products and workspaces. The aim of this paper was to assess how current peer reviewed literature addresses the accuracy, reliability and precision regarding manual anthropometric surveys applied to adult working populations in the field of ergonomics. A literature review was performed in two electronic databases for finding relevant papers. A total of 312 papers were reviewed, of which 79 met the inclusion criteria. The results shown that the subjects of these publications are poorly addressed, so that only 27 studies mentioned at least one of the terms and none of the studies evaluated all of the terms. Only one paper mentioned and assessed precision and reliability of the measurement procedure. Furthermore, none of the publications evaluated accuracy. Moreover, the reviewed papers presented large differences in the factors that affect precision, reliability and accuracy. This was particularly clear in the measurer technique/training, measurement tools, subject posture and clothing. Researchers in this area should take more rigorous approaches and explicit indicators with their results should be presented in any report. Relevance for industry: It is important that scientific literature related to manual anthropometric measurements uses methods for assessing measurement error, since these data are often used to design clothing and workspaces as well as to calibrate non manual methods such as 3D scanners.

Source: Viviani, C., Arezes, P. M., Bragança, S., Molenbroek, J., Dianat, I. et Castellucci, H. I. (2018). International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 65.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2018.01.012

A detailed description of the short-term musculoskeletal and cognitive effects of prolonged standing for office computer work

Due to concerns about excessive sedentary exposure for office workers, alternate work positions such as standing are being trialled. However, prolonged standing may have health and productivity impacts, which this study assessed. Twenty adult participants undertook two hours of laboratory-based standing computer work to investigate changes in discomfort and cognitive function, along with muscle fatigue, movement, lower limb swelling and mental state. Over time, discomfort increased in all body areas (total body IRR [95% confidence interval]: 1.47[1.36–1.59]). Sustained attention reaction time (β = 18.25[8.00–28.51]) deteriorated, while creative problem solving improved (β = 0.89[0.29–1.49]). There was no change in erector spinae, rectus femoris, biceps femoris or tibialis anterior muscle fatigue; low back angle changed towards less  lordosis, pelvis movement increased, lower limb swelling increased and mental state decreased. Body discomfort was positively correlated with mental state. The observed changes suggest replacing office work sitting with standing should be done with caution.

Source: Baker, R., Coenen, P., Howie, E., Lee, J., Williamson, A. et Straker, L. (2018). Ergonomics.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2017.1420825

Développement d’un système de mesures et d’un protocole de mesures permettant de quantifier l’exposition physique des manutentionnaires

L'objectif principal de ce projet était de combiner différents senseurs et instruments pour expérimenter, en laboratoire et sur le terrain, un système de mesures permettant d'estimer quantitativement l'exposition physique des manutentionnaires. Ce type de système pourrait éventuellement servir à évaluer objectivement l'efficacité d'approches de prévention. Un second objectif consistait à mettre au point une stratégie d'échantillonnage pour optimiser la mesure de l'exposition physique de manutentionnaires sur le terrain. Des auteurs ont fréquemment souligné des lacunes dans la manière d'échantillonner les données ce qui a peut-être contribué à affaiblir les études portant sur les relations entre l'exposition physique et les lésions physiques.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/100973/n/exposition-physique-manutentionnaires

Barriers to the Use of Assistive Devices in Patient Handling

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) are a major safety concern in today’s health care environment due to the manual lifting of patients with higher acuity levels and obesity. Nurses move patients multiple times each day, incurring cumulative stress and trauma resulting in chronic pain and potential injury. The purpose of this study was to assess barriers to the use of assistive devices in safe patient handling and mobility (SPHM) that contribute to WMSD in health care workers. Interpersonal, situational, organizational, and environmental influences have both direct and indirect effects on workers’ commitment to use, or their actual likelihood of using, assistive devices. This study confirmed that time constraints contribute to fewer instances of assistive device use. Comprehensive ergonomic programs are needed to promote staff and patient safety. By providing safe environments for health care workers who engage in patient handling and mobility, the risk of injury can be significantly reduced.

Source: Noble, N. L., & Sweeney, N. L. (2018). Workplace health & safety.
https://doi.org/10.1177/2165079917697216

Abonnement courriel

Messages récents

Catégories

Mots-Clés (Tags)

Blogoliste

Archives