2013-05-01 12:00 - Messages

Distribution and characteristics of occupational injuries and diseases among farmers: A retrospective analysis of workers' compensation claims

Background Research indicates occupational injuries and diseases are not evenly distributed among workers. We investigated the distribution and characteristics of compensated occupational injuries and diseases requiring medical care in the Finnish farming population. Methods The study population consisted of 93,564 Finnish farmers, spouses, and salaried family members who were covered by the mandatory workers' compensation insurance in 2002. This population had a total of 133,207 occupational injuries and 9,148 occupational diseases over a 26-year period (1982–2008). Results Clustering of claims was observed. Nearly half (47.1%) of the population had no compensated claims while 52.9% had at least one; 50.9% of farmers had one or more injuries and 8.1% had one or more diseases. Ten percent of the population had half of injury cases, and 3% of the population had half of occupational disease cases. Claims frequently involved work tasks related to animal husbandry and repair and maintenance of farm machinery. Injury and disease characteristics (work activity, cause, ICD-10 code) differed between individuals with high and low personal claim rate. Injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal system had a tendency to reoccur among those with high claim rate. These outcomes were often related to strenuous working motions and postures in labor-intensive animal husbandry. Conclusions Analyses of longitudinal insurance data contributes to better understanding of the long-term risk of occupational injury and disease among farmers. We suggest focusing on recurrent health outcomes and their causes among high risk populations could help design more effective interventions in agriculture and other industries.

Source : Karttunen, J. P. and Rautiainen, R. H. (2013), Distribution and characteristics of occupational injuries and diseases among farmers: A retrospective analysis of workers' compensation claims. Am. J. Ind. Med. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22194


Genre : des inégalités de santé et de conditions de travail ?

Depuis 10 ans, l'analyse des statistiques d'accidents du travail, de trajet et de maladies professionnelles montre des évolutions différenciées selon le sexe. Si en 2010, les accidents du travail des femmes représentent un tiers des 650 000 accidents du travail, leur nombre a augmenté de 23% sur la période 2000-2010, alors que le nombre d'accidents du travail des hommes a diminué de 21%. En 2009, pour la 1ère fois, les accidents de trajet des femmes dépassent ceux des hommes. En 2010, pour la 1ère fois, le nombre de maladies professionnelles déclarées des femmes dépasse celui des hommes.
Les effets du travail sur la santé des femmes et des hommes s'expliquent par des conditions de travail différentes pour les deux populations, qui proviennent de 4 facteurs : la répartition sexuée des emplois et des activités ; le cumul des activités et charges professionnelles et familiales en lien avec des horaires atypiques ; l'invisibilité des pénibilités, risques et violences dans certains emplois ; les critères de mobilité pénalisants pour les parcours. Les femmes au travail sont autant exposées à la pénibilité physique ou mentale que les hommes, mais elle est moins visible : travail en relation constante avec le public, avec des personnes en situation de détresse, travail morcelé et interrompu, isolé, travail répétitif, à la chaîne, avec des postures contraignantes, ou travail permanent sur écran.
Certains problèmes de santé au travail qui se traduisent par de l'absentéisme, du turn-over, du stress, de l'usure sont plus finement diagnostiqués et font l'objet de mesures de prévention plus pertinentes quand l'analyse a intégré les questions de genre.

Source : http://www.insee.fr/fr/insee-statistique-publique/colloques/inegalites/pdf/chappert_presentation.pdf


Geographic variation in work injuries: a multilevel analysis of individual-level data and area-level factors within Canada

PURPOSE: This study sought to examine provincial variation in work injuries and to assess whether contextual factors are associated with geographic variation in work injuries. METHODS: Individual-level data from the 2003 and 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey was obtained for a representative sample of 89,541 Canadians aged 15 to 75 years old who reported working in the past 12 months. A multilevel regression model was conducted to identify geographic variation and contextual factors associated with the likelihood of reporting a medically attended work injury, while adjusting for demographic and work variables. RESULTS: Provincial differences in work injuries were observed, even after controlling for other risk factors. Workers in western provinces such as Saskatchewan (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.55), Alberta (AOR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.13-1.51), and British Columbia (AOR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.26-1.71) had a higher risk of work injuries compared with Ontario workers. Indicators of area-level material and social deprivation were not associated with work injury risk. CONCLUSIONS: Provincial differences in work injuries suggest that broader factors acting as determinants of work injuries are operating across workplaces at a provincial level. Future research needs to identify the provincial determinants and whether similar large area-level factors are driving work injuries in other countries.

Source : Sara Morassaei, F. Curtis Breslin, Selahadin A. Ibrahim, Peter M. Smith, Cameron A. Mustard, Benjamin C. Amick III, Ketan Shankardass, Jeremy Petch,  Annals of Epidemiology, Vol. 23, No 5, May 2013, p. 260-266



Analysis of the correlates of self-reported work-related illness in the Labour Force Survey – RR953

Work has long been acknowledged as an important social determinant of health with research being conducted as to how a range of workplace, personal and job characteristics influence occupational health. This report provides an analysis of work related ill-health within the United Kingdom based upon data from the UK Labour Force Survey. Analysis reveals that employment within physically demanding occupations is the key risk factor associated with an individual suffering from a musculoskeletal disorder. Working long hours and employment within managerial, customer service and teaching occupations are associated with an increased risk of suffering from stress, depression and anxiety. Reported levels of ill-health are higher amongst males, older workers and those in the public sector. Despite these findings, downward trends in rates of work related ill-health cannot be explained by changes in the observable characteristics of people and their jobs as recorded by the LFS. The inability to explain observed trends may relate to the absence of career history data within the LFS or the omission of questions about certain characteristics of people's jobs that are known to effect health. Such data is included within the longitudinal Understanding Society survey. It is recommended that the feasibility of including additional questions in this survey should be investigated.

Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr953.pdf

A comparative analysis of self-reported and medically certified incidence data on work-related illness-RR954

The impact of work on health is of major importance to Government policy makers, employers and employees alike. Thus, it is important to be able to monitor the incidence and change in incidence of work-related ill-health (WRIH) over time. One (national) source of information relating to WRIH in the UK is the Self-reported Work-related Illness and Injury (SWI) survey which has been included as an annual module in the Labour Force Survey (LFS) since 2003/04. Earlier versions were run in 1990, 1995 and 2001/02. However, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) acknowledges the limitations of the SWI data and, in particular, the possibility that over or under attribution to work may be a factor in its estimates. Furthermore, an expert workshop convened by the HSE in February 2009 concluded that the HSE should identify preferred data sources for different categories of WRIH, taking into account their respective strengths and weaknesses.

Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr954.pdf

Work disability trajectories under three workers compensation programs

Since the early 1990s, the time on benefits has been increasing for Ontario workers' compensation claims. In particular, over the last decade there has been a notable increase in the number of total compensated days per lost-time claim and an increase in the rate of claims remaining active and open for extended periods of time. This trend is in contrast to the trend of declining claim rates experienced over much of the 1990s.

This plenary profiles a study that investigated how Ontario workers' compensation claimants from different time periods fared in terms of labour-market earnings recovery. More specifically, this study investigated the labour-market earning patterns of Ontario workers' compensation long-term disability claimants from three different time periods and receiving benefits under three different programs. The study provides insights into the individual and contextual factors that contribute to labour-market engagement and earnings recovery.

Source : http://www.iwh.on.ca/system/files/plenaries/2013-04-02_etompa.pdf

Mental stress costs Australian businesses more than $10 billion per year

Safe Work Australia has released its first report on work-related mental stress and its associated costs based on an analysis of Australian workers' compensation claims data from 2008-09 to 2010-11. The report includes comparisons of rates of mental stress claims across industry sectors and occupations for male and female workers but does not distinguish between public and private sector workers.
The report shows the highest rates of mental stress claims were by workers with high levels of responsibility for the wellbeing and safety of others or workers at risk in dangerous situations. These jobs include train drivers and assistants, police officers, prison officers, ambulance officers and paramedics.
Other key findings of the report are:
• mental stress claims are the most expensive form of workers' compensation claim. These claims result in workers often being absent from work for extended periods.
• mental stress claims are predominantly made by women
• more professionals make claims for mental stress than any other occupation. A third of these claims are due to work pressure
• the hazards resulting in mental stress claims vary with worker age. Younger workers are more likely to make claims as a result of exposure to workplace or occupational violence. Work pressure is the main cause of mental stress claims for older workers
• women were around three times more likely than men to make a workers' compensation claim as a result of work-related harassment or workplace bullying, and
• work pressure was stated as the cause of the majority of claims in industries with the highest claim rates.

Source : http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/SWA/about/Publications/Documents/769/The-Incidence-Accepted-WC-Claims-Mental-Stress-Australia.pdf

Aging, sex, and cost of medical treatment

Objective: Association between medical cost from workplace injuries and aging and its effect modification by sex were examined. Methods: Medical costs reimbursed from workers' compensation between 2003 and 2009 were used. A multiple zero-truncated negative binomial regression predicted percent changes in medical cost. Cubic regression spline smoothers tested effect modification. Results: Reimbursed medical costs comprised 3452 claims. Medical costs increased with aging; however, the trends differ by sex. Medical cost increase after 10 years of age increase was 27% among men (95% CI = 17% to 38%) and was 15% among women (12% to 22%). Medical cost spent among the youngest women was higher than that for the oldest men. The ratio of cost between the oldest women and oldest men was double. Conclusions: Prioritizing controls for injuries in hospitals should focus on women and aging workers.

Source : Kim H, Moline J, Dropkin. Aging, sex, and cost of medical treatment. J. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 2013; ePub. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e318289eeda

Maladies professionnelles: défis et perspectives pour la sécurité sociale

Le présent numéro 

•Décrit les tendances actuelles et les multiples facteurs sur l’incidence des maladies professionnelles
•Examine l’impact des maladies professionnelles sur les systèmes de sécurité sociale
•Plaide en faveur d’une approche globale de la prévention
•Met en évidence le rôle de la sécurité sociale dans la prévention des risques, la promotion de la santé et le retour au travail

Source : AISS, Perspectives en politique sociale 28, 2013. http://www.issa.int/fre/content/download/182273/3639121/file/1-SPH-28.pdf

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