2017-10-01 12:00 - Messages

Is objectively measured sitting at work associated with low back pain?

A cross sectional study in the DPhacto cohort
Objectives: Low-back pain (LBP) is a substantial health challenge due to the risk for long-term sickness absence and early retirement. Several biomechanical exposures at work, including sitting, have been suggested to increase the risk for LBP. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) the extent to which temporal patterns and total amount of objectively measured sitting is associated with LBP intensity and (ii) whether selected modifiers influence these associations.
Methods: This cross sectional study uses baseline data from the Danish PHysical ACTivity cohort with Objective measurements (DPhacto) of physical activities in the cleaning, transport and manufacturing sectors. Peak intensity of LBP was collected by questionnaire on a 0–10 scale and sitting was expressed in terms of total duration and temporal pattern, ie, time spent in brief bursts (≤5 minutes), moderate periods (>5–≤20 minutes), and prolonged periods of sitting (>20 minutes); both during work and whole day (waking hours only). Associations were determined using linear regression in models accounting for moderation and confounding. Factors evaluated as moderators or confounders were assessed by questionnaire.
Results: The population consisted of 704 participants. No significant associations were found between total duration or temporal patterns of sitting and LBP intensity, neither during work nor for the whole day. Body mass index (BMI) significantly moderated the association between sitting and LBP; participants with a high and low BMI showing a negative and positive association, respectively.
Conclusion: Sitting was not independently associated with peak LBP intensity, suggesting other exposures are more powerful risk factors for LBP.

Source: Korshøj, M., Hallman, D., Mathiassen, S. E., Aadahl, M., Holtermann, A., & Birk Jørgensen, M. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3680

A screening tool for the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders

Objective: This study aimed to develop and validate a risk screening tool using a points system to assess the risk of future disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD).
Methods: The development population, the Health 2000 Survey, consisted of a nationally representative sample of Finnish employees aged 30–60 years (N=3676) and the validation population, the Helsinki Health Study, consisted of employees of the City of Helsinki aged 40–60 years (N=6391). Both surveys were linked to data on disability retirement awards due to MSD from national register for an 11-year follow-up.
Results: The discriminative ability of the model with seven predictors was good (Gönen and Heller's K concordance statistic=0.821). We gave points to seven predictors: sex-dependent age, level of education, pain limiting daily activities, multisite musculoskeletal pain, history of arthritis, and surgery for a spinal disorder or carpal tunnel syndrome. A score of 3 or higher out of 7 (top 30% of the index) had good sensitivity (83%) and specificity (70%). Individuals at the top 30% of the risk index were at 29 [95% confidence interval (CI) 15–55) times higher risk of disability retirement due to MSD than those at the bottom 40%.
Conclusion: This easy-to-use screening tool based on self-reported risk factor profiles can help identify individuals at high risk for disability retirement due to MSD.

Source: Shiri, R., Heliövaara, M., Ahola, K., Kaila-Kangas, L., Haukka, E., Kausto, J., ... et Lallukka, T. (2017). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3684

Application des pratiques préventives par les infirmières et infirmiers

La perspective innovante de la capacité d'absorption
L'objectif principal de cette étude est d'identifier et d'analyser les conditions d'application des pratiques préventives des TMS chez le personnel infirmier à partir des théories du transfert de connaissances, notamment celles relatives à la capacité d'absorption des connaissances. Plus précisément, cette étude vise à 1) étudier les étapes du processus de mise en application des pratiques préventives des TMS, 2) faire un examen exhaustif des principales pratiques préventives rapportées dans la littérature, 3) Identifier les facteurs individuels et organisationnels associés aux diverses étapes du processus d'application des pratiques préventives des TMS, 4) fournir des pistes d'amélioration sur la mise en application des pratiques préventives des TMS liés au travail. Pour répondre à ces objectifs, une enquête par sondage en ligne a été réalisée auprès du personnel infirmier (N=399) exerçant dans différents établissements du réseau de la santé et des services sociaux. Ensuite, deux groupes de discussion composés d'infirmières et de gestionnaires (G1=8, G2=6) ont été menés pour valider les résultats et enrichir leur interprétation.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/publications-et-outils/publication/i/100951/n/pratiques-preventives-infirmieres-infirmiers-capacite-absorption

The Effect of Intelligent Physical Exercise Training on Sickness Presenteeism and Absenteeism Among Office Workers

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of individually tailored intelligent physical exercise training (IPET) on presenteeism and absenteeism among office workers.
Methods: In a 1-year randomized controlled trial (RCT), employees were allocated to a training group TG (N = 193) or control group CG (N = 194). TG received 1-hour high-intensity IPET once a week within working hours, and was recommended to perform 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) 6 days a week during leisure-time.
Results: An intention-to-treat analysis showed no effect on absenteeism, but a significant 4% increase in workability and 9% increase in general health in TG compared with CG. A per-protocol analysis [adherence of ≥70% (N = 89)] in addition showed a significant 6% increase in productivity and a 29% reduction in absenteeism compared with CG.
Conclusion: IPET combined with recommendations of leisure-time PA significantly improved presenteeism and decreased absenteeism if following the protocol.

Source: Justesen, J. B., Søgaard, K., Dalager, T., Christensen, J. R., & Sjøgaard, G. (2017). Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 59(10), 942-948.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001101

Intégrer la prévention des risques professionnels dès la conception des équipements d'aide à la manutention des personnes

Les risques professionnels encourus par les utilisateurs d'équipements d'aide à la manutention des personnes ne sont pas toujours bien pris en compte lors de leur conception. À travers l'exemple du Milo, un équipement d'aide au transfert de personnes et à la toilette, l'INRS a élaboré des recommandations pour intégrer la prévention de ces risques dès la conception des aides techniques et limiter ainsi les efforts liés à leur utilisation.

Source: Gille, S., Kerangueven, L. (2017). Hygiène et sécurité du travail (248), p. 50-56.
http://www.inrs.fr/dms/inrs/CataloguePapier/HST/TI-NT-52/nt52.pdf

Proceedings of the 5th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium

The proceedings present the the peer-reviewed articles of the 5th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium. The symposium was held from June 26-28, 2017 at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Communication, Information Processing and Ergonomics (FKIE), in cooperation with the unit "Human factors and ergonomics" of the Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA).

Source: https://www.baua.de/EN/Service/Publications/Report/Gd91.html

Workplace risk management practices to prevent musculoskeletal and mental health disorders: What are the gaps?

Introduction: A large body of evidence demonstrates substantial effects of work-related psychosocial hazards on risks of both musculoskeletal and mental health disorders (MSDs and MHDs), which are two of the most costly occupational health problems in many countries. This study investigated current workplace risk management practices in two industry sectors with high risk of both MSDs and MHDs and evaluated the extent to which risk from psychosocial hazards is being effectively managed.
Method: Nineteen, mostly large, Australian organisations were each asked to provide documentation of their relevant policies and procedures, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 67 staff who had OHS or management roles within these organisations. Information about current workplace practices was derived from analyses of both the documentation and interview transcripts.
Results: Risk management practices addressing musculoskeletal and mental health risks in these workplaces focused predominately on changing individual behaviours through workplace training, provision of information, individual counselling, and sometimes healthy lifestyle programs. There were formal procedures to control sources of risk for workplace biomechanical hazards affecting musculoskeletal risk, but no corresponding procedures to control risk from work-related psychosocial hazards. Very few risk control actions addressed risk from psychosocial hazards at their workplace sources.
Practical applications: To reduce the risk of both musculoskeletal and mental health disorders, existing practices need considerable expansion to address risk from all potential psychosocial hazards. Risk controls for both biomechanical and psychosocial hazards need to focus more on eliminating or reducing risk at source, in accord with the general risk management hierarchy.

Source: Oakman, J., Macdonald, W., Bartram, T., Keegel, T., & Kinsman, N. (2018). Safety Science, 101, 220-230.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2017.09.004

Identifying the critical physical demanding tasks of paramedic work

Towards the development of a physical employment standard
Public safety related occupations including police, fire and military commonly apply physical employment standard (PES) to facilitate job matching, an approach to evaluate if candidates demonstrate acceptable physical capabilities as required to perform the job safely and effectively. In Canada, paramedics remain as one of the few public safety occupations without an evidence-based, validated PES. The purpose of this study was to document and describe the physical demands of paramedic work and to identify the most physically demanding tasks. These outcomes are essential to inform the design and development of an evidence-based PES for the paramedic sector.
Physical demands of paramedic work were documented and described using a direct observation-based task analysis technique. Five paramedic's were trained to document the physical demands of their work, then applied their training to observe more than 90 calls over the course of 20 full 12-h work shifts. Physical demands data were then listed in a survey, administered service-wide, where 155 frontline paramedics identified critically demanding tasks and rank-ordered physical demands from not physically demanding to very strongly demanding. Critically important and physically demanding tasks were identified such as: transferring a patient; loading or unloading a stretcher in to or out of the ambulance; performing CPR; and, raising and lowering a stretcher. It is important that a paramedic-based PES evaluate a candidate's physical capabilities to perform the critical and physically demanding tasks identified in this study.

Source: Fischer, S. L., Sinden, K. E., & MacPhee, R. S. (2017). Applied Ergonomics, 65, 233-239.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2017.06.021

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