2014-08-01 12:00 - Messages

Le travail de nuit en 2012

En 2012, 15,4 % des salariés (21,5 % des hommes et 9,3 % des femmes), soit 3,5 millions de personnes, travaillent la nuit, habituellement ou occasionnellement. C'est un million de salariés de plus qu'en 1991, l'augmentation étant particulièrement forte pour les femmes.
Le travail de nuit est le plus répandu dans le tertiaire : il concerne 30 % des salariés dans la fonction publique et 42 % dans les entreprises privées de services. Conducteurs de véhicules, policiers et militaires, infirmières, aides-soignantes et ouvriers qualifiés des industries de process sont les cinq familles professionnelles les plus concernées par le travail de nuit. Les intérimaires, les hommes trentenaires et les femmes de moins de 30 ans travaillent plus fréquemment la nuit.
À autres caractéristiques comparables, les salariés qui travaillent la nuit ont une rémunération plus élevée mais des conditions de travail nettement plus difficiles que les autres salariés : ils sont soumis à des facteurs de pénibilité physique plus nombreux, une pression temporelle plus forte, des tensions avec leurs collègues ou le public plus fréquentes.

Source: http://travail-emploi.gouv.fr/etudes-recherche-statistiques-de,76/statistiques,78/conditions-de-travail-et-sante,80/etudes-recherches-statistiques-de,76/etudes-et-recherches,77/publications-dares,98/dares-analyses-dares-indicateurs,102/2014-062-le-travail-de-nuit-en,17952.html

Taking risks and survival jobs

Foreign-born workers and work-related injuries in Australia
Higher rates of work-related injuries (WRI) have been reported among foreign-born workers in many countries, but little is known about the situation in Australia, which initially had large waves of European followed by Asian migration and where the recruitment of skilled migrants has dominated recently. The aim of the study was to examine WRI among foreign-born workers in Australia. This was a two phase mixed methods study. The first stage used the 2005/6 and 2009/10 Australian national Multi-Purpose Household Survey (MPHS) information on WRI occurring in the previous year (N = 36,702). Logistic regression examined the relationship between WRI and country of birth, adjusting for period of arrival in Australia, age, sex, industry and working conditions. Next, 92 purposively sampled foreign-born workers participated in individual interviews (n = 17) or focus groups (n = 75). Workers were sampled via community organisations, trade unions or churches. A concurrent thematic analysis was conducted. Analysis of the MPHS showed that country of birth was generally not associated with a higher reporting of WRI and compared with Australian-born workers, those from Oceania reported less WRI. Key themes from the interviews suggest that understanding of Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) differed by community integration and cohesiveness. Precarious work, cultural factors and the demands of production may preclude workers from reporting incidents. Quantitative findings from the MPHS point to higher risks related to area of work rather than country of birth. However qualitative findings suggest there may be some under-reporting of WRI among migrants to Australia.

Source: Reid A, Lenguerrand E, Santos I, Read U, Lamontagne AD, Fritschi L, Harding S. Safety Sci. 2014; 70: 378-386.

Fatal events in residential roofing

Residential roofing is a high risk occupation, more than nine times as risky as the average occupation and more than three times as risky as the average construction trade. To better understand the factors involved in residential roofing fatalities, 112 case reports filed by Occupational Safety and Health investigators for the years 2005-2010 were examined. In almost all of the recorded cases there was no adherence to the then current safety standards. It was found that there was little or no appropriate use of fall protection practices or equipment and that employer planning and employee training was minimal. Specific standards violated were examined as well as the monetary penalties assessed. In addition to an increase in the size of the penalties, it is hoped the recent national program "Campaign to Prevent Falls in Construction", with its emphasis on planning, needed equipment, and training will prove fruitful in mitigating falls from roofs.

Source: Moore JR, Wagner JP. Safety Sci. 2014; 70: 262-269.

Fatal injury statistics

Summary for 2013/14
The information in this document relates to the latest 'full-year' statistics on fatal injuries in the workplace, for 2013/14.
- The provisional figure for the number of workers fatally injured in 2013/14 is 133, and corresponds to a rate of fatal injury of 0.44 deaths per 100 000 workers.
- The figure of 133 worker deaths in 2013/14 is 19% lower than the average for the past five years (164). The latest rate of fatal injury of 0.44 compares to the five-year average rate of 0.56.
- The finalised figure for 2012/13 is 150 worker fatalities, and corresponds to a rate of 0.51 deaths per 100 000 workers.
- Due to the fluctuation of recent years, it is currently too early to confirm a further stepped improvement in fatality rates.
- There were 70 members of the public fatally injured in accidents connected to work in 2013/14 (excluding railways-related incidents).

Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/statistics/fatals.htm#fn1#fn1

The Longitudinal Prediction of Costs due to Health Care Uptake and Productivity Losses in a Cohort of Employees With and Without Depression or Anxiety

Objective: To examine how various predictors and subgroups of respondents contribute to the prediction of health care and productivity costs in a cohort of employees.
Methods: We selected 1548 employed people from a cohort study with and without depressive and anxiety symptoms or disorders. Prediction rules, using the RuleFit program, were applied to identify predictors and subgroups of respondents, and to predict estimations of subsequent 1-year health care and productivity costs.
Results: Symptom severity and diagnosis of depression and anxiety were the most important predictors of health care costs. Depressive symptom severity was the most important predictor for productivity costs. Several demographic, social, and work predictors did not predict economic costs.
Conclusions: Our data suggest that from a business perspective it can be beneficial to offer interventions aimed at prevention of depression and anxiety.

Source: Geraedts, Anna S.; Fokkema, Marjolein; Kleiboer, Annet M.; Smit, Filip; Wiezer, Noortje W.; Majo, Maria Cristina; van Mechelen, Willem; Cuijpers, Pim; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: August 2014, Volume 56, Issue 8, p. 794–801.

Estimating the work safety situation in mainland China using Grey theory

With rapid socio-economic development in Mainland China, work safety remains a serious and continuous concern for the country. To better understand work-related accidents, we propose to analyze the dynamic situation and future trends of work safety in Mainland China using grey theory. The forecasting models, i.e., GM (1,1) models are constructed by use of annual data sets of work-related deaths from five branches: mining and commercial casualties, highway traffic accidents, railway traffic accidents, fire disasters, and all fatal casualties. The effectiveness of these proposed models is demonstrated through accuracy test. The predicted results show that the death counts, not only in the four sub-sections but also overall, will decline continuously, suggesting that the work safety situation will improve.

Source: Wei J, Zhou L, Wang F, Wu D. Appl. Math. Model. 2014.

New report compares fatal work injuries in the European Union and the United States

In an attempt to provide better information about fatal workplace hazards, Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union, and the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) recently developed a study comparing fatal work injuries in the EU and the US.
Using data from 2010, the study shows that such a comparison is possible and will help identify areas for further research in the future.
Notable differences in the data include 19.3 percent of cases occurring in the manufacturing industry in the European Union, compared with 14.9 percent of cases in the United States, and 1.4 percent of cases occurring in the “accommodation and food service activities” industry in the European Union, compared with 4.4 percent of cases in the United States.
The study was done following a special session on statistics during the 7th EU-US Joint Conference on Occupational Safety and Health held in July 2012 in Brussels.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/en/news/new-report-compares-fatal-work-injuries-in-the-european-union-and-the-united-states

Heat Illness and Death Among Workers

United States, 2012–2013
Exposure to heat and hot environments puts workers at risk for heat stress, which can result in heat illnesses and death. This report describes findings from a review of 2012?2013 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) federal enforcement cases (i.e., inspections) resulting in citations under paragraph 5(a)(1), the "general duty clause" of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. That clause requires that each employer "furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees" (1). Because OSHA has not issued a heat standard, it must use 5(a)(1) citations in cases of heat illness or death to enforce employers' obligations to provide a safe and healthy workplace. During the 2-year period reviewed, 20 cases of heat illness or death were cited for federal enforcement under paragraph 5(a)(1) among 18 private employers and two federal agencies. In 13 cases, a worker died from heat exposure, and in seven cases, two or more employees experienced symptoms of heat illness. Most of the affected employees worked outdoors, and all performed heavy or moderate work, as defined by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (2). Nine of the deaths occurred in the first 3 days of working on the job, four of them occurring on the worker's first day. Heat illness prevention programs at these workplaces were found to be incomplete or absent, and no provision was made for the acclimatization of new workers. Acclimatization is the result of beneficial physiologic adaptations (e.g., increased sweating efficiency and stabilization of circulation) that occur after gradually increased exposure to heat or a hot environment (3). Whenever a potential exists for workers to be exposed to heat or hot environments, employers should implement heat illness prevention programs (including acclimatization requirements) at their workplaces.

Source: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6331a1.htm?s_cid=mm6331a1_x

Examining the epidemiology of work-related traumatic brain injury through a sex/gender lens

Analysis of workers' compensation claims in Victoria, Australia
OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the epidemiology of work-related traumatic brain injury (wrTBI) in the state of Victoria, Australia. Specifically, we investigated sex differences in incidence, demographics, injury characteristics, in addition to outcomes associated with wrTBI.
METHODS: This study involved secondary analysis of administrative workers' compensation claims data obtained from the Victorian WorkCover Authority for the period 2004-2011. Sex-specific and industry-specific rates of wrTBI were calculated using denominators derived from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. A descriptive analysis of all variables was conducted for the total wrTBI population and stratified by sex.
RESULTS: Among 4186 wrTBI cases identified, 36.4% were females. The annual incidence of wrTBI was estimated at 19.8/100 000 workers. The rate for males was 1.43 (95% CI 1.35 to 1.53) times that for females, but the gap between the two sexes appeared to have narrowed over time. Compared to males, females were older at time of injury and had lower preinjury income. Males had higher rates than females across most industry sectors, with the exception of education/training (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.93) and professional/scientific/technical services (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.93). For both sexes, the most common injury mechanism was struck by/against, followed by falls. WrTBI among males was associated with longer duration of work disability and higher claim costs compared to females.
CONCLUSIONS: This study found significant sex differences in various risk factors and outcomes of wrTBI. Sex/gender should be taken into consideration in future research and prevention strategies.

Source: Chang VC, Ruseckaite R, Collie A, Colantonio A. Occup. Environ. Med. 2014.

Line of duty firefighter fatalities

An evolving trend over time
Between 1990 and 2012, 2775 firefighters were killed in the line of duty. Myocardial infarction (MI) was responsible for approximately 40% of these mortalities, followed by mechanical trauma, asphyxiation, and burns. Protective gear, safety awareness, medical care, and the age of the workforce have evolved since 1990, possibly affecting the nature of mortality during this 22-year time period. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the causes of firefighter mortality have changed over time to allow a targeted focus in prevention efforts. The U.S. Fire Administration fatality database was queried for all-cause on-duty mortality between 1990 to 2000 and 2002 to 2012. The year 2001 was excluded due to inability to eliminate the 347 deaths that occurred on September 11. Data collected included age range at the time of fatality (exact age not included in report), type of duty (on-scene fire, responding, training, and returning), incident type (structure fire, motor vehicle crash, etc), and nature of fatality (MI, trauma, asphyxiation, cerebrovascular accident [CVA], and burns). Data were compared between the two time periods with a χ test. Between 1990 and 2000, 1140 firefighters sustained a fatal injury while on duty, and 1174 were killed during 2002 to 2012. MI has increased from 43% to 46.5% of deaths (P =.012) between the 2 decades. CVA has increased from 1.6% to 3.7% of deaths (P =.002). Asphyxiation has decreased from 12.1% to 7.9% (P =.003) and burns have decreased from 7.7% to 3.9% (P =.0004). Electrocution is down from 1.8% to 0.5% (P =.004). Death from trauma was unchanged (27.8 to 29.6%, P =.12). The percentage of fatalities of firefighters over age 40 years has increased from 52% to 65% (P =.0001). Fatality by sex was constant at 3% female. Fatalities during training have increased from 7.3% to 11.2% of deaths (P =.00001). The nature of firefighter mortality has evolved over time. In the current decade, line-of-duty mortality is more likely to occur during training. Mortality from burns, asphyxiation, and electrocution has decreased; but death from MI and CVA has increased, particularly in older firefighters. Outreach and education should be targeted toward vehicle safety, welfare during training, and cardiovascular disease prevention in the firefighter population.

Source: Kahn SA, Woods J, Rae L. J. Burn Care Res. 2014.

La radioprotection des travailleurs en 2013

Exposition professionnelle aux rayonnements ionisants en France
Dans le cadre de sa mission de surveillance de l'exposition des travailleurs aux rayonnements ionisants, l'IRSN vient de publier ses résultats pour l'année 2013.
Ceux-ci révèlent une baisse du nombre de travailleurs surveillés, avec 352 082 travailleurs surveillés en 2013, en léger recul de 0,7% par rapport à 2012.
Si la dose collective enregistrée est en léger recul (-1% par rapport en 2012), l'IRSN pointe l'augmentation exceptionnelle des cas individuels de dépassements des limites réglementaires avec 9 cas comptabilisés en 2013, dont un à 7,4 Sv (pour 1 mSv de limite annuelle réglementaire fixée pour la population générale).
Ces cas de dépassement concernent 6 travailleurs du domaine médical, 2 travailleurs de l'industrie non nucléaire et 1 travailleur de l'industrie nucléaire.
La majorité des effectifs surveillés (63%) travaille dans le domaine médical et vétérinaire mais la dose collective moyenne enregistrée y est inférieure aux travailleurs de l'industrie nucléaire et non nucléaire. La dose collective moyenne reçue par les travailleurs de l'industrie nucléaire et non nucléaire est d'ailleurs en augmentation par rapport à 2012, sans doute en raison d'un nombre de travailleurs exposés à plus de 6 mSv plus important qu'en 2012.

Source: http://www.preventica.com/actu-enbref-rayonnements-ionisants-exposition-travailleur-1290714.php

Work-related traumatic injury fatalities - Australia 2013

Work-related traumatic injury fatalities are down, but vehicle incidents continue to play a significant role in these fatalities.
The latest report from Safe Work Australia reveals 191 workers died in 2013 compared to 228 in 2012. This is a 16 per cent decrease. It is also 39 per cent lower than the 311 deaths recorded in 2007.
Although most of the decrease from 2012 to 2013 was due to fewer workers killed in vehicle crashes on public roads, in 2013, 34 per cent of deaths were due to vehicle crashes.
In addition, 122 of the 191 fatalities in 2013 involved a vehicle.
However, it is notable that the work-related death toll due to vehicle crashes has halved from 130 in 2007 to 65 in 2013.

Source: http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/SWA/about/Publications/Documents/870/Traumatic-Injury-Fatalities-Report-2013.pdf

Occupational Disease Indicators - Safe Work Australia

The report says the rate of claims for musculoskeletal disorders caused by body stressing declined by 31 per cent between 2000–01 and 2010–11.
Infectious and parasitic claims dived 53 per cent from 2003–04 to 2010–11.
Cardiovascular diseases claims dropped 51 per cent from 2002–03 to 2010–11.
Respiratory diseases claims reduced 49 per cent between 2000–01 and 2010–11.
Contact dermatitis claims decreased 48 per cent between 2000–01 and 2010–11.
While the rate of workers compensation claims for mental disorders decreased from 2002–03 until 2008–09, it then began increasing, the report added.

Source: http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/SWA/about/Publications/Documents/867/Occupational-Disease-Indicators-2014.pdf

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