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ASTM F1506 - Standard Performance Specification for Flame Resistant and Electric Arc Rated Protective Clothing Worn by Workers Exposed to Flames and Electric Arcs
This performance specification covers the design characteristics and associated test methods that relate specifically to the flame resistance of textile materials used in the fabrication of basic protection level occupational apparel worn by electrical workers who are exposed to momentary electric arc and related thermal hazards such as exposure to open flame and radiant heat. When evaluated in accordance with the test procedures enlisted herein, knit fabrics and woven fabrics of different fabric weights shall conform to individually specified values of the following properties: colorfastness such...
FD CEN/TR 14560 - Guide pour la sélection, l'utilisation, l'entretien et la maintenance des vêtements de protection contre la chaleur et la flamme
Le présent document fournit des recommandations aux employeurs, aux utilisateurs et aux acheteurs en ce qui concerne les exigences relatives à la sélection, l'utilisation, l'entretien et la maintenance des vêtements de protection contre la chaleur et la flamme, et il est conforme à la législation européenne. Le présent document ne traite pas de façon exhaustive tous les problèmes de sécurité associés à l'utilisation d'équipements conformes de protection individuelle contre la...
Vêtements de travail de protection contre les feux à inflammation instantanée causés par des hydrocarbures et facultativement contre la vapeur et les liquides chauds
La présente Norme nationale du Canada énonce les exigences minimales de rendement ainsi que les méthodes d'essai relatives aux vêtements de travail portés pour se protéger contre les expositions imprévues aux feux à inflammation instantanée causés par des hydrocarbures et facultativement contre la vapeur et les liquides chauds. Source: http://publications.gc.ca/site/fra/9.848261/publication.html
ISO 12127 - Vêtements de protection contre la chaleur et la flamme
La présente partie de l'ISO 12127 spécifie une méthode d'essai pour la détermination de la transmission thermique par contact. Elle est applicable aux vêtements de protection (y compris les gants de protection) et à leurs matériaux constitutifs destinés à protéger l'utilisateur contre des températures de contact élevées. Source: https://www.boutique.afnor.org/norme/nf-en-iso-12127-1/vetements-de-protection-contre-la-chaleur-et-la-flamme-determination-de-la-transmission-thermique-par-contact-a-travers...
ASTM F1868-17 - Standard Test Method for Thermal and Evaporative Resistance of Clothing Materials Using a Sweating Hot Plate
The thermal resistance and evaporative resistance provided by fabrics, films, coatings, foams, and leathers, including multi-layer assemblies, is of considerable importance in determining their suitability for use in fabricating protective clothing systems. The thermal interchange between people and their environment is, however, an extremely complicated subject that involves many factors in addition to the steady-state resistance values of fabrics, films, coatings, foams, and leathers, including multi-layer assemblies. Therefore, thermal resistance values and evaporative resistance values measured...
The hybrid personal cooling system (PCS) could effectively reduce the heat strain while exercising in a hot and moderate humid environment
This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a hybrid personal cooling system (PCS) in mitigating body heat stain while exercising in a hot environment. Eight subjects underwent two trials: PCS and CON (i.e., no cooling). All trials were conducted at an air temperature of 36±0.5 °C and RH=59±5%. The key findings demonstrated that the PCS could significantly reduce the core temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate and physiological strain index during both exercise and recovery periods (p<0.05). Subjective perceptions were also significantly alleviated in PCS at the...
Évaluation de nouvelles technologies visant à réduire le stress thermophysiologique associé au port de vêtements individuels de protection pour les pompiers
Les contraintes thermiques liées au port des vêtements individuels de protection (VIP) contre la chaleur et les flammes sont un problème préoccupant pour la santé et la sécurité des pompiers. Les matériaux utilisés dans la fabrication des VIP ont souvent le désavantage d'être lourds, rigides et d'empêcher l'évacuation de la chaleur produite par l'activité physique lors d'une intervention. Deux nouvelles technologies de matériaux ont été développées...
Real-time core body temperature estimation from heart rate for first responders wearing different levels of personal protective equipment
First responders often wear personal protective equipment (PPE) for protection from on-the-job hazards. While PPE ensembles offer individuals protection, they limit one's ability to thermoregulate, and can place the wearer in danger of heat exhaustion and higher cardiac stress. Automatically monitoring thermal-work strain is one means to manage these risks, but measuring core body temperature (Tc) has proved problematic. An algorithm that estimates Tc from sequential measures of heart rate (HR) was compared to the observed Tc from 27 US soldiers participating in three different chemical/biological...
Characterization of textiles used in chefs' uniforms for protection against thermal hazards encountered in the kitchen environment
Within the kitchen the potential for burn injuries arising from contact with hot surfaces, flames, hot liquid, and steam hazards is high. The chef's uniform can potentially offer some protection against such burns by providing a protective barrier between the skin and the thermal hazard, although the extent to which can provide some protection is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine whether fabrics used in chefs' uniforms were able to provide some protection against thermal hazards encountered in the kitchen. Fabrics from chefs' jackets and aprons were selected. Flammability...
Prediction methods of skin burn for performance evaluation of thermal protective clothing
Most test methods use skin burn prediction to evaluate the thermal protective performance of clothing. In this paper, we reviewed different burn prediction methods used in clothing evaluation. The empirical criterion and the mathematical model were analyzed in detail as well as their relationship and limitations. Using an empirical criterion, the onset of skin burn is determined by the accumulated skin surface energy in certain periods. On the other hand, the mathematical model, which indicates denatured collagen, is more complex, which involves a heat transfer model and a burn model. Further studies...
Performance study of protective clothing against hot water splashes
From bench scale test to instrumented manikin test Hot liquid hazards existing in work environments are shown to be a considerable risk for industrial workers. In this study, the predicted protection from fabric was assessed by a modified hot liquid splash tester. In these tests, conditions with and without an air spacer were applied. The protective performance of a garment exposed to hot water spray was investigated by a spray manikin evaluation system. Three-dimensional body scanning technique was used to characterize the air gap size between the protective clothing and the manikin skin. The...
An empirical analysis of thermal protective performance of fabrics used in protective clothing
Fabric-based protective clothing is widely used for occupational safety of firefighters/industrial workers. The aim of this paper is to study thermal protective performance provided by fabric systems and to propose an effective model for predicting the thermal protective performance under various thermal exposures. Different fabric systems that are commonly used to manufacture thermal protective clothing were selected. Laboratory simulations of the various thermal exposures were created to evaluate the protective performance of the selected fabric systems in terms of time required to generate second...
The physiological impact of body armor cooling devices in hot environments
A systematic review BACKGROUND: Heat-related illness is a primary threat to unit readiness, and individual body armor (IBA) cooling devices represent one potential solution. PURPOSE: To quantify research findings of active and passive cooling devices designed to reduce physiological strain while wearing IBA during strenuous tasks using a systematic review approach. METHODS: Literature searches were performed in multiple databases using the key words "physiological," "body armor," "military," "cooling," and "thermal." Two independent reviewers appraised...
Assessment of the human responses to the influence of personal liquid cooling system in the hot environment
Purpose – People working in the hot environment are constantly exposed to the overheating, that can lead to cardiovascular disorders and as a consequence result in occupational diseases. The purpose of this paper is to present developed personal liquid cooling system that is able to efficiently draw excess heat from the human organism, protecting against thermal stress. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents study concerning the assessment of effect of the coolant temperature in the developed liquid cooling garment (LCG) on physiological parameters of the subjects (heart rate...
Evaluation of two cooling systems under a firefighter coverall
Firemen often suffer from heat strain. This study investigated two chest cooling systems for use under a firefighting suit. In nine male subjects, a vest with water soaked cooling pads and a vest with water perfused tubes were compared to a control condition. Subjects performed 30 min walking and 10 min recovery in hot conditions, while physiological and perceptual parameters were measured. No differences were observed in heart rate and rectal temperature, but scapular skin temperature and fluid loss were lower using the perfused vest. Thermal sensation was cooler for the perfused vest than for...
Review of standards for thermal protection PPE in the explosives industry
The suitability of PPE for use against different thermal challenges is often described by way of compliance with British, European or Internationally agreed standards. The review compared the range of test standards currently used for flame protective PPE for both general industrial use and specialist PPE for motor racing and fire fighting tasks with the thermal challenge expected from a range of explosive events. Disparity has been found between the levels of challenge required to pass the test standards and the level displayed by the burning explosive materials – these practical challenges...
The effect of firefighter personal protective equipment on auditory thresholds
Communication on a fire scene is essential to the safety of firefighters. Not only to be able to hear and understand radio chatter, but also alarm signals used on the fireground. One such alarm is the Personal Alert Safety System (PASS) device. This device is used to help locate a downed firefighter. One part of this complex problem is the effect of the protective equipment (helmet, eye protection, hood, coat) on hearing. Previous findings have shown the effect of this protective equipment on head related transfer functions using a KEMAR. [Suits et al. (2013, June). Paper presented at the International...
Analysing Performance of Protective Clothing upon Hot Liquid Exposure Using Instrumented Spray Manikin
Hot liquid hazards existing in work environments present a common risk in workplace safety in numerous industries. In this study, a newly developed instrumented manikin system was used to assess the protective performance provided by protective clothing against hot liquid splash. The skin burn injury and its distribution for the selected clothing system were predicted and the effects of clothing design features (fabric properties and garment size) on protective performance were investigated. The air gap size and distribution existing between protective clothing and human skin were characterized...
Alberta university designs new oil and gas PPE
New safety gear for the oil and gas industry is aiming to make burns caused by blasts of hot steam and scalding water a thing of the past. University of Alberta assistant professor Megan Strickfaden and a team of graduate students have just finished the first round of testing on a new garment system consisting of a jacket and pants meant to be worn over top of a pair of coveralls. The garments feature pant legs that are wide enough that workers can slip them on without having to take their boots off and a fleece lining with venting in the back (where a worker is least likely to be exposed to hot...
Vêtements de protection contre la chaleur et les flammes
La présente Norme internationale spécifie les exigences de performance relatives aux articles d'habillement fabriqués avec des matériaux souples, conçus pour protéger le corps humain, sauf les mains, contre la chaleur et/ou la flamme. Pour la protection de la tête et des pieds, les seuls articles d'habillement de protection relevant du domaine d'application de la présente Norme internationale sont les guêtres, les cagoules et les couvre-chaussures. Toutefois, en ce qui concerne les cagoules, aucune exigence n'est donnée...

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