2014-11-01 12:00 - Messages

Les expositions aux risques professionnels - Les ambiances et contraintes physiques

Les ambiances et contraintes physiques regroupent les expositions à des nuisances sonores et thermiques, aux radiations, aux contraintes visuelles, posturales et articulaires, au travail en air et espace contrôlés, à la manutention manuelle de charges, aux machines et outils vibrants ou à la conduite. Ici, la référence est l'activité des salariés lors de la dernière semaine travaillée.
Ce numéro de Synthèse.Stat' décrit, au travers de fiches, les expositions professionnelles des salariés aux différents types de contraintes physiques. Pour chacune des contraintes sont fournis des éléments descriptifs de la population exposée : catégorie socioprofessionnelle, sexe, tranche d'âge, taille et activité économique de l'établissement employeur et famille professionnelle.
Les données présentées sont issues de l'enquête Surveillance médicale des expositions aux risques professionnels (Sumer) de 2010, enquête transversale qui permet de cartographier les expositions professionnelles des salariés, la durée de ces expositions et les protections collectives ou individuelles éventuellement mises à disposition des salariés par les employeurs.

Source: http://travail-emploi.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/Synthese_Stat_no_08.pdf

Law Enforcement Officer Motor Vehicle Safety

Motor-vehicle crashes are the leading cause of occupational fatality among Law Enforcement Officers (LEOs), yet data on motor-vehicle-related incidents and motor-vehicle operations are scant. Unfortunately, the limited avail­ability of data makes it difficult for agencies to develop and implement evidence-based prevention programs.  The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) sponsored a statewide survey on officers' thoughts about and experiences with motor-vehicle-related incidents.  This statewide survey included a random sample of 60 law enforcement agencies and nearly 1,500 sworn LEOs.  Respondents were queried on a wide range of topics: motor-vehicle crashes and roadside incidents, seat belt usage, written motor-vehicle policies, and frequency and type of occupational motor-vehicle training.

Source: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2015-101/

Return to Work Survey - 2013/14 Summary Report (Australia and New Zealand)

This report compares the return to work experience and outcomes of injured workers of premium payers and self-insurers against a number of variables, including returning to work, workplace rehabilitation and employer support.

Source: http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/swa/about/publications/pages/rtw-2013-14-summary-report

Occupational accidents in the Danish merchant fleet and the nationality of seafarers

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine occupational accidents reported from non-passenger merchant ships registered in the Danish International Ship Register in 2010-2012, with a focus on analysing nationality differences in the risk of getting injured in an accident.
METHODS: Data about notified occupational accidents were collected from notifications sent to the Danish Maritime Authority and from records of contact with Danish Radio Medical. Events were matched by personal identification and accident data to create a unified database. Stratified cumulative time spent on board by seafarers was used to calculate accident rates. Incidence rates of different nationalities were compared by Poisson regression.
RESULTS: Western European seafarers had an overall accident rate of 17.5 per 100000 person-days, which proved to be significantly higher than that of Eastern European, South East Asian and Indian seaman (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.53, 0.51 and 0.74, respectively), although differences decreased over the investigated period. Smaller but in most cases still significant discrepancies were observed for serious injuries. The back injury rate of Western European employees was found especially high, while eye injuries seem to be more frequent among South East Asian workers.
CONCLUSIONS: The study identified substantial differences between nationalities in the rate of various accidents reported from merchant ships sailing under the Danish flag. The differences may be attributed to various factors such as safety behaviour. Investigation of special injury types and characterisation of effective elements of safety culture can contribute to the improvement of workplace safety in the maritime sector.

Source: Adám B, Rasmussen HB, Pedersen RN, Jepsen JR. J. Occup. Med. Toxicol, 2014; 9: 35.

Costs of occupational injuries and diseases in Québec

PROBLEM: Occupational injuries and diseases are costly for companies and for society as a whole. This study estimates the overall costs of occupational injuries and diseases in Québec, both human and financial, during the period from 2005 to 2007.
METHOD: The human capital method is used to estimate lost productivity. A health indicator (DALY) is used in combination with a value of statistical life (VSL) to estimate, in monetary terms, the pain and suffering costs resulting from occupational injuries.
RESULTS: The costs of occupational injuries and diseases occurring in a single year in Québec are estimated at $4.62 billion, on average, for the 2005-2007 period. Of this amount, approximately $1.78 billion is allocated to financial costs and $2.84 billion to human costs. The average cost per case is $38,355. In view of the limitations identified in the study, it can be argued that this is an underestimation of the costs. Result analysis allows the injury/disease descriptors and industries for which the costs are highest to be identified. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The results of these estimates are a relevant source of information for helping to determine research directions in OHS and prevention. The methodology used can be replicated for the purposes of estimating the costs of injuries and diseases in other populations.

Source: Lebeau M, Duguay P, Boucher A. J. Saf. Res. 2014; 50, p. 89-98.

Work-related fatalities associated with unsafe design of machinery, plant and powered tools, 2006-2011

This study examined 523 worker fatalities for which there was sufficient information on the circumstances to make a judgement on the contribution of unsafe design to the incident.
Of these, 63 fatalities (12%) were determined to have been either definitely caused by unsafe design or design-related factors clearly contributed to the fatality.
A further 125 fatalities (24%) were considered possibly design-related: these included incidents where the circumstances suggested that unsafe design played a role or were incidents that might have been prevented had existing safety technology been used.
The report presents further analysis of these design-related fatal incidents on the basis of the circumstance category that best summarised the incident.  Many brief example narratives of the fatal incidents are also included, along with a summary of the evidence that led to the classification.

Source: http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/swa/about/publications/pages/work-related-fatalities-unsafe-design

Using linked federal and state data to study the adequacy of workers' compensation benefits

BACKGROUND: We combined federal and state administrative data to study the long-term earnings losses associated with occupational injuries and assess the adequacy of workers' compensation benefits.
METHODS: We linked state data on workers' compensation claims from New Mexico for claimants injured from 1994 to 2000 to federal earnings records from 1987 to 2007. We estimated earnings losses up to 10 years after injury and computed the fraction of losses replaced by benefits.
RESULTS: Workers with lost-time injuries lost an average of 15% of their earnings over the 10 years after injury. On average, workers' compensation income benefits replaced 16% of these losses. Men and women had similar losses and replacement rates. Workers with minor injuries had lower losses but also had lower replacement rates.
CONCLUSION: Earnings losses after an injury are highly persistent, even for comparatively minor injuries. Income benefits replace a smaller fraction of those losses than previously believed.

Source: Seabury SA, Scherer E, O'Leary P, Ozonoff A, Boden L. Am. J. Ind. Med. 2014; 57, p. 1165-1173.

Workers' compensation

Poor quality health care and the growing disability problem in the United States
The proportion of working age citizens permanently removed from the workforce has dramatically increased over the past 30 years, straining both Federal and State disability systems designed as a safety net to protect them. Almost one-third of these rapidly emerging disabilities are related to musculoskeletal disorders, and three of the top five diagnoses associated with the longest Years Lived with Disability are back, neck and other musculoskeletal disorders. The failure of Federal and state workers' compensation systems to provide effective health care to treat non-catastrophic injuries has been largely overlooked as a principal source of permanent disablement and corresponding reduced labor force participation. Innovations in workers' compensation health care delivery, and in use of evidence-based coverage methods such as prospective utilization review, are effective secondary prevention efforts that, if more widely adopted, could substantially prevent avoidable disability and provide more financial stability for disability safety net programs.

Source: Franklin GM, Wickizer TM, Coe NB, Fulton-Kehoe D. Am. J. Ind. Med, 2014.

Using leading indicators to measure occupational health and safety performance

A study was conducted to advance the state of knowledge and practice on the topic of using leading indicators to measure occupational health and safety (OHS) performance of organizations. The specific research aims were to (1) describe the extent to which OHS practitioners understand leading indicators; (2) explore organizational practices pertaining to tracking, analyzing, and applying information provided by leading indicators to improve OHS performance; and (3) identify barriers and factors that enable the use of leading indicators. The study design included an expert panel and a quantitative survey to explore the views and experiences of OHS practitioners in relation to leading indicators. The findings suggest several important characteristics (e.g., actionability) that effective leading indicators need to possess and describe modifiable factors (e.g., commitment and technical knowledge of senior executives) that may be correlated with such characteristics. Overall, this study argues for continued effort to improve access to research and practical knowledge among OHS professionals as well as their executive leaders who seek to demonstrate continuous improvement of performance measurement strategies.

Source: Sinelnikov, Sergey, Inouye, Joy, et Kerper, Sarah. (2015). Safety Science, 72, 240-248.

Portrait des jeunes travailleurs de 24 ans ou moins - Année 2013

Ce document présente les statistiques de 2013 concernant la situation des jeunes travailleurs québécois sur le plan de la santé et de la sécurité du travail. On y fait notamment état de la nature et de la fréquence des accidents dont les jeunes ont été victimes dans les différents secteurs d'activité.

Source: http://www.csst.qc.ca/publications/300/Pages/DC_300_1018.aspx

Work-related concussion surveillance

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to use multiple state-based data sources (emergency department [ED] visits, hospital discharge [HD] data, and workers' compensation [WC] data) to estimate the 2011 work-related concussion injury rate in Kentucky.
METHODS: Deterministic data linkages between the 2011 WC data and ED/HD data were performed. Annual crude rates of work-related concussions per 100,000 employed civilians age 16 years or older were reported.
RESULTS: Using the three data sources, the 2011 work-related concussion crude rate was 31.8/100,000, higher for men (38.8/100,000) than for women (24.1/100,000). The use of WC data alone resulted in an estimated rate of only 11.7/100,000. ED data utilization alone resulted in a rate of 21.7/100,000.
CONCLUSION: This study's primary recommendation is to use WC, ED, and HD data on a routine basis as part of multiple data source surveillance for work-related concussion injuries.

Source: Slavova S, Bunn TL. Am. J. Ind. Med. 2014.

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