2014-12-01 12:00 - Messages

Conditions préalables à l’implantation de la rotation chez une population d’assembleurs-monteurs du secteur de l’aéronautique

L'impact des exigences de qualité sur le développement de la polyvalence et sur l'apprentissage
Une grande entreprise du secteur de l'aéronautique désire développer la polyvalence de ses assembleurs-monteurs par l'instauration de la rotation de postes. Convenant qu'il s'agit d'une problématique complexe, l'expertise de l'Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST) est sollicitée. La demande formulée consiste à identifier les conditions requises pour implanter la rotation des postes, souhaitant ainsi prévenir les TMS qui affectent cette population de travailleurs. Le département où sont assemblés les cabines de pilotage de deux des avions-phares de l'entreprise est ciblé à la fois de par les exigences physiques qui le caractérisent, sa position stratégique dans le cycle de production optimisée (lean production) et le haut niveau d'expertise requis pour y effectuer les tâches d'assemblage. On y retrouve quatre stations d'assemblage dans lesquelles se répartissent plus d'une vingtaine d'assembleurs sous la supervision de trois chefs d'équipe. Le travail se caractérise entre autres par des cycles longs – puisque l'assemblage complet d'une cabine s'échelonne sur plusieurs jours – et par des exigences élevées de qualité.

Source: http://www.irsst.qc.ca/-publication-irsst-rotation-secteur-de-aeronautique-r-853.html

Are elderly construction workers sufficiently fit for heavy manual labour?

This study analysed the work ability of elderly construction workers. Forty male construction workers, 20 young (age < 33 yrs) and 20 senior (age>44 yrs) workers, were tested regarding aerobic power (VO2max) and muscle strength. The aerobic demand of a number of tasks in construction work was measured and compared with the workers' aerobic power. VO2max was higher for the young, and they performed better on most muscle strength tests. The measurements showed that about half of the senior workers had to use more than 30% of their maximum oxygen uptake on some tasks. In conclusion, because elderly construction workers decline in physical fitness, they are more exposed to overload when performing heavy manual work than are their younger peers. Increasing their individual fitness or adjusting their workload may be important for staying in the workforce for such workers.

Source: Jebens E, Mamen A, Medbø JI, Knudsen O, Veiersted KB. Ergonomics, 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2014.977828

L’analyse ergonomique du travail et de la formation

Quelques contributions récentes
Ce numéro spécial est dédié aux travaux récents des membres du groupe Ergonomics analysis of work and training (EAWT) qui se réunit périodiquement, depuis 1991, dans le cadre du Congrès de l'Association internationale d'ergonomie (IEA). Les six contributions présentées ici découlent du dernier congrès tenu à Recife en 2012 et des collaborations subséquentes entre des chercheurs de plusieurs pays. Vous pourrez découvrir les particularités de l'approche ergonomique des questions de formation ainsi que la diversité de ses apports. Ces travaux offrent l'occasion de réfléchir aux conceptions de la formation et à leurs liens avec l'activité de travail et avec les conditions de travail et d'apprentissage. Ils permettent aussi de prendre connaissance des cadres conceptuels et méthodologiques variés qui alimentent aujourd'hui ce domaine de recherche.

Source: Pistes, 2014, vol. 16, no 4.
http://pistes.revues.org/4249

Effect of a multidisciplinary program for the prevention of low back pain in hospital employees

A randomized controlled trial
BACKGROUND: Hospital workers with physically demanding jobs are at risk for developing recurrent LBP. There is a lack of studies evaluating multidisciplinary prevention of low back pain (LBP) in hospital workers.
OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled trial evaluates the effect of a multidisciplinary prevention program, focusing on a client-centred approach, on hospital workers at risk for developing LBP.
METHODS: Caregiving hospital workers were allocated to an experimental (12-week lasting multidisciplinary prevention program) or control group (no intervention). They were evaluated prior to the intervention and after a 6 months follow-up period. Primary outcome measures included incidence of LBP, work absenteeism and general health. Secondary outcomes included daily physical activity, job satisfaction and coping strategies.
RESULTS: A significant improvement was seen for passive coping after 6 months follow-up, but no significant differences were observed between groups in primary or other secondary outcome measures (p> 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: A multidisciplinary prevention program fitting into a bio-psychosocial context may not have been intensive enough to promote a change in daily habitudes, and had no effect on work absenteeism, incidence of LBP or general health. Further research should determine whether prevention of LBP is possible in caregiving personnel.

Source: Roussel, Nathalie, Kos, Daphne, Demeure, Isaline, Heyman, Annette, De Clerck, Marleen, Zinzen, Evert, Struyf, Filip, Nijs, Jo. (2014). Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BMR-140554

Evaluating the effect of four different pointing device designs on upper extremity posture and muscle activity during mousing tasks

The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of different types of computer pointing devices and placements on posture and muscle activity of the hand and arm. A repeated measures laboratory study with 12 adults (6 females, 6 males) was conducted. Participants completed two mouse-intensive tasks while using a conventional mouse, a trackball, a stand-alone touchpad, and a rollermouse. A motion analysis system and an electromyography system monitored right upper extremity postures and muscle activity, respectively. The rollermouse condition was associated with a more neutral hand posture (lower inter-fingertip spread and greater finger flexion) along with significantly lower forearm extensor muscle activity. The touchpad and rollermouse, which were centrally located, were associated with significantly more neutral shoulder postures, reduced ulnar deviation, and lower forearm extensor muscle activities than other types of pointing devices. Users reported the most difficulty using the trackball and touchpad. Rollermouse was not more difficult to use than any other devices. These results show that computer pointing device design and location elicit significantly different postures and forearm muscle activities during use, especially for the hand posture metrics.

Source: Lin, Michael Y.C., Young, Justin G., & Dennerlein, Jack T. (2015). Applied Ergonomics, 47, 259-264. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2014.10.003

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