2015-02-01 12:00 - Messages

Silicosis Mortality Trends and New Exposures to Respirable Crystalline Silica

United States, 2001–2010
Silicosis is a preventable occupational lung disease caused by the inhalation of respirable crystalline silica dust and can progress to respiratory failure and death (1). No effective specific treatment for silicosis is available; patients are provided supportive care, and some patients may be considered for lung transplantation. Chronic silicosis can develop or progress even after occupational exposure has ceased (1). The number of deaths from silicosis declined from 1,065 in 1968 to 165 in 2004 (2). Hazardous occupational exposures to silica dust have long been known to occur in a variety of industrial operations, including mining, quarrying, sandblasting, rock drilling, road construction, pottery making, stone masonry, and tunneling operations (1). Recently, hazardous silica exposures have been newly documented during hydraulic fracturing of gas and oil wells and during fabrication and installation of engineered stone countertops (3,4). To describe temporal trends in silicosis mortality in the United States, CDC analyzed annual multiple cause-of-death data for 2001–2010 for decedents aged ≥15 years.* During 2001–2010, a total of 1,437 decedents had silicosis coded as an underlying or contributing cause of death. The annual number of silicosis deaths declined from 164 (death rate† = 0.74 per 1 million population) in 2001 to 101 (0.39 per 1 million) in 2010 (p = 0.002). Because of new operations and tasks placing workers at risk for silicosis, efforts to limit workplace exposure to crystalline silica need to be maintained.

Source: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6405a1.htm?s_cid=mm6405a1_x

Characterizing occupational heat-related mortality in the United States, 2000-2010

An analysis using the census of fatal occupational injuries database
BACKGROUND: Occupational heat-related mortality is not well studied and risk factors remain largely unknown. This paper describes the epidemiological characteristics of heat-related deaths among workers in the US 2000-2010.
METHODS: Fatality data were obtained at the Bureau of Labor Statistics from the confidential on-site Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries database. Fatality rates and risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by year, sex, age group, ethnicity, race, state, and industry.
RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2010, 359 occupational heat-related deaths were identified in the U.S., for a yearly average fatality rate of 0.22 per 1 million workers. Highest rates were found among Hispanics, men, the agriculture and construction industries, the state of Mississippi, and very small establishments.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first comprehensive national profile of heat-related deaths in the U.S. workplace. Prevention efforts should be directed at small businesses and at industries and individuals with the highest risk.

Source: Gubernot DM, Anderson GB, Hunting KL. Am. J. Ind. Med. 2015; 58: 203-211.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22381
 

The examination of workers' compensation for occupational fatalities in the construction industry

Construction is one of the most hazardous and risky industries. Construction accidents may result in numerous damages and losses. Workers' compensation is an important source for estimating the costs of construction accidents. In this article, the applicable laws for occupational injuries and the compensation statistics for construction accidents are examined to identify the characteristics of construction accident compensation in Taiwan. Accident reports during the period 1999–2011 are extracted from case reports of the Northern Region Inspection Office of the Council of Labor Affairs of Taiwan. A total of 574 occupational fatality cases in the construction industry are then analyzed to explore the significant factors for construction accident compensation using analysis of correlation coefficients (Pearson's r) and analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Source: Liao CW, Chiang TL. Safety Sci. 2015; 72: 363-370.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2014.10.009

Violence at work

The number and incidence rate of violent incidents at work has declined over the last decade.
Findings from the 2013/14 Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) show that:
- the risk of being a victim of actual or threatened violence at work is similar to the last five years with an estimated 1.1% of working adults the victims of one or more violent incidents at work (CSEW)
- in 2013/14, the survey estimated 257 000 adults of working age in employment experienced work related violence including threats and physical assault
- there were an estimated 583 000 incidents of violence at work according to the 2013/14 CSEW, comprising 269 000 assaults and 314 000 threats. This was lower than the estimated 656 000 incidents in the 2012/13 survey but this change is not statistically significant.
- the 2013/14 CSEW estimated that 1.0% of women and 1.2% of men were victims of violence at work once or more during the year prior to their interview
- it is estimated that 56% of victims reported one incident of work related violence whilst 17% experienced two incidents of work related violence and 27% experienced three or more incidents
- strangers were the offenders in 56% of the reported incidents of workplace violence. Among the 44% of incidents where the offender was known, the offenders were most likely to be clients or a member of the public known through work.
- the survey found 72 % per cent of violence at work resulted in no physical injury. Of the remaining 28 % of cases, minor bruising or a black eye accounted for the majority of the injuries recorded.
- in 2013/14 there were 4 936 RIDDOR reports of injuries to employees involving acts of violence in Great Britain (one fatality, 866 major or specified injuries, and 4 069 over-7-day injuries). More information on over 7-day injuries is available.

Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/Statistics/causinj/violence/index.htm

Accidents du travail et maladies professionnelles du BTP - 2013

Selon les statistiques de l’Assurance maladie – Risques professionnels, le BTP demeure le secteur d’activité présentant le plus haut niveau de risque. En 2013, on observe une diminution du nombre total d’accidents (- 6,6 %). Le nombre des maladies professionnelles diminue également (-3,2 %), les affections périarticulaires représentant à elles seules plus de 77 % des cas.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/actualites/statistiques-BTP-2014.html

Households as employers

Working conditions and job quality
This report gives an overview of working conditions, job quality, workers’ health and job sustainability in the activities of households as employers of domestic personnel sector (NACE 97), referred to here as the households as employers sector. It is based mostly on the fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS), which gathers data on working conditions and the quality of work across 34 European countries. Additional information on the structural characteristics of the sector is derived from Eurostat data. The fifth EWCS contains responses from 541 workers in this sector.

Source: http://eurofound.europa.eu/publications/information-sheet/2015/working-conditions/households-as-employers-working-conditions-and-job-quality

Une approche économique de la prévention

D'après 101 cas étudiés en entreprise
En quoi la performance économique peut-elle devenir un argument pour la prévention ?
La plupart des dirigeants d'entreprise considèrent que la prévention représente un coût net pour l'entreprise. Au travers de cette étude, l'OPPBTP montre que les actions menées en entreprise en faveur de la prévention et de l'amélioration des conditions de travail sont en réalité des facteurs économiques positifs pour l'entreprise et transposables facilement dans de nombreux secteurs d'activité du BTP.

Source: http://www.preventionbtp.fr/Documentation/Explorer-par-produit/Information/Ouvrages/Une-approche-economique-de-la-prevention-D-apres-101-cas-etudies-en-entreprise

Exposure to multiple hazards among Australian workers

This report summarises the research findings for self-reported exposure to multiple hazards from the 2008 National Hazard Exposure Worker Surveillance (NHEWS) Survey. A total of 4500 workers participated in the NHEWS survey. The report focuses on the prevalence of self-reported exposure to multiple hazards and examines different types of multiple exposures such as the average number of hazards workers reported exposure to and co-exposure to noise and vibration. It also identifies patterns of self-reported exposure to multiple hazards in terms of demographic, employment and workplace characteristics. This report complements research reports on individual hazards from the NHEWS survey that have already been published on the Safe Work Australia web site.

Source: http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/swa/about/publications/pages/exposure-multiple-hazards-australian-workers

Gender differences in occupational injury incidence

OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency and distribution of workplace injury claims by gender, and quantify the extent to which observed gender differences in injury claim rates are attributable to differential exposure to work-related factors.
METHODS: WorkSafe Victoria (Australia) workers' compensation data (254,704 claims with affliction onset 2004-2011) were analysed. Claim rates were calculated by combining compensation data with state-wide employment data.
RESULTS: Mental disorder claim rates were 1.9 times higher among women; physical injury claim rates were 1.4 times higher among men. Adjusting for occupational group reversed the gender difference in musculoskeletal and tendon injury claim rates, i.e., these were more common in women than men after adjusting for occupational exposure.
CONCLUSIONS: Men had higher rates of physical injury claims than women, but this was mostly attributable to occupational factors. Women had higher rates of mental disorder claims than men; this was not fully explained by industry or occupation.

Source: Berecki-Gisolf J, Smith PM, Collie A, McClure RJ. Am. J. Ind. Med. 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22414

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