2013-11-01 12:00 - Messages

Production output pressure and coal mine fatality seasonal variations in China, 2002-2011

INTRODUCTION: The death rate per million tons (DRPMT) is considered as the key index to the quality of coal mine safety management. The index for 2002-2011 revealed a marked improvement in China coal mine safety management during the 10-year period. However, when seasonally adjusted, the 2002-2011 fatality data showed a strong seasonal variation trend. This was reasonably consistent for the 10years, which suggests that it was always the weak link in Chinese coal mine safety management over that time. However, the overall annual decrease in DRPMT was not reflected by any noticeable improvement in the seasonal occurrence of fatal coal mine accidents in China.
METHOD: This paper focuses on this issue, first by analyzing the seasonal fluctuation of fatal accident statistics, then by investigating whether there was a parallel trend in China production output pressure. Finally an error correction model (ECM) was established to analyze the relationship between seasonal fatality rates and the pressure to increase coal production output, and revealed a close relationship between the two.
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Firstly, the finding of this paper can help coal mine companies arrange their production planning more rationally, and decrease the fatalities' seasonal variations. Secondly, this paper is also helpful for the government to improve their regulation policies, to control the frequency of seasonal coal mine disasters.

Source : Yu H, Chen H. J. Saf. Res. 2013; 47: 39-46.

Cause-specific mortality by occupational skill level in Canada

A 16-year follow-up study
INTRODUCTION: Mortality data by occupation are not routinely available in Canada, so we analyzed census-linked data to examine cause-specific mortality rates across groups of occupations ranked by skill level.
METHODS: A 15% sample of 1991 Canadian Census respondents aged 25 years or older was previously linked to 16 years of mortality data (1991-2006). The current analysis is based on 2.3 million people aged 25 to 64 years at cohort inception, among whom there were 164 332 deaths during the follow-up period. Occupations coded according to the National Occupation Classification were grouped into five skill levels. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), rate ratios (RRs), rate differences (RDs) and excess mortality were calculated by occupational skill level for various causes of death.
RESULTS: ASMRs were clearly graded by skill level: they were highest among those employed in unskilled jobs (and those without an occupation) and lowest for those in professional occupations. All-cause RRs for men were 1.16, 1.40, 1.63 and 1.83 with decreasing occupational skill level compared with professionals. For women the gradient was less steep: 1.23, 1.24, 1.32 and 1.53. This gradient was present for most causes of death. Rate ratios comparing lowest to highest skill levels were greater than 2 for HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, suicide and cancer of the cervix as well as for causes of death associated with tobacco use and excessive alcohol consumption.
CONCLUSION: Mortality gradients by occupational skill level were evident for most causes of death. These results provide detailed cause-specific baseline indicators not previously available for Canada.

Source : Tjepkema M, Wilkins R, Long A. Chronic Dis. Inj. Can. 2013; 33(4): 195-203.

Geographic variation in work injuries

An analysis of individual and area-level factors within Canada
To what extent do work injuries vary from one region to another, from one province to another? And what factors are associated with these variations? IWH Scientist Dr. Curtis Breslin and Research Operations Coodinator Sara Morassaei share the findings of a study that helped answer these questions, based on data from the 2003 and 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey.

Source : http://www.iwh.on.ca/plenaries/2013-nov-13

Estimation du nombre de cancers d'origine professionnelle au Québec

Comme dans la majorité des pays industrialisés, le cancer constitue la première cause de décès au Québec : en 2013, on estime à 20 200 le nombre de décès par cancer et à 48 700 le nombre de nouveaux diagnostics de cancer.
La cancérogénèse est un processus multifactoriel et complexe, qui débute plusieurs années avant que le cancer n'apparaisse cliniquement. Un cancer est considéré d'origine professionnelle lorsqu'il résulte de l'exposition, en milieu de travail, à un agent chimique, physique ou biologique, ou encore de conditions inhérentes à une activité de travail. Il s'agit d'un cancer qui ne se serait probablement pas produit si la personne n'avait pas exercé ce travail. Plusieurs études ont estimé que de 2 à 8 % de l'ensemble des cancers seraient attribuables au travail, selon les pays et le nombre de sièges et de types de cancer considérés. Cependant, pour certains sièges ou types de cancer, la proportion attribuable au travail est beaucoup plus élevée, allant par exemple jusqu'à plus de 90 % pour le mésothéliome de la plèvre chez les hommes. Afin de prioriser les besoins en recherche et en prévention, il faut d'abord connaître l'ampleur du problème et ce rapport présente, dans ce but, une estimation du nombre des cancers d'origine professionnelle chez les travailleurs québécois.

Source : http://www.irsst.qc.ca/-publication-irsst-estimation-du-nombre-de-cancers-d-origine-professionnelle-au-quebec-r-789.html

Global Estimates of the Burden of Injury and Illness at Work in 2012

This paper reviews the present indicators, trends, and recent solutions and strategies to tackle major global and country problems in safety and health at work. The paper is based on the Yant Award Lecture of the American Industrial Hygiene Association, AIHA at the 2013 Congress.
We reviewed employment figures, mortality rates, occupational burden of disease and injuries, reported accidents, surveys on self-reported occupational illnesses and injuries, attributable fractions, national economic cost estimates of work related injuries and ill-health, and the most recent information on the problems from published papers, documents, and electronic data sources of international and regional organizations, in particular ILO, WHO and EU, institutions, agencies, and public websites. We identified and analyzed successful solutions, programmes and strategies to reduce the work-related negative outcomes at various levels.

Source : Jukka Takala DSca, Päivi Hämäläinen DScb, Kaija Leena Saarela DScc, Yoke Yun Loke MSca, Kathiresan Manickam PhDa, Wee Jin Tan BSocSc (Econ.), Peggy Heng BSocSc (Sociology), Caleb Tjong BSc(Econ.), Guan Kheng Lim BEnga, Samuel Lim PhDa & Siok Lin Gan Mbbs MSc(Occ.Med) FAMS(Occ.Med.). Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 2013.

Risk factors for hearing loss across occupations

A survey in Norway has investigated the link between a worker's job and the possible risk of hearing loss. While occupation was a factor in 2%–3% of the variance in hearing loss among men aged 45, it was of significance for less than 1% of women and young men. The most serious hearing problems in men were found among woodworkers, miners, electrical power line workers and cable jointers, carpenters, seamen and mechanics. Among women, there were only a few occupational groups indicating hearing problems.

Source : http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/ewco/2013/09/NO1309019I.htm

Developing leading indicators of work injury and illness

Leading indicators of work injury and illness are characteristics of workplaces that precede occupational health and safety (OHS) outcomes and, if changed, are expected to lead to changes in these outcomes. As a result, leading indicators have the potential to help identify factors affecting the risk of injury, allowing workplaces to address these factors before injuries occur. This Issue Briefing looks at efforts to date to identify OHS leading indicators, the challenges involved, and the work being done at the Institute for Work & Health to identify the best and most usable set of management and organizational measures predictive of work injuries and illnesses.

Source : http://www.iwh.on.ca/briefings/developing-leading-indicators-of-work-injury-and-illness

Bilan des conditions de travail 2012

Publié par la Direction générale du Travail (DGT) et présenté au Conseil d'orientation sur les conditions de travail (COCT), ce document propose un point sur les actions menées en 2012 pour la prévention du risque amiante, des risques psychosociaux et de la pénibilité.

Source : http://travail-emploi.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/Bilan_CT_2012-2.pdf

Factors associated with fatal mining injuries among contractors and operators

OBJECTIVE: To explore factors associated with fatal accidents among contractors and operators by using the Mine Safety and Health Administration database. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on 157,410 miners employed by operators or contractors during 1998-2007 were analyzed using logistic regression and multiple imputation.
RESULTS: Univariate odds of fatal versus nonfatal accident were 2.8 (95% confidence interval, 2.3 to 3.4) times higher for contractors than operators. In a multivariable model, fatality was associated with contractor, less experience at the current mine, and occurrence at more than 8 hours into the workday (P < 0.05 for each). Differences in odds of fatality by employment type were more pronounced in surface mines.
CONCLUSIONS: Contractors had a higher proportion of fatal injuries. Fatality also varied by mine experience, the number of hours worked before injury, work location, and mine type.

Source : Muzaffar S, Cummings K, Hobbs G, Allison P, Kreiss K. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 2013.

Mise en place d’un système de surveillance des suicides en lien avec le travail

En France, la question des suicides en lien avec le travail est soulevée avec une acuité particulière depuis plusieurs années.
Ce phénomène semble s'être amplifié sans qu'il soit possible pour l'instant de le quantifier. L'objectif de cette étude exploratoire est de tester l'utilisation de sources de données existantes françaises (système multi-sources) pour estimer la fréquence des suicides liés au travail et les décrire. L'étude a été conduite en deux étapes : une exploration des sources de données disponibles et pertinentes pour une telle surveillance et une étude pilote à l'échelle régionale. Six sources de données potentiellement utilisables ont été identifiées, dont quatre considérées comme majeures : les données de mortalité du Centre d'épidémiologie sur les causes médicales de décès (CépiDc), les données de réparation au titre des accidents du travail des régimes de sécurité sociale, les rapports des structures médico-légales et les signalements de l'Inspection du travail. L'exploration des données et l'étude pilote ont montré que l'accès à ces sources était plus ou moins facile, qu'aucune source n'était exhaustive, et que chacune d'entre elles présentaient des limites différentes (population couverte, absence de centralisation et d'informatisation des données, sous-déclaration…). Néanmoins, malgré ces limites et difficultés, la mise en place d'un système de surveillance pourrait être envisageable. De plus, une des sources, les instituts médico-légaux, paraît être particulièrement incontournable. Cependant, le recours à cette source d'information nécessiterait le développement d'un système d'enregistrement informatique des données, ce qui n'est pas le cas aujourd'hui.

Source : http://www.invs.sante.fr/Publications-et-outils/Rapports-et-syntheses/Travail-et-sante/2013/Mise-en-place-d-un-systeme-de-surveillance-des-suicides-en-lien-avec-le-travail

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