2015-07-01 12:00 - Messages

Apports et limites des mannequins "virtuels" pour la conception des postes de travail

La journée technique organisée par l'INRS, en partenariat avec l'Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l'aménagement et des réseaux (Ifsttar), avait pour objectif de montrer les atouts et les limites des logiciels de conception des postes de travail utilisant des mannequins numériques. Des retours d'expérience et des résultats d'études ont permis de confronter les fonctionnalités proposées par les éditeurs aux besoins des industriels.

Source: http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/HST_CC%209/$File/Visu.html

Statistiques sur les lésions attribuables aux TMS en milieu de travail 2011-2014

Cette publication vise à documenter les lésions attribuables aux troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS) en milieu de travail sous les aspects administratif, médical et socio-économique, dans un souci de qualité et d'uniformité des informations transmises sur le sujet. Les données qu'elle contient sont tirées des banques informationnelles de la CSST.

Source: http://www.csst.qc.ca/publications/300/Pages/DC_300_322.aspx

Envoyé: 2015-07-28 7:33 par Maryse Gagnon | avec aucun commentaire
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Work productivity loss in young workers

This report estimates work productivity loss due to musculoskeletal pain in 23-year-old workers in Western Australia based on findings from the longitudinal Raine Study.
The report ascertains the prevalence of diagnosed back and neck pain among young workers, provides estimates of work productivity loss among young workers and examines the impact of musculoskeletal pain specifically on work productivity. Productivity measures used in this report are absenteeism due to health reasons, absenteeism due to any other reason, and presenteeism. The report also assesses the prevalence of psychological conditions, such as depression and anxiety, among young people.
This research report has been written to inform the development of work health and safety policies. The views and conclusions expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect the views of Safe Work Australia Members.

Source: http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/swa/about/publications/pages/young-workers

Principes ergonomiques pour la conception des cabines de tri des déchets recyclables secs ménagers et assimilés issus des collectes sélectives

Le présent document définit les exigences à intégrer lors de la conception des cabines de tri manuel des déchets recyclables secs ménagers et assimilés issus des collectes sélectives. Ces exigences sont relatives aux structures, aux matériels, aux espaces et aux postes de travail nécessaires pour réaliser l'activité de séparation manuelle de ces déchets effectuée sur des tables de tri en cabine.

Source: http://www.boutique.afnor.org/norme/nf-x35-702/securite-des-machines-principes-ergonomiques-pour-la-conception-des-cabines-de-tri-des-dechets-recyclables-secs-menagers-et-as/article/822283/fa177818

Evaluating Abdominal and Lower-Back Muscle Activity While Performing Core Exercises on a Stability Ball and a Dynamic Office Chair

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a dynamic office chair to activate the core muscles while participants performed exercises sitting on the chair compared to a stability ball.
Background: Prolonged sitting has become an accepted part of the modern office. However, epidemiological evidence suggests that sedentary postures are linked to many adverse effects on health. The concept of dynamic or active sitting is intended to promote movement while sitting to reduce the time spent in prolonged, static postures.
Methods: Sixteen participants performed four pelvic rotation exercises (front-back, side-side, circular, and leg lift) on both a dynamic office chair and a stability ball. Muscle activity from 12 torso muscles were evaluated with surface electromyography.
Results: For all exercises, trunk muscle activity on the chair was comparable to that on a stability ball. The right external oblique was the only muscle to produce greater peak activity (p = .019) when using the ball compared to the chair (21.4 ± 14.0 percent maximal voluntary excitations (%MVE) and 14.7 ± 10.8 %MVE for the ball and chair, respectively). The left thoracic erector spinae produced greater average activity (p = .044) on the chair than on the ball.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that this dynamic sitting approach could be an effective tool for core muscle activation while promoting movement and exercise while sitting at work.
Application: Muscle activations on the dynamic chair are comparable to those on a stability ball, and dynamic office chairs can promote movement and exercise while sitting at work.

Source: Holmes, Michael W.R., De Carvalho, Diana E., Karakolis, Thomas, & Callaghan, Jack P. Human Factors, 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018720815593184

Long-Term Muscle Fatigue After Standing Work

Objective: The aims of this study were to determine long-term fatigue effects in the lower limbs associated with standing work and to estimate possible age and gender influences.
Background: The progressive accumulation of muscle fatigue effects is assumed to lead to musculoskeletal disorders, as fatigue generated by sustained low-level exertions exhibits long-lasting effects. However, these effects have received little attention in the lower limbs.
Method: Fourteen men and 12 women from two different age groups simulated standing work for 5 hr including 5-min seated rest breaks and a 30-min lunch. The younger group was also tested in a control day. Muscle fatigue was quantified by electrically induced muscle twitches (muscle twitch force [MTF]), postural stability, and subjective evaluation of discomfort.
Results: MTF showed a significant fatigue effect after standing work that persisted beyond 30 min after the end of the workday. MTF was not affected on the control day. The center of pressure displacement speed increased significantly over time after standing work but was also affected on the control day. Subjective evaluations of discomfort indicated a significant increase in perception of fatigue immediately after the end of standing work; however, this perception did not persist 30 min after. Age and gender did not influence fatigue.
Conclusion: Objective measures show the long-term effects of muscle fatigue after 5 hr of standing work; however, this fatigue is no longer perceived after 30 min of rest postwork.
Application: The present results suggest that occupational activities requiring prolonged standing are likely to contribute to lower-extremity and/or back disorders.

Source: Garcia, Maria-Gabriela, & Läubli, Thomas. Human Factors, 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018720815590293

Occupational Therapy Practitioners with Occupational Musculoskeletal Injuries

Prevalence and Risk Factors
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of occupational musculoskeletal injuries (OMIs) among occupational therapy practitioners over a 12-month period. Method: A self-administered questionnaire mailed to 500 randomly selected practicing occupational therapists (OTs) and occupational therapy assistants (OTAs) living in the state of Texas. Results: A response rate of 38 % was attained with 192 questionnaires returned. In a 12-months working period, 23 % of occupational therapy practitioners experienced musculoskeletal injuries. Muscle strain (52 %) was most reported injury and lower back (32 %) was most injured body part. Years of practicing experience (t = 2.83, p = 0.01), and age x2(2, N = 192) = 8.28, p = 0.02 were found as significant factors associated with injuries among OTAs. No factors were significantly associated with injuries among OTs. Conclusion: Patient handling was the primary factor associated with injuries. Also, minimal experience and older age were concluded as risk factors that might contribute to OMIs.

Source: Alnaser MZ. J. Occup. Rehabil. June 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10926-015-9584-3

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