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A critical review of the literature on comfort of hearing protection devices
Definition of comfort and identification of its main attributes for earplug types Objective: This article presents a comprehensive literature review of past works addressing Hearing Protection Devices (HPD) comfort and to put them into perspective regarding a proposed holistic multidimensional construct of HPD comfort. Design: Literature review. Study samples: Documents were hand searched and Internet searched using “PubMed”, “Web of Science”, “Google Scholar”, “ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Professional”, “Scopus” or “Google”...
Appareils de protection respiratoire et risques biologiques
Dans certains secteurs d'activité (soins, laboratoires, biotechnologies, élevage, abattoirs, assainissement...), les personnels peuvent être exposés à des agents biologiques transmissibles par voie respiratoire. Cette fiche indique les critères de choix et les conditions d'utilisation des appareils de protection respiratoire (APR). Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=ED%20146
ASTM F2101 - Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Bacterial Filtration Efficiency (BFE) of Medical Face Mask Materials, Using a Biological Aerosol of Staphylococcus aureus
This test method is used to measure the bacterial filtration efficiency (BFE) of medical face mask materials, employing a ratio of the upstream bacterial challenge to downstream residual concentration to determine filtration efficiency of medical face mask materials. This test method is a quantitative method that allows filtration efficiency for medical face mask materials to be determined. The maximum filtration efficiency that can be determined by this method is 99.9 %. This test method does not apply to all forms or conditions of biological aerosol exposure. Users of the test method should...
In Search of a Performing Seal: Rethinking the Design of Tight-Fitting Respiratory Protective Equipment Facepieces for Users With Facial Hair
Background: Air-purifying, tight-fitting facepieces are examples of respiratory protective equipment and are worn to protect workers from potentially harmful particulate and vapors. Research shows that the presence of facial hair on users' face significantly reduces the efficacy of these devices. This article sets out to establish if an acceptable seal could be achieved between facial hair and the facepiece. The team also created and investigated a low-cost “pressure testing” method for assessing the efficacy of a seal to be used during the early design process for a facepiece designed...
Environmental and Personal Protective Equipment Contamination during Simulated Healthcare Activities
Providing care to patients with an infectious disease can result in the exposure of healthcare workers (HCWs) to pathogen-containing bodily fluids. We performed a series of experiments to characterize the magnitude of environmental contamination—in air, on surfaces and on participants—associated with seven common healthcare activities. The seven activities studied were bathing, central venous access, intravenous access, intubation, physical examination, suctioning and vital signs assessment. HCWs with experience in one or more activities were recruited to participate and performed one...
Système de protection individuelle intelligent (SPII) : définition, analyse, choix
L'émergence de systèmes de protection individuelle dits " intelligents " (SPII) soulève de nouvelles questions vis-à-vis de la prévention des risques professionnels. Si les fabricants s'interrogent sur les exigences de sécurité applicables lors de la conception de tels équipements, les entreprises utilisatrices se questionnent également sur les performances et les limites de ces équipements ainsi que sur d'éventuels risques liés à leur utilisation. Afin de clarifier les échanges...
A 10-year descriptive analysis of UK Maritime and Coastguard data on lifejacket use and drowning prevention
The study investigated if incidences of death by drowning in the UK could have been prevented through the use of lifejackets over a ten year period. This study was a retrospective analysis of fatal maritime incident data collected by the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) between the years 2007 and 2016. A Casualty Review Panel (CRP) met annually to categorise incidents into five groups based on the likelihood of a lifejacket preventing death. Descriptive analyses were performed on the overall fatalities, data were stratified by year, sex, age, and activity. Ten year data were categorised based...
Risk of self-contamination during doffing of personal protective equipment
Background: The aim of this study was to describe the risk of self-contamination associated with doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) and to compare self-contamination with various PPE protocols. Methods: We tested 10 different PPE donning and doffing protocols, recommended by various health organizations for Ebola. Ten participants were recruited for this study and randomly assigned to use 3 different PPE protocols. After donning of PPE, fluorescent lotion and spray were applied on the external surface of the PPE to simulate contamination, and ultraviolet light was used to count fluorescent...
Identification and Characterization of Failures in Infectious Agent Transmission Precaution Practices in Hospitals
A Qualitative Study Importance: Using personal protective equipment (PPE) and transmission-based precautions are primary strategies for reducing the transmission of infectious agents. Objective: To identify and characterize failures in transmission-based precautions, including PPE use, by health care personnel that could result in self-contamination or transmission during routine, everyday hospital care. Design, Setting, and Participants: This qualitative study involved direct observation inside and outside patient rooms on clinical units from March 1, 2016, to November 30, 2016. Observations occurred...
NFPA 1999 - Standard on Protective Clothing and Ensembles for Emergency Medical Operations
This standard specifies requirements for EMS protective clothing to protect personnel performing patient care during emergency medical operations from contact with blood and body fluid-borne pathogens. It also includes additional requirements that provide limited protection from specified CBRN terrorism agents. Source: https://www.nfpa.org/codes-and-standards/all-codes-and-standards/list-of-codes-and-standards/detail?code=1999
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Respiratory Protection Handbook
Since 2001, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has established performance and design standards for respiratory protective devices (RPDs) to protect against chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) hazards and toxic industrial chemicals. Prior to 2001, there were no standards for the use of RPDs by U.S. emergency response personnel that covered the full range of expected CBRN threats. Federal regulations require emergency response personnel to use respirators...
Prévention de l’exposition cutanée aux pesticides chez les producteurs de pommes et facteurs influençant le port des vêtements de protection
Des recherches internationales ont déterminé que la peau constituait la principale voie d'exposition aux pesticides utilisés en agriculture. L'utilisation des équipements de protection individuelle (ÉPI) joue un rôle clé dans la prévention des risques liés à l'exposition. L'utilisation non systématique des ÉPI prescrits est toutefois documentée et constitue une cible prioritaire des interventions pour la réduction de l'exposition aux pesticides. Cette étude approfondit les...
A Pilot Study of Nanoparticle Levels and Field Evaluation of N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators on Construction Sites
Little attention has been paid to the generated submicron ultrafine and nanoparticles and their exposure levels on construction jobsites. This information is needed because cytotoxicity of nanoparticles is well known now. In addition, the performance of particulate respirators generally used by construction workers has never been evaluated in field conditions against ultrafine and nano-sized particles. We hypothesized that workers on construction jobsites are exposed to high levels of nanoparticles and current NIOSH-recommended N95 respirators may not provide them adequate protection against aerosolized...
Coefficient of friction, walking speed and cadence on slippery and dry surfaces: shoes with different groove depths
Objective. The present study aimed to determine the coefficient of friction (COF), walking speed (WS) and cadence while walking on slippery and dry surfaces using shoes with different sole groove depths to predict likelihood of fall. Background. Design of shoe sole groove is crucial to prevent slipping during walking. Methods. 22 healthy young men (mean age 24.5, body mass index 22.5) volunteered for this semi-experimental study. Six different conditions of the test (combination of three shoes and two surfaces) were defined and the condition was repeated three times. In total, 396 trials (22 subjects × 3...
Débroussaillage - 3e édition
Cette brochure traite des travaux de débroussaillage, des techniques de travail et des situations dangereuses. On y décrit également les responsabilités de l'employeur et du travailleur, l'équipement de protection individuelle à utiliser et des règles à suivre en matière de premiers secours et de premiers soins. Pour cette 3e édition, des changements importants ont été apportés aux pages 14-15 et 16 où il est question du choix des lames. Source: http://www.cnesst.gouv.qc.ca/Publications/200...
‘VIOLET’: a fluorescence-based simulation exercise for training healthcare workers in the use of personal protective equipment
Background: Healthcare workers caring for patients with high-consequence infectious diseases (HCIDs) require protection from pathogen exposure, for example by wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). Protection is acquired through the inherent safety of the PPE components, but also their safe and correct use, supported by adequate training and user familiarity. However, the evidence base for HCID PPE ensembles and any associated training is lacking, with subsequent variation between healthcare providers. Aim: To develop an evidence-based assessment and training tool for evaluating PPE ensembles...
Firefighter attitudes, norms, beliefs, barriers, and behaviors toward post-fire decontamination processes in an era of increased cancer risk
Firefighters' are exposed to carcinogens such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during fires and from their personal protective equipment (PPE). Recent research has shown that decontamination processes can reduce contamination on both gear and skin. While firefighter cultures that honor dirty gear are changing, little is known about current attitudes and behaviors toward decontamination in the fire service. Four hundred eighty-five firefighters from four departments completed surveys about their attitudes, beliefs, perceived norms, barriers, and...
ASTM F2100 - 11(2018) - Standard Specification for Performance of Materials Used in Medical Face Masks
This specification covers the classifications, performance requirements, and test methods for the materials used in the construction of medical face masks that are used in health care services such as surgery and patient care. Medical face mask material performance is based on testing for bacterial filtration efficiency, differential pressure, sub-micron particulate filtration efficiency, resistance to penetration by synthetic blood, and flammability. This specification does not address all aspects of medical face mask design and performance, the effectiveness of medical face mask designs as related...
An Update on the State of Anti-Fog Eye and Face Protection, Technologies and Best Practices
Fog limits the effectiveness of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for eye and face protection. According to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), it is one of the three most significant barriers to their use, ahead of lack of comfort and fit and scratching. If lenses are fogged, people won’t wear them. If workers can’t see, they could have accidents. Fog forms on a surface when water vapor in air condenses in fine droplets. A good anti-fog (AF) coating should prevent the formation of such droplets, but not all AF coatings are the same. Typical AF products perform well...
Glove: Use for safety or overuse?
Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids presents a major safety risk for bloodborne viruses to all health care workers (HCWs). In response to human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV), various strategies were adopted to reduce this risk. The most important and cost-effective strategy was the introduction of gloves as part of personal protective equipment (PPE) for all potential or expected exposures to blood and body fluid. The term gloves in this report refer to nonsterile, medical, and examination gloves. Source: Jain, S., Clezy, K., & McLaws, M. L. (2017). American Journal of Infection...
Evaluation of surgical glove integrity and factors associated with glove defect
Background: Surgical glove perforation may expose both patients and staff members to severe complications. This study aimed to determine surgical glove perforation rate and the factors associated with glove defect. Material and methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between January and March 2017 at a Tunisian university hospital center in 3 different surgical departments: urology, maxillofacial, and general and digestive. The gloves were collected and tested to detect perforations using the water-leak test as described in European Norm NF EN 455-1. For percentage comparisons...
Z259.11-F17 - Absorbeurs d'énergie individuels et cordons d'assujettissement
Ce document constitue la troisième édition de CSA Z259.11, Absorbeurs d'énergie individuels et cordons d'assujettissement. Il remplace les éditions antérieures, publiées en 2005 sous le titre Absorbeurs d'énergie et cordons d'assujettissement et en 1992 sous le titre Absorbeurs d'énergie pour dispositifs antichutes. Le but de cette norme est de prescrire des exigences visant la performance, la conception, la mise à l'essai, l'étiquetage et le marquage des absorbeurs d'énergie individuels...
Effects of organizational safety practices and perceived safety climate on PPE usage, engineering controls, and adverse events involving liquid antineoplastic drugs among nurses
Antineoplastic drugs pose risks to the healthcare workers who handle them. This fact notwithstanding, adherence to safe handling guidelines remains inconsistent and often poor. This study examined the effects of pertinent organizational safety practices and perceived safety climate on the use of personal protective equipment, engineering controls, and adverse events (spill/leak or skin contact) involving liquid antineoplastic drugs. Data for this study came from the 2011 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers which...
Personal protective equipment and women
Guidance for workplace representatives on ensuring it is a safe fit Despite a legal duty on bosses to provide the correct Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to their staff free of charge, only 3 in 10 women (29%) told a survey that the PPE they wear to keep them safe at work is specifically designed for women. Women responding to the survey work in a range of jobs, including in the emergency services, retail and manufacturing, engineering and scientific research. Many reported that ill-fitting PPE which isn't designed to protect women workers gets in the way of them doing their job safely...
Market surveillance of FFP3 disposable respirators
Filtering Facepieces (FFPs) are disposable Respiratory Protective Equipment (RPE) for protection against dusts, particles and aerosols. They are often referred to as 'disposable dust masks', are widely used, and generally require no cleaning or maintenance. They are available in three classes: FFP1, FFP2 and FFP3, with the higher numbers corresponding to better filtering efficiency. As with all types of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) sold in the UK, they must comply with the EU PPE Directive 89/686/EEC. It is the responsibility of the manufacturer or person placing the RPE on the European...
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