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Factors associated with return to work in men and women with work-related traumatic brain injury
Background: Symptoms that persist subsequent to a work-related traumatic brain injury (wrTBI) influence the ability to return to work (RTW) and indicate areas of functional disability, as classified in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between RTW status and ICF framework domains in men and women with a wrTBI. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 209 consecutive workers with TBI (mild TBI: 71.8%; mean age: 40.2 ± 11.1, men: 71.3%) was conducted. Workers were assessed...
Effectiveness of Occupation- and Activity-Based Interventions to Improve Everyday Activities and Social Participation for People With Traumatic Brain Injury
A Systematic Review This systematic review presents research on the effectiveness of occupation- and activity-based interventions to improve everyday activities and areas of occupation and social participation for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Nineteen studies identified through a comprehensive database search were reviewed and synthesized into five themes: (1) multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary treatment approaches, (2) community-based rehabilitation programs, (3) treatment approaches using client-centered goals and relevant contexts, (4) social skills training and peer mentoring...
Replication of a Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of Resource Facilitation to Improve Return to Work and School after Brain Injury
OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which previous findings on the effectiveness of resource facilitation to impact return to work and school could be replicated. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Outpatient rehabilitation clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-four outpatients with acquired brain injury. INTERVENTION: Fifteen months of resource facilitation services. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A revised version of the Vocational Independence Scale and the Participation Index of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory-4. RESULTS: Participants randomized to the resource facilitation group demonstrated...
Prognostic factors of return to work after traumatic or non-traumatic acquired brain injury
PURPOSE: To investigate and to determine evidence of prognostic factors for return to work (RTW) after acquired brain injury (ABI). METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed (2008-2014), applying terms for ABI and RTW. In addition, studies published after 2003 of a previous review on the same topic were added. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed and evidence was classified. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies were included. There is strong evidence that a high education level is positively associated with RTW after traumatic ABI; a low education level...
Stability of Employment Over the First 3 Years Following Traumatic Brain Injury
Objective: To examine the stability of employment between 1 and 3 years following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to identify the variables associated with continued employment throughout this time span. Participants: This study included 236 individuals with predominantly moderate to very severe TBI, who had received rehabilitation in the context of a no-fault accident compensation system. Participants were eligible for the current study if they were employed before injury and reported their employment status at 1, 2, and 3 years following their injury as part of a longitudinal head injury outcome...
Gender Influences on Return to Work Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of gender on the return to work experience of workers who had sustained a work-related mild traumatic brain injury (wrMTBI) DESIGN: Qualitative study using in-depth telephone interviews SETTING: Community living adults in Ontario, Canada PARTICIPANTS: Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants. Eligibility criteria were mild/moderate TBI diagnosis based on multidisciplinary assessment and workplace injury. Six males and six females with mild TBI participated INTERVENTIONS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): N/A RESULTS: Our findings suggest that gender impacts...
The Effect of Occupation-based Cognitive Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury
A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability among people younger than 35 years in the United States. Cognitive difficulty is a common consequence of TBI. To address cognitive deficits of patients with TBI, various cognitive rehabilitation approaches have been used for the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the overall effect of occupation-based cognitive rehabilitation on patients' improvement in cognitive performance components, activity of daily living (ADL) performance, and values, beliefs...
Vocational Rehabilitation following Traumatic Brain Injury
What is the evidence for clinical practice? Traumatic brain injury (TBI) typically affects young adults with potentially many years of working life ahead of them. For people who were in work prior to their injury, return to work (RTW) is a common goal. However, a systematic review of RTW rates for people with TBI who were in work prior to their injury found that approximately 41% were in work at one and two years post TBI.1 Since TBI is a leading cause of morbidity worldwide in young adults,2 this discrepancy between what people with TBI want and what they achieve is important. The question is...
Recovery from mental conditions
Is it different between TBI/non-TBI OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the rates of psychological symptoms among those with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and with non-TBI at 3 months and 12 months after occupational injury and to examine the change in psychological status over time. METHOD: Our study candidates were injured workers in Taiwan who were hospitalised for 3 days or longer and received hospitalisation benefits from the Labour Insurance. A self-reported questionnaire including Brief Symptom Rating Scale (BSRS-50) and Post-traumatic Symptom Checklist (PTSC) was sent to workers at...
The development of the model of occupational self efficacy: An occupational therapy practice model to facilitate returning to work after a brain injury
Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe the methodology used in order to develop the Model of Occupational Self Efficacy: An occupational therapy practice model to facilitate returning to work after a brain injury. Participants: Nine males and one female participated in the study. Methods: Face to face, semi structured individual interviews were conducted and data were analyzed using a qualitative approach to explicate patterns and themes. The study was conducted in two phases, namely, Phase one described the lived experience of individuals with brain injury who had returned to work...
Return to work after acquired brain injury: Facilitators and hindrances observed in a sub-acute rehabilitation setting
Objectives: There is great variability in the rate of return to work for persons who have suffered from brain injury. The aims of this study was: 1) to describe employment status of persons with stroke or traumatic brain injury, one year after the incident and 2) to investigate the impact of injury/stroke severity, length of stay, the ability to perform activities of daily living and cognitive function on return to work. Participants and Methods: Information was collected from 72 persons; 48 with a diagnosis of stroke and 24 with a traumatic brain injury. All patients had attended to a Rehabilitation...
Difficulties with multitasking on return to work after TBI: A critical case study
Work performance research highlights that psychometric cognitive measures and cognitive component information processing measures are strong predictors of success in multitasking work environments [14]. People with a mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) returning to a job requiring multitasking, may have difficulty succeeding despite pre-morbid equivalent cognitive scores. A critical case study is presented to begin to determine what aspects of information processing contribute to difficulties in multitasking work performance, for people with a TBI. The Perceive Recall Plan and Perform...
A systematic review of early prognostic factors for return to work following acute orthopaedic trauma
Acute orthopaedic trauma is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. This study aims to synthesise and summarise current knowledge concerning prognostic factors for return to work and duration of work disability following acute orthopaedic trauma. Methods: A systematic review of prognostic studies was performed. The Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL and AMED electronic databases were searched for studies between 1985 and May 2009. Included studies were longitudinal, reported results with multivariate statistical analyses appropriate to prognostic studies, comprised persons employed...
The personal and workplace factors relevant to work readiness evaluation following acquired brain injury: Occupational therapists’ perceptions
This study examined the personal and workplace/environmental factors perceived most relevant to work readiness evaluations following acquired brain injury. Research design : Using a qualitative secondary analysis design ‘indicators of success' and ‘risks of failure', identified as relevant in a primary study of occupational therapists' evaluation practices, were explored further. Method : Data collected in the primary study, e.g. interviews, practice surveys, evaluation protocols, were re-analysed. Surveys and protocols were used to define participant and practice context...
The adaptation process after traumatic brain injury An individual and ongoing occupational struggle to gain a new identity
The aim of this study is to understand better how individuals with traumatic brain injury make sense of their adaptation process and their performance of occupations within this process. For this study, four participants were interviewed twice. Thereafter analyses following a narrative approach led to the construction of four individual narratives. The results indicate that the adaptation process following traumatic brain injury is (1) a necessary struggle to gain a new identity; (2) facilitated by engagement in familiar occupations in familiar environments; (3) a protracted learning process that...
Minimizing the effect of TBI-related physical sequelae on vocational return
This article evaluated the common physical sequelae that affect return to work (RTW) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We performed a Medline search and evaluation of current TBI rehabilitation texts. The information presented is a combination of published literature and clinical guidelines. The limitations faced by many patients with TBI can best be overcome through clever job search, job redesign, and community linkages with business and industry that are willing to partner in helping the patient with TBI regain employment. The physician plays a key role in communicating suggestions to the...
Social Functioning After Traumatic Brain Injury
Objective: To determine the relationship between adult-onset traumatic brain injury (TBI) and social functioning including employment, social relationships, independent living, recreation, functional status, and quality of life 6 months or longer after injury. Participants: Not applicable. Design: Systematic review of the published, peer-reviewed literature. Primary Measures: Not applicable. Results: Fourteen primary and 25 secondary studies were identified that allowed comparison to controls for adults who were at least 6 months post-TBI. TBI decreases the probability of employment after injury...

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