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A Theoretical Model of Co-worker Responses to Work Reintegration Processes
Purpose Emerging research has shown that co-workers have a significant influence on the return-to-work outcomes of partially fit ill or injured employees. By drawing on theoretical findings from the human resource and wider behavioral sciences literatures, our goal was to formulate a theoretical model of the influences on and outcomes of co-worker responses within work reintegration. Methods From a search of 15 data bases covering the social sciences, business and medicine, we identified articles containing models of the factors that influence co-workers' responses to disability accommodations;...
Employers' Attitudes Towards Hiring and Retaining People with Disabilities: A Review of the Literature
This selective review provides an overview of salient research findings related to employers' attitudes towards disability and prospective influences on employers to improve employment outcomes of people with disabilities. Research studies included for review are mainly those which investigated employer attitudes towards disability as predispositions to hiring people with disability. Selected studies were classified into three categories including hiring and accommodating employees with disabilities, work performance, and affective reactions and behavioural intentions of employers. Excluded...
Personal Resources and Support When Regaining the Ability to Work: An Interview Study with Exhaustion Disorder Patients
Purpose The aim of the study was to explore experiences and thoughts in the process of returning to work in employed patients with Exhaustion Disorder. Methods Twelve patients with Exhaustion Disorder (burnout) who had been referred to a Stress Rehabilitation Clinic were interviewed. All patients were employed but a majority was on full or part-time sick leave. Grounded Theory was used as the qualitative method. Results A core category, regaining the ability to work, was developed. Alongside, two categories, internal resources and the external support system, were experienced as being important...
Employers' Attitudes Towards Hiring and Retaining People with Disabilities: A Review of the Literature
This selective review provides an overview of salient research findings related to employers' attitudes towards disability and prospective influences on employers to improve employment outcomes of people with disabilities. Research studies included for review are mainly those which investigated employer attitudes towards disability as predispositions to hiring people with disability. Selected studies were classified into three categories including hiring and accommodating employees with disabilities, work performance, and affective reactions and behavioural intentions of employers. Excluded...
Is patient satisfaction and perceived service quality with musculoskeletal rehabilitation determined by patient experiences?
Objective: To assess the relationships between patient experiences and two overall evaluations – satisfaction and service quality – in outpatient rehabilitation settings. Design : A cross-sectional, self-reported survey carried out in the year 2009. Setting: Three outpatient rehabilitation units belonging to Spanish hospitals located in Barcelona, Madrid and Seville. Subjects : Four hundred and sixty-five outpatients (response rate 90%) mean age 39.4 (SD = 11.9) years. Main measures : Self-reported experiences on aspects of care, participants' perception of service quality, satisfaction...
Factors that Predict Return-to-work in Workers with PTSD
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a clinical condition that may develop following exposure to a traumatic event. PTSD can be triggered by traumatic workplace events including robbery, assault, or injury. Many workers who develop PTSD after a traumatic work event fail to return to work, and the factors that influence this transition are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers that impede return-to-work (RTW) in individuals who develop PTSD after experiencing a traumatic event in the workplace. The researchers were also interested in examining whether features...
Studies reveal crucial role of co-workers in return-to-work process
Co-workers can play an important role after a work-related injury. They can provide details about the circumstances of an accident, offer emotional support to the injured worker and help with job tasks upon a co-worker's return to work (RTW). Working with an injured co-worker, however, can also strain work relationships and increase workload. The purpose of this study was to determine the role that co-workers play after a work-related injury and during the RTW process in the unionized, electrical construction sector. Methods We conducted two focus groups with injured electricians and union...
Return to work after a serious hand injury
Objectives: This paper explores factors important for return to work (RTW) in people who have sustained a serious hand injury. Participants: Forty people aged 19-64, with a severe or major hand injury were recruited consecutively during 2005-2007. Methods: A self-administered and study specific questionnaire, including demographic data and standardised questionnaires for function, disability, daily occupations, health, quality of life, sense of coherence and several open questions was sent out by mail twelve months after injury. Open questions regarding RTW were also included. Results: The results...
Pain coping in injured workers with chronic pain
What's unique about workers? Purpose: Pain caused by a work injury is a complex phenomenon comprising multiple factors, e.g. age, gender, prior health status, occupation, job demands, and severity of injury. Little research has focused on injured workers with chronic pain. This study investigates injured workers' pain coping. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used to measure coping strategies of injured workers in a work rehabilitation program. Differences in coping strategies by demographics, injury-related variables, pain, disability, and depression were measured...
Breast cancer survivors' views of factors that influence the return-to-work process
A qualitative study OBJECTIVES: Accumulating evidence suggests that most employed breast cancer survivors are able to return to work but often experience difficulties in the process. The objective of this study was to identify: (i) factors experienced as barriers to and facilitators of the return-to-work (RTW) process, (ii) which factors were important during initial and post RTW, and (iii) possible solutions to RTW problems. METHODS: Twelve breast cancer survivors participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were thematically analyzed using MAXQDA, software for qualitative data analysis...
Individuals with chronic low back pain have greater difficulty in engaging in positive lifestyle behaviours than those without back pain: An assessment of health literacy
Briggs, Andrew M. et al. (2011). Individuals with chronic low back pain have greater difficulty in engaging in positive lifestyle behaviours than those without back pain: An assessment of health literacy. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 12: 161. Background. Despite the large volume of research dedicated to understanding chronic low back pain (CLBP), patient outcomes remain modest while healthcare costs continue to rise, creating a major public health burden. Health literacy - the ability to seek, understand and utilise health information - has been identified as an important factor in the course...
A Typology of Sick-Listed Claimants to Improve Communication Skills for Social Insurance Physicians during Medical Disability Assessment Interviews
Van Rijssen, H. J. et al. (2011). A Typology of Sick-Listed Claimants to Improve Communication Skills for Social Insurance Physicians during Medical Disability Assessment Interviews. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 21 (1): 66-75. Introduction Role play with standardised simulated patients is often included in communication training. However, regarding physician-patient encounters in medical disability assessment interviews it is unclear what should be included in the scenarios for actors. The first objective of this study was to determine which types of medical disability claimants can...
Troubles musculo-squelettiques : anxiété chez des travailleurs en réadaptation
Le rapport de recherche : Présence et évolution des facteurs de maintien du trouble de l’anxiété généralisée chez des travailleurs en réadaptation pour une douleur persistante d’origine musculo-squelettique porte sur cette problématique : La prévalence du trouble d’anxiété généralisée (TAG) est plus élevée chez les personnes ayant une lombalgie, comparativement à la population en générale. En présence d’un TAG, l’intolérance...
Douleur, dépression, incapacité et résultats de la réadaptation
Cette étude avait pour objectif principal d'évaluer le lien entre les symptômes de dépression et les résultats de la réadaptation chez des personnes ayant subi des lésions musculo-squelettiques au travail. Les résultats de cette étude indiquent que la dépression agit négativement sur la réponse d’un patient à la réadaptation et sur son retour au travail. Dans ce document, les auteurs de l’étude discutent des processus à travers lesquels la dépression pourrait influencer...
Optimism and pessimism as predictors of work disability with a diagnosis of depression: A prospective cohort study of onset and recovery
Kronström, Kim et al. (2011). Journal of Affective Disorders ,130 (1-2): 294-299 Personality characteristics are assumed to affect to the vulnerability to depression and its outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine optimism and pessimism as predictors of depression-related work disability and subsequent return to work. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 38,214 public sector employees with no record of diagnosed depression. Optimism and pessimism were measured using the Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R). Records of long-term (> 90 days) work disability with a diagnosis...
Help-seeking behaviour for the treatment of chronic pain
There are more people living with chronic pain than cardiovascular disease and cancer combined. Many people with chronic pain do not seek help from health professionals and suffer in silence for many years. Untreated chronic pain can lead to increased disability, increased risk of fall, depression, sleep deprivation, reduced quality of life and social isolation. The aim of this review is to determine the factors associated with help-seeking for chronic pain in an effort to highlight potential reasons why help may or may not be sought. A total of 23 studies were included in the review. On the whole...
Early employer response to workplace injury: What injured workers perceive as fair and why these perceptions matter
The authors examined whether early employer response to workplace injury affects injured workers' subsequent attitudes and mental health. At 1 month and 6 months postinjury, telephone surveys were conducted with 344 workers from Ontario, Canada, who had experienced a musculoskeletal lost-time workplace injury. One-month reports of initial supervisor reaction to the injury and the use of workplace-based return-to-work strategies (early contact with worker, ergonomic assessment, presence of designated coordinator, accommodation offer) were hypothesized to predict reports of fairness, affective...
What Stops Us From Healing the Healers: a Survey of Help-Seeking Behaviour, Stigmatisation and Depression Within the Medical Profession
Doctors are poor at help-seeking, particularly for mental ill health; attitudes of colleagues reflecting stigmatisation may be important factors influencing decisions to seek support. Aims: This article focuses on doctors' attitudes to depression rather than mental illness in general. It seeks to determine the extent to which doctors perceive depression is stigmatised within the medical profession and whether the level of perceived stigma affects patterns of help-seeking behaviour. Method : A postal survey was sent to 1488 General Practitioners and 152 psychiatrists in Devon and Cornwall. Questions...
The personal and workplace factors relevant to work readiness evaluation following acquired brain injury: Occupational therapists’ perceptions
This study examined the personal and workplace/environmental factors perceived most relevant to work readiness evaluations following acquired brain injury. Research design : Using a qualitative secondary analysis design ‘indicators of success' and ‘risks of failure', identified as relevant in a primary study of occupational therapists' evaluation practices, were explored further. Method : Data collected in the primary study, e.g. interviews, practice surveys, evaluation protocols, were re-analysed. Surveys and protocols were used to define participant and practice context...
A Prospective Study of Return to Work Across Health Conditions: Perceived Work Attitude, Self-efficacy and Perceived Social Support
The aim of the present study was to conduct subgroup-analyses in a prospective cohort of workers on long-term sickness absence to investigate whether associations between perceived work attitude, self-efficacy and perceived social support and time to RTW differ across different health conditions. Methods The study was based on a sample of 926 workers on sickness absence (6–12 weeks). The participants filled out a baseline questionnaire and were subsequently followed until the tenth month after listing sick. Perceived work attitude was measured with a Dutch language version of the Work Involvement...
Experience of Health Complaints and Help Seeking Behavior in Employees Screened for Depressive Complaints and Risk of Future Sickness Absence
The aim of this study was to examine the associations between on the one hand depressive complaints and risk of future sickness absence and on the other hand experience of health complaints and help seeking behavior in the working population. Methods Cross-sectional data were used from employees working in the banking sector ( n = 8,498). The screening instrument included measures to examine the risk of future sickness absence, depressive complaints and help seeking behavior. Results Of employees reporting health complaints, approximately 80% had already sought help for these complaints. Experience...
Comparisons of Catastrophizing, Pain Attitudes, and Cold-Pressor Pain Experience Between Chinese and European Canadian Young Adults
Experimental pain research indicates ethnic differences in pain experience. Most of the cross-cultural pain research studied African Americans and Hispanics with little data available for Asian groups. This study examined differences in pain catastrophizing, pain attitudes, and pain responses between Chinese and European Canadian young adults. Prior to completing a cold-pressor (CP) task, 80 Chinese and 80 European Canadian undergraduate students were administered measures of pain catastrophizing and pain attitudes, including stoicism and cautiousness. Pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain intensity...
A Prospective Study of Return to Work Across Health Conditions: Perceived Work Attitude, Self-efficacy and Perceived Social Support
Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to conduct subgroup-analyses in a prospective cohort of workers on long-term sickness absence to investigate whether associations between perceived work attitude, self-efficacy and perceived social support and time to RTW differ across different health conditions. Methods The study was based on a sample of 926 workers on sickness absence (6–12 weeks). The participants filled out a baseline questionnaire and were subsequently followed until the tenth month after listing sick. Perceived work attitude was measured with a Dutch language version...
Determinants of return to work following non life threatening acute orthopaedic trauma: a prospective cohort study
OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with return to work following acute non-life-threatening orthopaedic trauma. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and sixty-eight participants were recruited and followed for 6 months. The study achieved 89% participant follow-up. METHODS: Baseline data were obtained by survey and medical record review. Participants were further surveyed at 2 weeks, 3 and 6 months post-injury. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between potential predictors and first return to work by these 3 time-points. RESULTS: Sixty-eight...
The Influence of Employer Support on Employee Management of Chronic Health Conditions at Work
Introduction This study examined the relationship between employer support, self-efficacy and self-management of chronic illness at work. Method 772 employees reporting musculoskeletal pain ( n = 230), arthritis and rheumatism ( n = 132), asthma ( n = 129), depression and anxiety ( n = 121), heart disease ( n = 80) and diabetes ( n = 80) completed a questionnaire distributed across four large organizations. A modified version of the Self-Efficacy to Manage Symptoms Scale and the Self-Management Behaviors Scale were used. Support from line manager and occupational health were assessed. Results Structural...

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