2012-01-01 12:00 - Messages

Cost of Job-Related Illnesses Exceeds Costs of All Cancers, Diabetes and Strokes

A new NIOSH-funded study from J. Paul Leigh, a professor of public health sciences at the University of California – Davis, determined that the cost of job-related injuries and illnesses is $250 billion, which is $31 billion more than the cost of all cancers and $76 billion more than the cost of diabetes. The study results beg the question: Is industry and the federal government doing enough to eliminate occupational injuries and illnesses and their associated costs?

Source : http://ehstoday.com/safety/management/skyrocketing-cost-occupational-injuries-0117/?imw=Y

Review on the validity and reliability of self-reported work-related illness

Self-report is an efficient and accepted means of assessing population characteristics, risk factors, and diseases and is frequently used in occupational health studies. Little is known on the validity of self-reports used to measure work-related illness. This study reviews the evidence on the reliability and validity of workers' self-reported work-related ill health. For epidemiological research, there is an extensive choice in valid and reliable self-report measures on musculoskeletal disorders and mental health problems. The agreement on an individual level between the result of expert assessment and self-report is low to moderate, with substantial numbers of false positives and false negatives. On the group or population level, the agreement between the results of self-report measures and results coming from external sources can be better, especially when using self-diagnose questionnaires and questionnaires that use a specific combination score of health symptoms instead of symptom-based questionnaires. We could not come to a final judgment on the value of self-reported work-related illness in general, as the evidence is scarce. The validity depends on the purpose and context for which it is used and the health condition that is measured.

Source : http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr903.pdf

Injuries, Illnesses & Fatalities in Wholesale and Retail Trade in 2005: A Chartbook

This Chartbook provides a summary of fatal and nonfatal injury/illness information describing a large population of understudied workplaces and workers: the wholesale and retail trade (WRT) sector. The WRT sector consists of one of ten industry sectors formed from stakeholder meetings conducted throughout the U.S. by NIOSH that served to define the structure of the second decade of NORA. The contents of the WRT Chartbook are based on data from the mid-decade year of 2005. This year was chosen to serve as the baseline for the WRT sector, which corresponds to the launch of the second decade of NORA. The purpose of this Chartbook is to identify high-risk subsectors, as well as industries, occupations, and tasks, in the WRT sector for 2005. Researchers and practitioners will be able to use the Chartbook as a resource to address the controls and prevention needed for reducing the workplace injuries/illnesses and fatalities occurring in the WRT sector. The primary information source for the WRT Chartbook is the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), which incorporates additional data from the Current Population Survey (CPS) provided by the U.S. Census Bureau, among other related sources [BLS 2010]. The BLS provides through its Web site an extensive set of files containing information on the number and rates of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. The WRT Chartbook can serve to alert employers, employees, and researchers to hazards in the WRT sector that may affect them, and provide direction for new research and prevention efforts in the sector. The data are presented as tables and charts.

Source : http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2012-106/pdfs/2012-106.pdf

Comparing the risk factors associated with serious versus and less serious work-related injuries in Ontario between 1991 and 2006

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine and compare the demographic and labor market risks for more serious and less serious work-related injuries and illnesses. METHODS: Secondary analysis of accepted workers' compensation claims in Ontario, combined with labor force estimates for the period 1991 to 2006. Serious injuries and illnesses were claims resulting in wage replacement. Less serious injuries and illnesses were claims only requiring health care. Regression models examined the relationship between demographic and labor market characteristics (age, gender, industry, job tenure, and unemployment) and claim type. RESULTS: Relative risk estimates for serious and less serious claims were not concordant across age, gender and industry employment groups. For example, while the mining and utilities and the construction industry had an increased probability of reporting NLTCs, they had a decreased probability of reporting LTCs. CONCLUSIONS: The risk for serious and less serious work-related injury and illness claims differ by demographic and labor market groups. The use of composite measures that combine wage-replacement and health care only claims should be considered when using compensation data for surveillance and primary prevention targeting strategies.

Source : Smith P, Hogg-Johnson S, Mustard C, Chen C, Tompa E. Comparing the risk factors associated with serious versus and less serious work-related injuries in Ontario between 1991 and 2006. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 55, 2012, p. 84 – 91.

Realistic evaluation as a new way to design and evaluate occupational safety interventions

Recent debates regarding the criteria for evaluating occupational health and safety interventions have focused on the need for incorporating qualitative elements and process evaluation, in addition to attempting to live up to the Cochrane criteria. Reflecting fundamental epistemological conflicts and shortcomings of the Cochrane criteria in evaluating intervention studies, the debate challenges the traditional (quasi-) experimental design and methodology, which are often used within safety research. This article discusses a revised 'realistic evaluation' approach as a way to meet these challenges. Evidence from the literature as well as examples from an integrated (leader-based/worker-based) safety intervention study (2008-2010) in a large wood manufacturing company are presented, with focus on the pros and cons of using randomised-controlled-trials and a revised realistic evaluation model.

A revised realistic evaluation model is provided which includes factors such as role behaviour, leader and worker motivation, underreporting of accidents/injuries, production pressure, unplanned organisational change and accounting for multilayer effects. These can be attained through qualitative and/or quantitative methods, allowing for the use of realistic evaluation in both large and small scale studies, as well as in systematic reviews. The revised realistic evaluation model offers a promising new way of designing and evaluating occupational safety research. This model can help safety science move forward in setting qualitative and/or quantitative criteria regarding context, mechanisms and processes for single studies and for reviews. Focus is not limited to whether the expected results appear or not, but include suggestions for what works for whom, under what circumstances, in what respects and how.

Source : Pedersen LM, Nielsen KJ, Kines P. Realistic evaluation as a new way to design and evaluate occupational safety interventions. Safety Science, 2012, vol. 50 (1): 48-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssci.2011.06.010



US: New Findings Show Construction Workers Face Higher Occupational Risks

Dr. Sue Dong of CPWR - the US Center for Construction Research and Training - recently presented new research findings at the American Public Health Association conference, showing that construction workers have a significantly higher lifetime risk of premature death due to occupational injury (1/200 chance of dying from a work-related injury over a 45-year career). Given that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration considers a lifetime risk of 1 death in 1,000 workers to be significant, the findings of Dr. Dong et al. are important.

Source : 

Presentation : www.cpwr.com/pdfs/Dong_APHA_Lifetime%20risk_103111.pdf 



Une récente étude a comparé les régimes d'indemnisation du Canada

La Fédération canadienne de l’entreprise indépendante (FCEI) a rendu publics, en décembre 2011, les résultats d’une étude comparative sur les divers régimes de santé et sécurité du travail au Canada. Cette étude, unique en son genre, comprend 35 indicateurs répartis entre sept grandes composantes : le coût des cotisations, la gestion des réclamations, la tarification personnalisée, la classification et la cotisation, la couverture, la viabilité financière à long terme et le service à la clientèle. Des indices sont accordés pour mesurer et noter les meilleurs et les pires aspects des commissions dans ces sept composantes. À partir de ces notes, un indice global est attribué à chaque commission. La Commission de l’Île-du-Prince-Édouard reçoit la note globale la plus élevée, soit 6,9 sur 10, suivie des commissions du Nouveau-Brunswick et de la Colombie-Britannique (6,4 et 6,3 respectivement). Les commissions de l’Ontario et du Québec reçoivent la plus faible note, soit 4,0. Ces résultats suggèrent que toutes les commissions ont donc du travail à faire pour améliorer leur performance du point de vue des petites entreprises. Les sept sous-indices donnent des informations plus détaillées sur les résultats globaux. En se fondant sur ces conclusions, ce rapport présente aux commissions des accidents du travail des orientations qui visent à améliorer le service offert aux petites entreprises.

Source : http://www.cfib-fcei.ca/cfib-documents/5520f.pdf

Initiatives de promotion de la santé au travail : un examen des enjeux et du contexte au Québec et au Canada

Les études sur les avantages financiers des initiatives de Promotion de la santé au travail (PST) se multiplient. L’intérêt pour ces études provient à la fois des entreprises et des gouvernements. D’une part, les entreprises perçoivent ces programmes comme un moyen potentiel d’augmenter leur productivité face à la concurrence mondiale qui s’intensifie. D’autre part, les gouvernements, cherchant des moyens de diminuer ou de freiner l’augmentation des coûts de la santé, voient ces initiatives comme un levier supplémentaire pour atteindre leurs objectifs budgétaires. Le constat qui ressort de ces études et qu’un dollar investi en PST génère en moyenne trois dollars comme bénéfice. Ces bénéfices prennent principalement la forme d’une diminution de l’absentéisme et de coûts d’assurance santé moindres. Les effets indirects sur la productivité sont moins étudiés. Malgré ces constatations, peu d’entreprises investissent dans la PST et de nombreux employés n’ont pas adhéré aux programmes existants. Au Canada, on constate une diminution récente du nombre d’entreprises participant aux initiatives de PST. Plusieurs raisons sont avancées pour expliquer ce manque d’implication.

Source : Castonguay, J., Dostie, B. et  C. Moroy. Initiatives de promotion de la santé au travail : un examen des enjeux et du contexte au Québec et au Canada. Montréal, CIRANO, 2011. 40 p.


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