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Effectiveness of very early workplace interventions to reduce sickness absence
A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis This systematic review identified a lack of evidence to support the effectiveness of "very early" (less than 15 days after the start of sickness absence) workplace intervention to reduce sick leave compared to usual care. Lack of consensus on definition of "very early/early" interventions, methodological design of studies, the extent, and timing of usual care provided and variable compliance between groups might explain the absence of demonstrated benefit. Source: Vargas-Prada S, Demou E, Lalloo D, Avila-Palencia I, Sanati...
The Effect of Occupation-based Cognitive Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury
A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability among people younger than 35 years in the United States. Cognitive difficulty is a common consequence of TBI. To address cognitive deficits of patients with TBI, various cognitive rehabilitation approaches have been used for the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the overall effect of occupation-based cognitive rehabilitation on patients' improvement in cognitive performance components, activity of daily living (ADL) performance, and values, beliefs...
Absence from work and return to work in people with back pain
A systematic review and meta-analysis Background: A considerable proportion of work absence is attributed to back pain, however prospective studies in working populations with back pain are variable in setting and design, and a quantitative summary of current evidence is lacking.Objective: To investigate the extent to which differences in setting, country, sampling procedures and methods for data collection are responsible for variation in estimates of work absence and return to work.Methods: Systematic searches of seven bibliographic databases. Inclusion criteria were: adults in paid employment...
A systematic review on the effectiveness of physical and rehabilitation interventions for chronic non-specific low back pain
Low back pain (LBP) is a common and disabling disorder in western society. The management of LBP comprises a range of different intervention strategies including surgery, drug therapy, and non-medical interventions. The objective of the present study is to determine the effectiveness of physical and rehabilitation interventions (i.e. exercise therapy, back school, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), low level laser therapy, education, massage, behavioural treatment, traction, multidisciplinary treatment, lumbar supports, and heat/cold therapy) for chronic LBP. The primary search...
Psychosocial work environment and stress-related disorders, a systematic review
Background Knowledge on the impact of the psychosocial work environment on the occurrence of stress-related disorders (SRDs) can assist occupational physicians in the assessment of the work-relatedness of these disorders. Aims To systematically review the contribution of work-related psychosocial risk factors to SRDs. Methods A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching Medline, PsycINFO and Embase for studies published up until October 2008. Studies eligible for inclusion were prospective cohort studies or patient–control studies of workers at risk for SRDs. Studies...
Effectiveness of exercise on work disability in patients with non-acute non-specific low back pain...
Objectives: To determine whether exercise is more effective than usual care to reduce work disability in patients with non-acute non-specific low back pain, and if so, to explore which type of exercise is most effective. Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials investigating the effectiveness of exercise in non-acute non-specific low back pain, and reporting on work disability. Data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PEDro, Cochrane Library databases, NIOSHTIC-2, and PsycINFO until August 2008. Work disability data were converted to odds ratios. Random effects meta-analyses...

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