2018-04-01 12:00 - Messages

Prevalence of Asthma, Asthma Attacks, and Emergency Department Visits for Asthma Among Working Adults

National Health Interview Survey, 2011–2016
In 2010, an estimated 8.2% of U.S. adults had current asthma, and among these persons, 49.1% had had an asthma attack during the past year. Workplace exposures can cause asthma in a previously healthy worker or can trigger asthma exacerbations in workers with current asthma. To assess the industry- and occupation-specific prevalence of current asthma, asthma attacks, and asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits among working adults, CDC analyzed 2011–2016 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for participants aged ≥18 years who, at the time of the survey, were employed at some time during the 12 months preceding the interview. During 2011–2016, 6.8% of adults (11 million) employed at any time in the past 12 months had current asthma; among those, 44.7% experienced an asthma attack, and 9.9% had an asthma-related ED visit in the previous year. Current asthma prevalence was highest among workers in the health care and social assistance industry (8.8%) and in health care support occupations (8.8%). The increased prevalence of current asthma, asthma attacks, and asthma-related ED visits in certain industries and occupations might indicate increased risks for these health outcomes associated with workplace exposures. These findings might assist health care and public health professionals in identifying workers in industries and occupations with a high prevalence of current asthma, asthma attacks, and asthma-related ED visits who should be evaluated for possible work-related asthma. Guidelines intended to promote effective management of work-related asthma are available.

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6713a1.htm?s_cid=mm6713a1_e

A combined approach for the analysis of large occupational accident databases to support accident-prevention decision making

Occupational accidents are commonly collected in large databases by National Workers Compensation Authorities and companies' safety and prevention teams. The analysis of the data can be difficult because the database elements are characterized by many parameters, which are not of a numerical nature. Data mining techniques could represent an efficient tool for the identification of useful information in large databases. In 2011, a two-level clustering method, made of SOM and numerical clustering, obtained positive results in identifying critical accident dynamics. The present research proceeds from that initial methodology.
A sensitivity analysis of the coupled clustering method was carried out.
Some improvements have been designed, and an enhanced methodology has been applied to the original case study data set, for validation purposes.
This method represents an efficient tool for the analyst that has to deal with the occupational accidents data, thanks to its capability of grouping and visualizing data in a readable and exportable outcome.
The information acquired by this method can help analysts to better address the measures to be adopted in a work environment, in order to prevent occupational accidents.

Source: Comberti, L., Demichela, M. et Baldissone, G. (2018). Safety Science, 106, 191-202.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2018.03.014

Cardiovascular conditions, hearing difficulty, and occupational noise exposure within US industries and occupations

Background: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of occupational noise exposure, hearing difficulty and cardiovascular conditions within US industries and occupations, and to examine any associations of these outcomes with occupational noise exposure.
Methods: National Health Interview Survey data from 2014 were examined. Weighted prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios of self-reported hearing difficulty, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and coronary heart disease or stroke were estimated by level of occupational noise exposure, industry, and occupation.
Results: Twenty-five percent of current workers had a history of occupational noise exposure (14% exposed in the last year), 12% had hearing difficulty, 24% had hypertension, 28% had elevated cholesterol; 58%, 14%, and 9% of these cases can be attributed to occupational noise exposure, respectively.
Conclusions: Hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and hearing difficulty are more prevalent among noise-exposed workers. Reducing workplace noise levels is critical. Workplace-based health and wellness programs should also be considered.

Source: Kerns, E., Masterson, E. A., Themann, C. L. et Calvert, G. M. (2018). American journal of industrial medicine.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22833

Economic Evaluation of Occupational Safety and Health Interventions From the Employer Perspective

A Systematic Review
Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of occupational safety and health interventions from the employer perspective.
Methods: A comprehensive literature search (2005 to 2016) in five electronic databases was conducted. Pre-2005 studies were identified from the reference lists of previous studies and systematic reviews, which have similar objective to those of this search.
Results: A total of 19 randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies were included, targeting diverse health problems in a number of settings. Few studies included organizational-level interventions. When viewed in relation to the methodological quality and the sufficiency of economic evidence, five of 11 cost-effective occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions appear to be promising.
Conclusion: The present systematic review highlights the need for high-quality economic evidence to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of OSH interventions, especially at organizational-level, in all areas of worker health.

Source: Grimani, A., Bergström, G., Casallas, M. I. R., Aboagye, E., Jensen, I. et Lohela-Karlsson, M. (2018). Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 60(2), 147-166.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001224

Nonfatal Injuries to Law Enforcement Officers: A Rise in Assaults

Introduction: Limited studies exist that describe nonfatal work-related injuries to law enforcement officers. The aim of this study is to provide national estimates and trends of nonfatal injuries to law enforcement officers from 2003 through 2014.
Methods: Nonfatal injuries were obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System−Occupational Supplement. Data were obtained for injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments from 2003 to 2014. Nonfatal injury rates were calculated using denominators from the Current Population Survey. Negative binomial regression was used to analyze temporal trends. Data were analyzed in 2016–2017.
Results: Between 2003 and 2014, an estimated 669,100 law enforcement officers were treated in U.S. emergency departments for nonfatal injuries. The overall rate of 635 per 10,000 full-time equivalents was three times higher than all other U.S. workers rate (213 per 10,000 full-time equivalents). The three leading injury events were assaults and violent acts (35%), bodily reactions and exertion (15%), and transportation incidents (14%). Injury rates were highest for the youngest officers, aged 21–24 years. Male and female law enforcement officers had similar nonfatal injury rates. Rates for most injuries remained stable; however, rates for assault-related injuries grew among law enforcement officers between 2003 and 2011.
Conclusions: National Electronic Injury Surveillance System−Occupational Supplement data demonstrate a significant upward trend in assault injuries among U.S. law enforcement officers and this warrants further investigation. Police−citizen interactions are dynamic social encounters and evidence-based policing is vital to the health and safety of both police and civilians. The law enforcement community should energize efforts toward the study of how policing tactics impact both officer and citizen injuries.

Source: Tiesman, H. M., Gwilliam, M., Konda, S., Rojek, J. et Marsh, S. (2018). American journal of preventive medicine, 54(4), 503-509.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2017.12.005

Prostate cancer surveillance by occupation and industry: the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC)

As there are no well-established modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer, further evidence is needed on possible factors such as occupation. Our study uses one of the largest Canadian worker cohorts to examine occupation, industry, and prostate cancer and to assess patterns of prostate cancer rates. The Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC) was established by linking the 1991 Canadian Census Cohort to the Canadian Cancer Database (1969–2010), Canadian Mortality Database (1991–2011), and Tax Summary Files (1981–2011). A total of 37,695 prostate cancer cases were identified in men aged 25–74 based on age at diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals. In men aged 25–74 years, elevated risks were observed in the following occupations: senior management (HR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.04–1.20); office and administration (HR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.11–1.27); finance services (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04–1.14); education (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00–1.11); agriculture and farm management (HR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.06–1.17); farm work (HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.01–1.21); construction managers (HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01–1.14); firefighting (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.01–1.36); and police work (HR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.09–1.36). Decreased risks were observed across other construction and transportation occupations. Results by industry were consistent with occupation results. Associations were identified for white-collar, agriculture, protective services, construction, and transportation occupations. These findings emphasize the need for further study of job-related exposures and the potential influence of nonoccupational factors such as screening practices.

Source: Sritharan, J., MacLeod, J., Harris, S., Cole, D. C., Harris, A., Tjepkema, M., ... et Demers, P. A. (2018). Cancer medicine.
https://doi.org/10.1002/cam4.1358

Current Marijuana Use by Industry and Occupation - Colorado, 2014–2015

The effects of marijuana use on workplace safety are of concern for public health and workplace safety professionals. Twenty-nine states and the District of Columbia have enacted laws legalizing marijuana at the state level for recreational and/or medical purposes. Employers and safety professionals in states where marijuana use is legal have expressed concerns about potential increases in occupational injuries, such as on-the-job motor vehicle crashes, related to employee impairment. Data published in 2017 by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) showed that more than one in eight adult state residents aged ≥18 years currently used marijuana in 2014 (13.6%) and 2015 (13.4%). To examine current marijuana use by working adults and the industries and occupations in which they are employed, CDPHE analyzed data from the state's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) regarding current marijuana use (at least 1 day during the preceding 30 days) among 10,169 persons who responded to the current marijuana use question. During 2014 and 2015, 14.6% of these 10,169 Colorado workers reported current marijuana use, with the highest reported prevalence among workers in the Accommodation and Food Services industry (30.1%) and Food Preparation and Serving (32.2%) occupations. Understanding the industries and occupations of adults with reported marijuana use can help direct and maximize impact of public health messaging and potential safety interventions for adults.

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6714a1.htm

Prevalence of hearing loss among noise-exposed workers within the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting sector, 2003-2012

Background: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss among noise-exposed US workers within the Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting (AFFH) sector.
Methods: Audiograms for 1.4 million workers (17 299 within AFFH) from 2003 to 2012 were examined. Prevalence, and the adjusted risk for hearing loss as compared with the reference industry (Couriers and Messengers), were estimated.
Results: The overall AFFH sector prevalence was 15% compared to 19% for all industries combined, but many of the AFFH sub-sectors exceeded the overall prevalence. Forestry sub-sector prevalences were highest with Forest Nurseries and Gathering of Forest Products at 36% and Timber Tract Operations at 22%. The Aquaculture sub-sector had the highest adjusted risk of all AFFH sub-sectors (PR = 1.70; CI = 1.42-2.04).
Conclusions: High risk industries within the AFFH sector need continued hearing conservation efforts. Barriers to hearing loss prevention and early detection of hearing loss need to be recognized and addressed.

Source: Masterson, E. A., Themann, C. L., & Calvert, G. M. (2018). American journal of industrial medicine, 61(1), 42-50.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22792

Prevalence of Hearing Loss Among Noise-Exposed Workers Within the Health Care and Social Assistance Sector, 2003 to 2012

Objective: The purpose was to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss for noise-exposed U.S. workers within the Health Care and Social Assistance (HSA) sector.
Methods: Audiograms for 1.4 million workers (8702 within HSA) from 2003 to 2012 were examined. Prevalences and adjusted risks for hearing loss as compared with a reference industry were estimated for the HSA sector and all industries combined.
Results: While the overall HSA sector prevalence for hearing loss was 19%, the prevalences in the Medical Laboratories subsector and the Offices of All Other Miscellaneous Health Practitioners subsector were 31% and 24%, respectively. The Child Day Care Services subsector had a 52% higher risk than the reference industry.
Conclusion: High-risk industries for hearing loss exist within the HSA sector. Further work is needed to identify the sources of noise exposure and protect worker hearing.

Source: Masterson, Elizabeth, A., Themann, Christa, L., Calvert, Geoffrey, M. (2018). Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 60(4), 350–356.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001214

Cas incidents des maladies à déclaration obligatoire reliées à une exposition professionnelle à l’amiante dans le Système MADO-Chimique, Québec, 2006 – 2015

L'analyse des 2 234 cas incidents de maladies à déclaration obligatoire (MADO) reliées à une exposition professionnelle à l'amiante enregistrés dans le système MADO-Chimique entre 2006 et 2015 montre que :
98 % des cas sont des hommes.
Chez les femmes, les mésothéliomes sont les maladies reliées à l'exposition à l'amiante les plus fréquentes, alors que chez les hommes ce sont les amiantoses qui prédominent.
Près de 60 % des cas d'amiantose, près de 50 % des cas de mésothéliome et 70 % des cas de cancer du poumon ont été exposés à l'amiante dans les secteurs d'activité économique suivants : « Bâtiments et travaux publics », « Mines, carrières et puits de pétrole » et « Fabrication d'équipement de transport ».
Environ 70 % des personnes atteintes d'amiantose ou de mésothéliome ont exercé les professions de travailleurs du bâtiment et de travailleurs de certains secteurs industriels.
Plus de trois quarts des cas de cancer du poumon reliés à l'amiante sont des travailleurs du bâtiment, des mineurs, carriers, foreurs de puits et travailleurs assimilés, ainsi que les travailleurs de certains secteurs industriels.

Source: https://www.inspq.qc.ca/publications/2370

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