Influences on use of hand moisturizers in nurses

Background: Nurses are at high risk of hand dermatitis. Regular hand moisturizing can prevent dermatitis, but nurses' use of hand moisturizers is suboptimal.
Aims: To establish (i) what beliefs about hand dermatitis and hand moisturizer use are associated with hand moisturizer use by nurses at home and at work and (ii) if hand moisturizer use behaviours in nurses are associated with the prevalence of hand dermatitis.
Methods: We used a questionnaire to investigate nurses' knowledge, beliefs and behaviours regarding hand dermatitis and use of hand moisturizers.
Results: The response rate was 55/65 (85%). Forty-two (76%) participants agreed that applying hand moisturizers reduced the risk of dermatitis, and 53 (96%) agreed that dermatitis increased the risk of skin carrying pathogenic organisms. Frequent moisturizer application was associated with beliefs that it was part of the nurse's role to apply hand creams, a belief that they had had training in the use of moisturizers and believing that patients approved of them moisturizing their hands.
Conclusions: Hand moisturizer use by nurses can be improved by enhancing their beliefs that it is part of their professional role to apply hand cream regularly.

Source: Burke, K. M., Wright, A. J., Parsons, V. et Madan, I. (2018). Occupational Medicine, 68(5), 340-342.

ANSI/ISEA 203-2018 – American National Standard for Secondary Single-Use Flame Resistant Protective Clothing for Use Over Primary Flame Resistant Protective Clothing

ISEA has developed this new standard to establish minimum performance and labeling requirements for secondary single-use flame resistant protective clothing. These are commonly used in utility work and refinery maintenance and in steel processing facilities where metal is being cut or welded.
Apparel covered by ANSI/ISEA 203-2018 is designed for use in industrial settings where flame hazards may exist and such clothing will not negatively impact the thermal performance afforded by the primary flame resistant protective clothing that is worn underneath. Compliant items are independently evaluated for flame resistance and evaluated for flash fire exposure by layering the garment over a primary thermal garment.


Prévention de l’exposition cutanée aux pesticides chez les producteurs de pommes et facteurs influençant le port des vêtements de protection

Des recherches internationales ont déterminé que la peau constituait la principale voie d'exposition aux pesticides utilisés en agriculture. L'utilisation des équipements de protection individuelle (ÉPI) joue un rôle clé dans la prévention des risques liés à l'exposition. L'utilisation non systématique des ÉPI prescrits est toutefois documentée et constitue une cible prioritaire des interventions pour la réduction de l'exposition aux pesticides. Cette étude approfondit les résultats d'une première enquête auprès des producteurs de pommes en ciblant spécifiquement l'exposition cutanée aux pesticides et l'utilisation des vêtements de protection (VP). Elle a comme objectif de décrire les situations d'exposition lors des activités principales liées à l'utilisation des pesticides et de les mettre en relation avec les perceptions du risque des producteurs, leur utilisation des VP et leurs pratiques de prévention. Les résultats contribuent à l‘avancement des connaissances sur les facteurs qui facilitent ou qui font obstacle à l'utilisation des VP.


A Pilot Study of Nanoparticle Levels and Field Evaluation of N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators on Construction Sites

Little attention has been paid to the generated submicron ultrafine and nanoparticles and their exposure levels on construction jobsites. This information is needed because cytotoxicity of nanoparticles is well known now. In addition, the performance of particulate respirators generally used by construction workers has never been evaluated in field conditions against ultrafine and nano-sized particles. We hypothesized that workers on construction jobsites are exposed to high levels of nanoparticles and current NIOSH-recommended N95 respirators may not provide them adequate protection against aerosolized nanoparticles. Our exposure assessments of ultrafine and nanoparticles on several construction sites using SMPS nanoparticle counters showed that particle mass concentrations ranged between 1.41 and 99.96 μg/m3. The real-time filtration efficiency of N95 respirators against nanoparticles greater than 20.5 nm in aerodynamic diameter was often less than 95%. When surface electrostatic charge was removed in N95 respirators by isopropanol treatment, the filtration efficiency of larger nanoparticles dropped compared to smaller nanoparticles of <27.5 nm sizes.


Respirator use and its impact on particulate matter exposure in aluminum manufacturing facilities

Objectives: As part of a large epidemiologic study of particulate health effect, this study aimed to report respirator use among total particulate matter (TPM) samples collected in a major aluminum manufacturing company from 1966‒2013 and evaluate the impact of respirator-use adjustment on exposure estimation.
Methods: Descriptive analyses were performed to evaluate respirator use across facilities and by facility type and job. Protection factors were applied to TPM measurements for recorded respirator use. Estimated TPM exposure for each job ‒ before and after respirator-use adjustment ‒ were compared to assess the impact of adjustment on exposure estimation.
Results: Respirator use was noted for 37% of 12 402 full-shift personal TPM samples. Measured TPM concentration ranged from less than detectable to 8220 mg/m3, with arithmetic mean, median and standard deviation being 10.6, 0.87 and 130 mg/m3, respectively. Respirators were used more often in smelting facilities (52% of TPM measurements) than in fabricating (17%) or refinery facilities (28%) (P<0.01). Sixty-two percent of jobs in smelting facilities were subject to respirator-use adjustment, whereas it was 20% and 70% in fabricating and refinery facilities, respectively. Applying protection factors to TPM measurements significantly reduced estimated job mean TPM exposures and changed exposure categories in these facilities, with larger impact in smelting than fabricating facilities.
Conclusions: Respirator use varied by time, facility and job. Adjusting respirator use resulted in differential impact in smelting and fabricating facilities, which will need to be incorporated into ongoing epidemiologic studies accordingly.

Source: Liu S, Noth E, Eisen E, Cullen MR, Hammond K. (2018). Scand J Work Environ Health

Fatal work-related falls in the United States, 2003-2014

Background: Falls are the second leading cause of work-related fatalities among US workers. We describe fatal work-related falls from 2003 to 2014, including demographic, work, and injury event characteristics, and changes in rates over time.
Methods: We identified fatal falls from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and estimated rates using the BLS Current Population Survey.
Results: From 2003 to 2014, there were 8880 fatal work-related falls, at an annual rate of 5.5 per million FTE. Rates increased with age. Occupations with the highest rates included construction/extraction (42.2 per million FTE) and installation/maintenance/repair (12.5 per million FTE). Falls to a lower level represented the majority (n = 7521, 85%) compared to falls on the same level (n = 1128, 13%).
Conclusions: Falls are a persistent source of work-related fatalities. Fall prevention should continue to focus on regulation adherence, Prevention through Design, improving fall protection, training, fostering partnerships, and increasing communication.

Source: Socias-Morales, C. M., Chaumont Menéndez, C. K. et Marsh, S. M. (2018). American journal of industrial medicine, 61(3), 204-215.

Assessment of the effectiveness of modular clothing protecting against the cold based on physiological tests

At many workstations in a cold environment, protective clothing provided for the workers is characterized by inadequate thermal insulation, which results in an adverse impact of the cold environment on the worker's body. The purpose of this article is to present developed new ergonomic modular cold protective clothing, which allows for easy adaptation of the thermal insulation of clothing to a worker's individual needs. This clothing was compared in a laboratory study with the clothing having so far been used by workers in a cold environment using physiological and physical measurements, subjective ratings of the thermal state as well as a questionnaire for subjective assessment of the used clothing. These measurements and ratings confirmed that the modular cold protective clothing is more effective in the process of ensuring thermal comfort to the wearer during work in a cold environment than the clothing having so far been used.

Source: Marszalek, A., Bartkowiak, G. et Dabrowska, A. (2018). International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics.

Coefficient of friction, walking speed and cadence on slippery and dry surfaces: shoes with different groove depths

Objective. The present study aimed to determine the coefficient of friction (COF), walking speed (WS) and cadence while walking on slippery and dry surfaces using shoes with different sole groove depths to predict likelihood of fall. Background. Design of shoe sole groove is crucial to prevent slipping during walking. Methods. 22 healthy young men (mean age 24.5, body mass index 22.5) volunteered for this semi-experimental study. Six different conditions of the test (combination of three shoes and two surfaces) were defined and the condition was repeated three times. In total, 396 trials (22 subjects × 3 groove depths × 2 surfaces × 3 times) were obtained for data analysis. COF was recorded by force platform at 1000 Hz and walking parameters recorded using 3D motion analysis with six infrared cameras at 200 Hz. Results. The highest COF was obtained from the deepest groove depth (5.0 mm) on both dry and slippery surfaces. The COF on slippery surfaces was significantly lower in comparison with dry surfaces. WS and cadence were not significantly different on dry and slippery surfaces. Conclusion. The deeper groove is better to prevent slipping because the COF increases by increasing the shoe sole groove depth. WS did not change on dry and slippery surfaces.

Source: Ziaei, M., Mokhtarinia, H. R., Tabatabai Ghomshe, F. et Maghsoudipour, M. (2017). International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics.

Modified gloves: A chance for the prevention of nosocomial infections

Background: Non-sterile gloves primarily serve as a barrier protection for health care workers (HCWs). However, pathogens may often contaminate the skin of HCWs during glove removal; therefore, pathogens may be further transmitted and cause nosocomial infections.
Methods: A field study was conducted comparing contamination rates when using standard gloves or a new modified product equipped with an additional flap (doffing aid) for easier removal. Gloves were removed after bathing gloved hands in an artificial fluorescent lotion. The number of contamination spots was then visually examined using ultraviolet light.
Results: There were 317 individuals who participated in this study: 146 participants (104 nurses and 42 physicians) used standard gloves, whereas 171 participants (118 nurses and 53 physicians) used the modified product. Use of the modified gloves instead of the standard product (15.8% vs 73.3%, respectively; P < .001) and being a physician rather than a nurse (29.5% vs 47.7%, respectively; P = .003) were the only independent risk factors for reduction of contamination.
Conclusions: This study shows that the modified product could, at least in vitro, significantly reduce the rate of hand and wrist contamination during removal compared with standard gloves. By this, it may significantly improve the overall quality of patient care when used on the wards directly at the patient's site.

Source: Gleser, M., Schwab, F., Solbach, P. et Vonberg, R. P. (2018). American journal of infection control, 46(3), 266-269.

Débroussaillage - 3e édition

Cette brochure traite des travaux de débroussaillage, des techniques de travail et des situations dangereuses. On y décrit également les responsabilités de l'employeur et du travailleur, l'équipement de protection individuelle à utiliser et des règles à suivre en matière de premiers secours et de premiers soins. Pour cette 3e édition, des changements importants ont été apportés aux pages 14-15 et 16 où il est question du choix des lames.


‘VIOLET’: a fluorescence-based simulation exercise for training healthcare workers in the use of personal protective equipment

Background: Healthcare workers caring for patients with high-consequence infectious diseases (HCIDs) require protection from pathogen exposure, for example by wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). Protection is acquired through the inherent safety of the PPE components, but also their safe and correct use, supported by adequate training and user familiarity. However, the evidence base for HCID PPE ensembles and any associated training is lacking, with subsequent variation between healthcare providers.
Aim: To develop an evidence-based assessment and training tool for evaluating PPE ensembles and doffing protocols, in the assessment of patients with suspected HCIDs.
Methods: VIOLET (Visualising Infection with Optimised Light for Education and Training) comprises a healthcare mannequin adapted to deliver simulated bodily fluids containing UV-fluorescent tracers. On demand and remotely operated, the mannequin projectile vomits (blue), coughs (red), has diarrhoea (yellow) and is covered in sweat (orange). Wearing PPE, healthcare staff participate in an HCID risk assessment and examination of the ‘patient’, thereby becoming exposed to these bodily fluids. Contamination of PPE is visualized and body-mapped under UV light before and after removal. Observational findings and participant feedback, around its use as a training exercise, is also recorded.
Findings: Significant contamination from different exposure events was seen, enabling evaluation of PPE and doffing procedures used. Observational data and participant feedback demonstrated its strengths and success as a training technique.
Conclusion: Simulation exercises using VIOLET provide evidence-based assessment of PPE ensembles, and are a valuable resource for training of healthcare staff in wearing and safe doffing of PPE.

Source: Poller, B., Hall, S., Bailey, C., Gregory, S., Clark, R., Roberts, P., ... et Evans, C. (2018). Journal of Hospital Infection.

Les chutes de hauteur

Des chutes à ne pas prendre de haut
Fréquentes et aux conséquences parfois dramatiques, les chutes de hauteur sont un risque majeur dans de nombreuses entreprises. Et ce quel que soit le secteur d'activité. Pourtant, de tels accidents n'ont rien d'une fatalité. Que ce soit en intervenant sur l'organisation du travail, le choix du matériel ou encore à travers la formation de différents acteurs de l'entreprise, il est tout à fait possible de les prévenir.

Source: (2018). Travail & Sécurité (792).>

Firefighter attitudes, norms, beliefs, barriers, and behaviors toward post-fire decontamination processes in an era of increased cancer risk

Firefighters' are exposed to carcinogens such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during fires and from their personal protective equipment (PPE). Recent research has shown that decontamination processes can reduce contamination on both gear and skin. While firefighter cultures that honor dirty gear are changing, little is known about current attitudes and behaviors toward decontamination in the fire service. Four hundred eighty-five firefighters from four departments completed surveys about their attitudes, beliefs, perceived norms, barriers, and behaviors toward post-fire decontamination processes. Overall firefighters reported positive attitudes, beliefs, and perceived norms about decontamination, but showering after a fire was the only decontamination process that occurred regularly, with field decontamination, use of cleansing wipes, routine gear cleaning, and other behaviors all occurring less frequently. Firefighters reported time and concerns over wet gear as barriers to decontamination.

Source: Harrison, T. R., Wendorf Muhamad, J., Yang, F., Morgan, S. E., Talavera, E., Caban-Martinez, A. et Kobetz, E. (2017). Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene.

Predictive multiscale computational model of shoe-floor coefficient of friction

Understanding the frictional interactions between the shoe and floor during walking is critical to prevention of slips and falls, particularly when contaminants are present. A multiscale finite element model of shoe-floor-contaminant friction was developed that takes into account the surface and material characteristics of the shoe and flooring in microscopic and macroscopic scales. The model calculates shoe-floor coefficient of friction (COF) in boundary lubrication regime where effects of adhesion friction and hydrodynamic pressures are negligible. The validity of model outputs was assessed by comparing model predictions to the experimental results from mechanical COF testing. The multiscale model estimates were linearly related to the experimental results (p<0.0001). The model predicted 73% of variability in experimentally-measured shoe-floor-contaminant COF. The results demonstrate the potential of multiscale finite element modeling in aiding slip-resistant shoe and flooring design and reducing slip and fall injuries.

Source: Moghaddam, S. R. M., Acharya, A., Redfern, M. S., et Beschorner, K. E. (2018). Journal of biomechanics, 66, 145-152.

ASTM F2100 - 11(2018) - Standard Specification for Performance of Materials Used in Medical Face Masks

This specification covers the classifications, performance requirements, and test methods for the materials used in the construction of medical face masks that are used in health care services such as surgery and patient care. Medical face mask material performance is based on testing for bacterial filtration efficiency, differential pressure, sub-micron particulate filtration efficiency, resistance to penetration by synthetic blood, and flammability. This specification does not address all aspects of medical face mask design and performance, the effectiveness of medical face mask designs as related to the barrier and breathability properties, and respiratory protection, which may be necessary for some health care services.


ASTM F1301-18 - Standard Practice for Labeling Chemical Protective Clothing

This practice contains the recommendations for minimal informational requirements for the identification of chemical protective clothing items. It is intended to provide the user with some of the basic information necessary for the proper selection and use of the chemical protective clothing.
For some items of chemical protective clothing, such as disposable chemical protective gloves, it is recognized that it is not practical that the labeling information be provided directly on the product. Therefore, it is permissible that this information be provided on the direct packaging that contains the product. As an example, it is possible to put the recommended product information on the dispenser box that contains multiple pairs of disposable chemical protective gloves.
Additional information beyond the content recommended by this practice is permitted to be applied to the label. This additional label content can include statements indicating compliance with specific standards, warnings, limitations associated with the product, and certain types of use, care, and maintenance information as addressed in Practice F2061.
Rules and regulations in Title 16 Code of Federal Regulations Part 303 cover the identification of fibers in textile products, specifically the disclosure of the fiber content and the manner of labeling products for purposes of applying tariffs on imported products and for informing the consumer. This practice is not intended to be a replacement for the requirements in 16 CFR 303, which may still apply to certain types of chemical protective clothing.


An Update on the State of Anti-Fog Eye and Face Protection, Technologies and Best Practices

Fog limits the effectiveness of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for eye and face protection. According to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), it is one of the three most significant barriers to their use, ahead of lack of comfort and fit and scratching. If lenses are fogged, people won’t wear them. If workers can’t see, they could have accidents.
Fog forms on a surface when water vapor in air condenses in fine droplets. A good anti-fog (AF) coating should prevent the formation of such droplets, but not all AF coatings are the same. Typical AF products perform well right out of the package. But after use and cleaning, the coatings will lose effectiveness and come off over time.
State-of-the-art premium permanent AF coatings are more durable, washable, and better performing but aren’t always used or necessary in all environments.


Standard Specification for Performance Requirements for Protective (Safety) Toe Cap Footwear

This specification covers the minimum design, performance, testing, and classification requirements, and prescribes fit, function, and performance criteria for footwear designed to be worn to provide protection against a variety of workplace hazards that can potentially result in injury. It is not the intention of this specification to serve as a detailed manufacturing or purchasing specification, but can be referenced in purchase contracts to ensure that minimum performance requirements are met. Footwear conforming to this specification shall meet the performance requirements for the following: impact resistance for the toe area of footwear; compression resistance for the toe area of footwear; metatarsal protection that reduces the chance of injury to the metatarsal bones at the top of the foot; conductive properties which reduce hazards that may result from static electricity buildup, and reduce the possibility of ignition of explosives and volatile chemicals; electric shock resistance; static dissipative (SD) properties to reduce hazards due to excessively low footwear resistance that may exist where SD footwear is required; puncture resistance of footwear bottoms; chain saw cut resistance; and dielectric insulation.


Vêtements de travail de protection contre les feux à inflammation instantanée causés par des hydrocarbures et facultativement contre la vapeur et les liquides chauds

La présente Norme nationale du Canada énonce les exigences minimales de rendement ainsi que les méthodes d'essai relatives aux vêtements de travail portés pour se protéger contre les expositions imprévues aux feux à inflammation instantanée causés par des hydrocarbures et facultativement contre la vapeur et les liquides chauds.


Evaluation of body heating protocols with graphene heated clothing in a cold environment

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of intermittent and continuous heating protocols using graphene-heated clothing and identify more effective body region for heating in a cold environment.
Design/methodology/approach: Eight males participated in five experimental conditions at an air temperature of 0.6°C with 40 percent relative humidity: no heating, continuous heating the chest, continuous heating the back, intermittent heating the chest, and intermittent heating the back.
Findings: The results showed that the electric power consumption of the intermittent heating protocol (2.49 W) was conserved by 71 percent compared to the continuous protocol (8.58 W). Rectal temperature, cardiovascular and respiratory responses showed no significant differences among the four heating conditions, while heating the back showed more beneficial effects on skin temperatures than heating the chest.
Originality/value: First of all, this study was the first report to evaluate cold protective clothing with graphene heaters. Second, the authors provided effective intermittent heating protocols in terms of reducing power consumption, which was able to be evaluated with the characteristics of fast-responsive graphene heaters. Third, an intermittent heating protocol on the back was recommended to keep a balance between saving electric power and minimizing thermal discomfort in cold environments.


Échafaudages - Type : cadres métalliques

Cette brochure expose les techniques les plus connues et décrit les équipements utilisés pour les appliquer. Il vise à fournir aux intervenants du secteur de la construction des renseignements complémentaires à la réglementation pour leur permettre d’ériger des échafaudages sur cadres métalliques sécuritaires.


Effet des fluides de coupe sur la résistance à la coupure et à la perforation des gants de protection

L'objectif de cette étude était de caractériser l'effet des fluides de coupe sur la résistance mécanique des gants de protection, en conditions contrôlées au laboratoire ainsi qu'en milieu de travail. Pour ce faire, des gants et des contaminants déjà utilisés dans trois secteurs de travail de deux entreprises partenaires de l'étude ont d'abord été choisis. Les effets d'une contamination de ces gants en laboratoire et des traitements de nettoyage, sur la résistance résiduelle des gants à la coupure et à la perforation, ont été évalués avec différents couples gants/contaminants. Ensuite, des tests de gonflement en laboratoire sur différents polymères ont été réalisés afin de déterminer les polymères d'enduction des gants les plus résistants aux fluides de coupe utilisés en usinage du métal. Des tests de gonflement sur deux de ces polymères exposés à des fluides de coupe à différentes températures ont également été effectués pour constater l'effet de la température sur la résistance chimique. Des essais complémentaires de caractérisation des fluides de coupe et l'utilisation des résultats des tests de gonflement ont été analysés selon une régression linéaire multiple. Cette analyse a permis de déterminer les paramètres caractérisant les fluides qui ont un impact significatif sur le gonflement. Finalement, à partir de ces résultats et considérant les secteurs de travail ciblés dans les deux entreprises partenaires de l'étude, des gants pouvant répondre aux besoins des travailleurs en termes de la protection et de la fonctionnalité ont été sélectionnés parmi ceux disponibles sur le marché. Ces « nouveaux » gants ont été testés en milieu de travail dans le cadre d'un programme d'usure des gants. Ce programme a consisté à mesurer la résistance à la coupure et à la perforation des gants usagés après leur utilisation et à comparer ces propriétés à celles des gants neufs, ainsi qu'à vérifier auprès des travailleurs, à l'aide d'un questionnaire, si le choix des gants répondait bien à leurs besoins.


ASTM F1461 - 17 - Standard Practice for Chemical Protective Clothing Program

This practice is intended to promote the proper selection, use, maintenance, and understanding of the limitations of chemical protective clothing (CPC) by users, employers, employees, and other persons involved in programs requiring CPC, thereby limiting potentially harmful and unnecessary skin exposures.


Glove: Use for safety or overuse?

Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids presents a major safety risk for bloodborne viruses to all health care workers (HCWs). In response to human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV), various strategies were adopted to reduce this risk. The most important and cost-effective strategy was the introduction of gloves as part of personal protective equipment (PPE) for all potential or expected exposures to blood and body fluid. The term gloves in this report refer to nonsterile, medical, and examination gloves.

Source: Jain, S., Clezy, K., & McLaws, M. L. (2017). American Journal of Infection Control.

Protéger les travailleurs du froid : mieux comprendre pour mieux agir

Dans de nombreux secteurs industriels, les travailleurs sont confrontés à des contraintes thermiques extrêmes et en particulier à des froids pouvant être intenses. Des normes internationales définissent le travail au froid à des températures égales ou inférieures à 10°C. Par exemple, les ouvriers de l'industrie alimentaire de transformation sont exposés, plusieurs heures par jour, à des températures comprises entre 0 et +10°C pour maintenir la chaine du froid (à des fins de conservation des denrées alimentaires) voire même à des températures inférieures à -20°C pour les produits congelés. Que ce soit dans des lieux fermés (entrepôts frigorifiques, abattoirs) ou en extérieur (construction, agriculture, services publics, etc.), la contrainte thermique par le froid peut avoir des conséquences importantes sur la santé (gelures, hypothermie), sur la sécurité (perte de vigilance et de sensibilité) et s'avérer parfois fatale.
Le premier article de cette veille explore les performances cognitives de huit participants humains exposés 24 heures à une température de 7,5°C. Il en découle quelques recommandations en cas d'exposition prolongée au froid. Le second article présente de récents travaux menés sur le transfert de chaleur à travers différentes couches textiles, utilisées dans la conception de vêtement de protection contre le froid (VPF). En particulier, il rapporte l'influence des caractéristiques géométriques, structurelles et de masse de ces couches sur les propriétés de transfert de masse et de chaleur, et donc sur le confort thermique, à travers des VPF.


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