2018-05-01 12:00 - Messages

The Impact of Sickness Absenteeism on Productivity

New Evidence from Belgian Matched Panel Data
We investigate the impact of sickness absenteeism on productivity by using rich longitudinal matched employer-employee data on Belgian private firms. We deal with endogeneity, which arises from unobserved firm heterogeneity and reverse causality, by applying a modified version of the Ackerberg et al's (2015) control function method, which explicitly removes firm fixed effects. Our main finding is that, in general, sickness absenteeism substantially dampens firm productivity. An increase of 1 percentage point in the rate of sickness absenteeism entails a productivity loss of 0.24%. Yet, we find that the impact is much diversified depending on the categories of workers who are absent and across different types of firms. Our results show that sickness absenteeism is detrimental mainly when absent workers are high-tenure or blue-collar workers. Moreover, they show that sickness absenteeism is harmful mostly to industrial firms, high capital-intensive companies, and small- and medium-sized enterprises. This overall picture is coherent with the idea that sickness absenteeism is problematic when absent workers embed high levels of firm/task-specific (tacit) knowledge, when the work of absent employees is highly interconnected with the work of other employees (e.g., along the assembly line), and when firms face more limitations in substituting temporarily absent workers.

Source: https://www.iza.org/publications/dp/11543/the-impact-of-sickness-absenteeism-on-productivity-new-evidence-from-belgian-matched-panel-data

Mortalité prématurée par maladies cardiovasculaires chez les femmes selon la catégorie sociale et le secteur d’activité

Les maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV) regroupent un ensemble de pathologies comprenant les cardiopathies ischémiques, les accidents vasculaires cérébraux, les pathologies vasculaires périphériques, l’insuffsance cardiaque et les cardiopathies congénitales. Ces pathologies sont multifactorielles et sont génératrices de coûts importants directs (années de vies perdues, handicaps, recours aux soins) et indirects (perte de productivité due à la mortalité et à la morbidité) qui risquent d’augmenter en raison du vieillissement de la population.
En France, les MCV représentent une cause majeure de morbidité et la seconde cause de mortalité prématurée chez les femmes. La mortalité prématurée rendant compte du nombre de décès avant 75 ans constitue un indicateur important de la santé des populations du fait qu’elle est la conséquence de comportements ou d’expositions défavorables à la santé, notamment professionnels. Cette mortalité prématurée est en partie évitable avec la mise en place de programmes et de politiques de santé publique adaptés (prévention, prise en charge).
Contrairement aux hommes, les MCV sont moins bien documentées chez les femmes alors qu’elles partagent de plus en plus les mêmes facteurs de risque comportementaux (consommation de tabac, d’alcool) que les hommes. Les principaux déterminants des MCV sont multiples. Il s’agit d’une part des facteurs biocliniques et comportementaux (hypertension artérielle, dyslipidémies, syndrome métabolique, tabagisme, mauvaises habitudes alimentaires, plus récemment consommation d’alcool…) et d’autre part, des facteurs socioprofessionnels en particulier l’exposition au travail posté, au bruit ainsi que les risques psychosociaux. Les femmes connaissent également une exposition à des facteurs hormonaux tout au long de leur vie, des particularités physiopathologiques de la maladie coronaire, et une prise en charge de la pathologie coronarienne moins bonne que pour les hommes avec un dépistage plus tardif ou incomplet et des délais d’appel au Samu plus longs.

Source: http://invs.santepubliquefrance.fr/Publications-et-outils/Rapports-et-syntheses/Maladies-chroniques-et-traumatismes/2018/Mortalite-prematuree-par-maladies-cardiovasculaires-chez-les-femmes-selon-la-categorie-sociale-et-le-secteur-d-activite

Comparative performance monitoring report 19th Edition

The Comparative performance monitoring report 19th edition - Part 3 compares workers' compensation premiums, entitlements and scheme performance across Australia and New Zealand.
The 19th edition is divided into three parts:
?Part 1 – Work health and safety performance
?Part 2 – Work health and safety compliance and enforcement activities
?Part 3 – Premium, entitlements and scheme performance

Source: https://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/doc/comparative-performance-monitoring-report-19th-edition-part-3

The economic burden of occupational non-melanoma skin cancer due to solar radiation

Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the second most prevalent carcinogenic exposure in Canada and is similarly important in other countries with large Caucasian populations. The objective of this article was to estimate the economic burden associated with newly diagnosed non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) attributable to occupational solar radiation exposure. Key cost categories considered were direct costs (healthcare costs, out-of-pocket costs (OOPCs), and informal caregiver costs); indirect costs (productivity/output costs and home production costs); and intangible costs (monetary value of the loss of health-related quality of life (HRQoL)). To generate the burden estimates, we used secondary data from multiple sources applied to computational methods developed from an extensive review of the literature. An estimated 2,846 (5.3%) of the 53,696 newly diagnosed cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and 1,710 (9.2%) of the 18,549 newly diagnosed cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in 2011 in Canada were attributable to occupational solar radiation exposure. The combined total for direct and indirect costs of occupational NMSC cases is $28.9 million ($15.9 million for BCC and $13.0 million for SCC), and for intangible costs is $5.7 million ($0.6 million for BCC and $5.1 million for SCC). On a per-case basis, the total costs are $5,670 for BCC and $10,555 for SCC. The higher per-case cost for SCC is largely a result of a lower survival rate, and hence higher indirect and intangible costs. Our estimates can be used to raise awareness of occupational solar UV exposure as an important causal factor in NMSCs and can highlight the importance of occupational BCC and SCC among other occupational cancers.

Source: Mofidi, A., Tompa, E., Spencer, J., Kalcevich, C., Peters, C. E., Kim, J., ... et Demers, P. A. (2018). Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene.
https://doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2018.1447118

Fatal Falls Overboard in Commercial Fishing - United States 2000-2016

Commercial fishing is one of the most dangerous jobs in the United States, with a 2016 work-related fatality rate (86.0 deaths per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers) 23 times higher than that for all U.S. workers (3.6). Sinking vessels cause the most fatalities in the industry; however, falling from a fishing vessel is a serious hazard responsible for the second highest number of commercial fishing–associated fatalities (2,3). CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) analyzed data on unintentional fatal falls overboard in the U.S. commercial fishing industry to identify gaps in the use of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention strategies. During 2000–2016, a total of 204 commercial fishermen died after unintentionally falling overboard. The majority of falls (121; 59.3%) were not witnessed, and 108 (89.3%) of these victims were not found. Among 83 witnessed falls overboard, 56 rescue attempts were made; 22 victims were recovered but were not successfully resuscitated. The circumstances, rescue attempts, and limited use of lifesaving and recovery equipment indicate that efforts to reduce these preventable fatalities are needed during pre-event, event, and post-event sequences of falls overboard. Vessel owners could consider strategies to prevent future fatalities, including lifeline tethers, line management, personal flotation devices (PFDs), man-overboard alarms, recovery devices, and rescue training.

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6716a2.htm

Évaluation technique de l’extension de la deuxième enquête européenne des entreprises sur les risques nouveaux et émergents (ESENER-2)

Ce rapport expose les conclusions d'une évaluation technique détaillée de la deuxième enquête européenne des entreprises sur les risques nouveaux et émergents (ESENER-2). L'évaluation a notamment été commandée pour étudier l'incidence d'une extension de l'univers de l'enquête afin d'y inclure les micro-entreprises et les entreprises du secteur de l'agriculture, de la sylviculture et de la pêche.
Le fait d'inclure ces entreprises ne semble pas avoir réduit la qualité des données. Il s'agit d'une étape importante vers le développement d'une base factuelle fiable, ces entreprises contribuant de manière significative à l'économie. Le rapport inclut également des recommandations d'améliorations pour les procédures d'échantillonnage, lesquelles pourraient être mises en œuvre préalablement à l'enquête ESENER-3.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/fr/tools-and-publications/publications/technical-assessment-expansion-second-european-survey/view

Australian Workers’ Compensation Statistics 2016–17

The publication presents an overview of the Comcare scheme and includes statistical data on the scheme's workers' compensation performance.

Source: http://www.comcare.gov.au/news__and__media/news_latest/comcare_schemeworkers_compensation_statistics_201617

Programme COSMOP : surveillance de la mortalité par cause selon l’activité professionnelle

Analyse de la mortalité et des causes de décès par secteur d'activité de 1976 à 2005
Le programme de surveillance Cosmop a pour objectif principal de décrire de façon systématique et régulière, à l'échelle de la population française, la répartition des décès pour différentes causes, selon des caractéristiques professionnelles.

Source: https://www.etui.org/fr/Themes/Sante-et-securite/Actualites/Mortalite-en-France-un-rapport-met-en-evidence-de-tres-grandes-disparites-en-fonction-de-la-profession

Mental Health Expenditures

Association with Workplace Incivility and Bullying Among Hospital Patient Care Workers
Objective: Bullied workers have poor self-reported mental health; monetary costs of bullying exposure are unknown. We tested associations between bullying and health plan claims for mental health diagnoses.
Methods: We used data from 793 hospital workers who answered questions about bullying in a survey and subscribed to the group health plan. We used two-part models to test associations between types of incivility/bullying and mental health expenditures.
Results: Workers experiencing incivility or bullying had greater odds of any mental health claims. Among claimants, unexposed workers spent $792, those experiencing one type of incivility or bullying spent $1,557 (p for difference from unexposed=0.016), those experiencing two types spent $928 (p = 0.503), and those experiencing three types spent $1,446 (p = 0.040).
Conclusions: Workplace incivility and bullying may carry monetary costs to employers, which could be controlled through work environment modification.

Source: Sabbath, E. L., Williams, J. A., Boden, L. I., Tempesti, T., Wagner, G. R., Hopcia, K., ... et Sorensen, G. (2018). Journal of occupational and environmental medicine.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001322

Fatal work-related falls in the United States, 2003-2014

Background: Falls are the second leading cause of work-related fatalities among US workers. We describe fatal work-related falls from 2003 to 2014, including demographic, work, and injury event characteristics, and changes in rates over time.
Methods: We identified fatal falls from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and estimated rates using the BLS Current Population Survey.
Results: From 2003 to 2014, there were 8880 fatal work-related falls, at an annual rate of 5.5 per million FTE. Rates increased with age. Occupations with the highest rates included construction/extraction (42.2 per million FTE) and installation/maintenance/repair (12.5 per million FTE). Falls to a lower level represented the majority (n = 7521, 85%) compared to falls on the same level (n = 1128, 13%).
Conclusions: Falls are a persistent source of work-related fatalities. Fall prevention should continue to focus on regulation adherence, Prevention through Design, improving fall protection, training, fostering partnerships, and increasing communication.

Source: Socias-Morales, C. M., Chaumont Menéndez, C. K. et Marsh, S. M. (2018). American journal of industrial medicine, 61(3), 204-215.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22810

Gendered Pathways to Burnout: Results from the SALVEO Study

Burnout is a pervasive mental health problem in the workforce, with mounting evidence suggesting ties with occupational and safety outcomes such as work injuries, critical events and musculoskeletal disorders. While environmental [work and non-work, work-to-family conflict (WFC)] and individual (personality) pathways to burnout are well documented, little is known about how gender comes to influence such associative patterns. The aim of the study consisted in examining gendered pathways to burnout. The study analysed data derived from the SALVEO study, a cross-sectional study of 2026 workers from 63 workplaces from the province of Québec (Canada). Study results supported our hypotheses positing that gender distinctively shapes environmental and individual pathways to burnout. OHS prevention efforts striving for better mental health outcomes in the workforce could relevantly be informed by a gendered approach to burnout.

Source: Beauregard, N., Marchand, A., Bilodeau, J., Durand, P., Demers, A. et Haines III, V. Y. (2018). Annals of work exposures and health, 62(4), 426-437.
https://doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxx114

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