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Beyond Determining Compliance: How Can Workers’ Compensation Insurers’ Exposure Data Be Improved and Used?
The workers' compensation system can be used for more than processing work-related illness or injury insurance claims. The data collected through this system provide valuable information to identify how these injuries and illnesses happen, so that they can be prevented. In recent years, use of workers' compensation injury and illness data in the public health field has grown. However, occupational exposure data (also known as industrial hygiene data) collected by many workers' compensation insurers is understudied. If analyzed, these data may help identify priority hazards and trends...
Testing a Strategy to Identify Incidence of Nurse Suicide in the United States
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test a strategy for quantifying incidence of nurse suicide using San Diego County data as a pilot for national investigation. BACKGROUND: Worldwide, 1 person dies by suicide every 40 seconds; more than 1 000 000 suicides occur yearly. Suicide rates for nurses in the United States have not been evaluated. This methodological article tested a strategy to identify incidence of nurse suicide compared with those of physicians and the general public. METHOD: Deidentified San Diego County Medical Examiner data from 2005 to 2015 were analyzed with a descriptive epidemiologic...
A study of leading indicators for occupational health and safety management systems in healthcare
Background: In Ontario, Canada, approximately $2.5 billion is spent yearly on occupational injuries in the healthcare sector. The healthcare sector has been ranked second highest for lost-time injury rates among 16 Ontario sectors since 2009 with female healthcare workers ranked the highest among all occupations for lost-time claims. There is a great deal of focus in Ontario's occupational health and safety system on compliance and fines, however despite this increased focus, the injury statistics are not significantly improving. One of the keys to changing this trend is the development of...
Évaluation technique de l’extension de la deuxième enquête européenne des entreprises sur les risques nouveaux et émergents (ESENER-2)
Ce rapport expose les conclusions d'une évaluation technique détaillée de la deuxième enquête européenne des entreprises sur les risques nouveaux et émergents (ESENER-2). L'évaluation a notamment été commandée pour étudier l'incidence d'une extension de l'univers de l'enquête afin d'y inclure les micro-entreprises et les entreprises du secteur de l'agriculture, de la sylviculture et de la pêche. Le fait d'inclure ces entreprises ne semble pas avoir réduit la...
A combined approach for the analysis of large occupational accident databases to support accident-prevention decision making
Occupational accidents are commonly collected in large databases by National Workers Compensation Authorities and companies' safety and prevention teams. The analysis of the data can be difficult because the database elements are characterized by many parameters, which are not of a numerical nature. Data mining techniques could represent an efficient tool for the identification of useful information in large databases. In 2011, a two-level clustering method, made of SOM and numerical clustering, obtained positive results in identifying critical accident dynamics. The present research proceeds...
Impact de l’allongement de la période de maturité des données sur les indicateurs de SST
L’Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST) produit et publie depuis plusieurs années des indicateurs statistiques de santé et de sécurité du travail (fréquence, gravité, fréquence-gravité, coûts). Ceux-ci sont habituellement produits tous les 5 ans à l’aide de données administratives de la Commission des normes, de l’équité, de la santé et de la sécurité du travail (CNESST) qui ont, en moyenne, 3 ans de...
Arduous Duty
Using Three Data Sources to Create a Single Wildland Fire Fighter On-Duty Death Surveillance System Wildland fire fighters are required to pass an “arduous duty” physical fitness test annually to help ensure that they are prepared for the physical nature of the job. Unlike structural fire fighting, wildland fire fighting often requires long work shifts that may last up to 14 continuous days, and often takes place in environments that are challenging with regard to temperature and terrain. Because of this difference, researchers cannot assume that study findings among structural fire...
Capturing Work-related Injuries from Emergency Department Data
Work-related injuries frequently occur, despite the fact that many are preventable. It is critical that we accurately describe and monitor these injuries in order to improve prevention efforts. Because there is no comprehensive data source that captures all work-related injuries, the occupational injury community relies on multiple sources to describe the problem. The occupational supplement to the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS-Work) is a surveillance system that provides one piece of the picture by capturing nonfatal occupational injuries treated in emergency departments...
A New Method of Assessing the Impact of Evidence-Based Medicine on Claim Outcomes
Objective: The objective of this study is to develop a method of quantifying compliance with Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) guidelines as a means of assessing the relationship between the use of EBM guidelines and illness absence and costs in workers' compensation. Methods: A total of 45,951 indemnity claims with two years of development filed between 2008 and 2013 were utilized to develop the methodology. Results: The newly developed methodology adequately assessed the relationship between claim outcomes (duration and medical incurred) and adherence to EBM guidelines, controlling for medical...
How reliable and valid is the coding of the variables of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW)?
A need to improve preventive public policies Great efforts have been made in the European Union to harmonize data gathering for work accident statistics, as they are basic for the decision making of the different agents involved in occupational risk prevention. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyse the coding reliability and validity of a set of variables of work accident report forms notified to the Catalan labour authority. METHODS: Cross sectional double-blind study. Study population: workers who had suffered a work accident with associated sick leave between October 1st and December 31st 2010...
Divergent trends in work-related and non-work-related injury in Ontario
An Institute for Work & Health study found strongly diverging trends in the annual incidence of occupational injury and non-occupational injury among working-age adults in Ontario from 2004 to 2011. This Issue Briefing summarizes the findings of that study and then, drawing on lessons from the study, highlights opportunities to improve the monitoring of injury across all Canadian provinces and territories. Source: http://www.iwh.on.ca/briefings/divergent-trends-in-work-related-and-non-work-related-injury-in-ontario
Using leading indicators to measure occupational health and safety performance
A study was conducted to advance the state of knowledge and practice on the topic of using leading indicators to measure occupational health and safety (OHS) performance of organizations. The specific research aims were to (1) describe the extent to which OHS practitioners understand leading indicators; (2) explore organizational practices pertaining to tracking, analyzing, and applying information provided by leading indicators to improve OHS performance; and (3) identify barriers and factors that enable the use of leading indicators. The study design included an expert panel and a quantitative...
Work-related concussion surveillance
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to use multiple state-based data sources (emergency department [ED] visits, hospital discharge [HD] data, and workers' compensation [WC] data) to estimate the 2011 work-related concussion injury rate in Kentucky. METHODS: Deterministic data linkages between the 2011 WC data and ED/HD data were performed. Annual crude rates of work-related concussions per 100,000 employed civilians age 16 years or older were reported. RESULTS: Using the three data sources, the 2011 work-related concussion crude rate was 31.8/100,000, higher for men (38.8/100,000) than for...
Comparison of data sets for surveillance of work-related injury in Victoria, Australia
OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences and similarities between three sources of work-related injury information: workers compensation claims, emergency department (ED) presentation data and hospital admissions data. METHODS: This population-based, retrospective descriptive analysis of non-fatal, work-related injuries of workforce participants in Victoria, Australia, has compared data from workers compensation claims and ED presentation and hospital admission data sets for the period 2004-2011. Work-related injury case frequency and rate were compared across study years according to gender, age...
The epidemiology of life-threatening work-related injury
A demonstration paper BACKGROUND: Workers' compensation (WC) data traditionally provides information to stakeholders on work-related disabling injuries. It is important to complement this with information on serious threat to life (TTL) injury, which is the focus of this paper. METHODS: In this cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological study, based on New Zealand's WC data linked to hospital discharge data, TTL was measured using the ICD10-based Injury Severity Score (ICISS); ICISS ≤ 0.941 was used to define serious TTL injury. RESULTS: During 2002-2004, there was an...
A comparison of fatal occupational injury event characteristics from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Vital Statistics Mortality System
OBJECTIVES : The aim of this study was to examine utility of appending International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes from Vital Statistics Mortality (VSM) data to Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI), and compare occupational event characteristics based on ICD external cause and BLS Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS) event codes. METHODS : We linked VSM records with CFOI records for 2003 and 2004. RESULTS : Ninety-five percent of approximately 11,000 CFOI cases were linked to VSM cases. Linked data suggest that CFOI OIICS...
Evaluation of occupational injuries with lost days among opencast coal mine workers through logistic regression models
Despite precautions, mining remains the most hazardous occupation, and coal mining is one of the most dangerous industries for non-fatal occupational accidents. Accidents are complicated events with many factors that affect their formation, and statistical evaluation of accident records can produce valuable information that may prevent such accidents. In this study, a logistic regression analysis method was applied to non-fatal occupational injuries from 1996 to 2009 in an opencast coal mine for Western Lignite Corporation (WLC) of Turkish Coal Enterprises (TKI). The accident records were categorized...
Prevention-focussed consideration of case in OHS
A consideration of the natural characteristics of causation in OHS has identified three functional domains into which OHS cases should be routinely separated for the purposes of statistical evaluation and prevention action. These domains are the OCCUPATIONAL INJURY(SAFETY) domain, the OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE domain, and the PUBLIC HEALTH INFLUENCE domain. The separation of OHS cases by these three domains and the reporting of their separate rate data have the potential to greatly enhance the effectiveness of prevention initiatives because of the substantially different contribution to outcome within...
Analysing factors related to slipping, stumbling, and falling accidents at work: Application of data mining methods to Finnish occupational accidents and diseases statistics database
The utilisation of data mining methods has become common in many fields. In occupational accident analysis, however, these methods are still rarely exploited. This study applies methods of data mining (decision tree and association rules) to the Finnish national occupational accidents and diseases statistics database to analyse factors related to slipping, stumbling, and falling (SSF) accidents at work from 2006 to 2007. SSF accidents at work constitute a large proportion (22%) of all accidents at work in Finland. In addition, they are more likely to result in longer periods of incapacity for work...
Survival Analysis
Researchers in work and health can use survival analysis—a branch of statistics that often predicts the timing of death—to calculate other things that are far more life affirming: return to work after an injury, for example. Source : http://www.iwh.on.ca/at-work/69/what-researchers-mean-by-survival-analysis
Indicateurs annuels de santé et de sécurité du travail pour le Québec
Étude de faisabilité Si la surveillance statistique peut contribuer à la planification d'orientations et à la détermination de priorités en matière de recherche ou d'intervention en santé et en sécurité du travail (SST), les moyens dont l'IRSST dispose actuellement à cet effet présentent des limites temporelles et méthodologiques. Les chercheurs étudieront la faisabilité de créer des indicateurs annuels de surveillance propres aux champs de recherche de l'Institut. Ils...
Review on the validity and reliability of self-reported work-related illness
Self-report is an efficient and accepted means of assessing population characteristics, risk factors, and diseases and is frequently used in occupational health studies. Little is known on the validity of self-reports used to measure work-related illness. This study reviews the evidence on the reliability and validity of workers' self-reported work-related ill health. For epidemiological research, there is an extensive choice in valid and reliable self-report measures on musculoskeletal disorders and mental health problems. The agreement on an individual level between the result of expert assessment...
Realistic evaluation as a new way to design and evaluate occupational safety interventions
Recent debates regarding the criteria for evaluating occupational health and safety interventions have focused on the need for incorporating qualitative elements and process evaluation, in addition to attempting to live up to the Cochrane criteria. Reflecting fundamental epistemological conflicts and shortcomings of the Cochrane criteria in evaluating intervention studies, the debate challenges the traditional (quasi-) experimental design and methodology, which are often used within safety research. This article discusses a revised 'realistic evaluation' approach as a way to meet these...
A process mapping model for calculating indirect costs of workplace accidents
This article follows an earlier one in which four criteria and four bases for the development of an indirect-cost calculation model adapted to the accuracy requirements and time constraints of workplace decision-makers were established. A two-level model for calculating indirect costs using process mapping of the organizational response to a workplace accident is presented. The model is based on data collected in interviews with those employees in charge of occupational health and safety in 10 companies of various sizes in different industry sectors. This model is the first to use process mapping...
Review of the J-value literature – Final report
Completed for HSE by Michael Spackman This report is in response to a request by the HSE to review the 'J-value approach' (Judgement-value). This is a method for objective assessment of health and safety spending, i.e. for comparing the costs and benefits of safety regulation, focusing on its potential contribution to regulatory decision making. The J-value literature may appear to offer an analytical basis for larger numbers for the "values of a prevented fatality" (VPF) and for the valuation of large accident risks, but it does not really offer a way forward. There may however...
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