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FD CEN/TR 14560 - Guide pour la sélection, l'utilisation, l'entretien et la maintenance des vêtements de protection contre la chaleur et la flamme
Le présent document fournit des recommandations aux employeurs, aux utilisateurs et aux acheteurs en ce qui concerne les exigences relatives à la sélection, l'utilisation, l'entretien et la maintenance des vêtements de protection contre la chaleur et la flamme, et il est conforme à la législation européenne. Le présent document ne traite pas de façon exhaustive tous les problèmes de sécurité associés à l'utilisation d'équipements conformes de protection individuelle contre la...
A 10-year descriptive analysis of UK Maritime and Coastguard data on lifejacket use and drowning prevention
The study investigated if incidences of death by drowning in the UK could have been prevented through the use of lifejackets over a ten year period. This study was a retrospective analysis of fatal maritime incident data collected by the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) between the years 2007 and 2016. A Casualty Review Panel (CRP) met annually to categorise incidents into five groups based on the likelihood of a lifejacket preventing death. Descriptive analyses were performed on the overall fatalities, data were stratified by year, sex, age, and activity. Ten year data were categorised based...
Risk of self-contamination during doffing of personal protective equipment
Background: The aim of this study was to describe the risk of self-contamination associated with doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) and to compare self-contamination with various PPE protocols. Methods: We tested 10 different PPE donning and doffing protocols, recommended by various health organizations for Ebola. Ten participants were recruited for this study and randomly assigned to use 3 different PPE protocols. After donning of PPE, fluorescent lotion and spray were applied on the external surface of the PPE to simulate contamination, and ultraviolet light was used to count fluorescent...
Influences on use of hand moisturizers in nurses
Background: Nurses are at high risk of hand dermatitis. Regular hand moisturizing can prevent dermatitis, but nurses' use of hand moisturizers is suboptimal. Aims: To establish (i) what beliefs about hand dermatitis and hand moisturizer use are associated with hand moisturizer use by nurses at home and at work and (ii) if hand moisturizer use behaviours in nurses are associated with the prevalence of hand dermatitis. Methods: We used a questionnaire to investigate nurses' knowledge, beliefs and behaviours regarding hand dermatitis and use of hand moisturizers. Results: The response rate...
Prévention de l’exposition cutanée aux pesticides chez les producteurs de pommes et facteurs influençant le port des vêtements de protection
Des recherches internationales ont déterminé que la peau constituait la principale voie d'exposition aux pesticides utilisés en agriculture. L'utilisation des équipements de protection individuelle (ÉPI) joue un rôle clé dans la prévention des risques liés à l'exposition. L'utilisation non systématique des ÉPI prescrits est toutefois documentée et constitue une cible prioritaire des interventions pour la réduction de l'exposition aux pesticides. Cette étude approfondit les...
Respirator use and its impact on particulate matter exposure in aluminum manufacturing facilities
Objectives: As part of a large epidemiologic study of particulate health effect, this study aimed to report respirator use among total particulate matter (TPM) samples collected in a major aluminum manufacturing company from 1966‒2013 and evaluate the impact of respirator-use adjustment on exposure estimation. Methods: Descriptive analyses were performed to evaluate respirator use across facilities and by facility type and job. Protection factors were applied to TPM measurements for recorded respirator use. Estimated TPM exposure for each job ‒ before and after respirator-use adjustment ‒ were...
‘VIOLET’: a fluorescence-based simulation exercise for training healthcare workers in the use of personal protective equipment
Background: Healthcare workers caring for patients with high-consequence infectious diseases (HCIDs) require protection from pathogen exposure, for example by wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). Protection is acquired through the inherent safety of the PPE components, but also their safe and correct use, supported by adequate training and user familiarity. However, the evidence base for HCID PPE ensembles and any associated training is lacking, with subsequent variation between healthcare providers. Aim: To develop an evidence-based assessment and training tool for evaluating PPE ensembles...
Firefighter attitudes, norms, beliefs, barriers, and behaviors toward post-fire decontamination processes in an era of increased cancer risk
Firefighters' are exposed to carcinogens such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during fires and from their personal protective equipment (PPE). Recent research has shown that decontamination processes can reduce contamination on both gear and skin. While firefighter cultures that honor dirty gear are changing, little is known about current attitudes and behaviors toward decontamination in the fire service. Four hundred eighty-five firefighters from four departments completed surveys about their attitudes, beliefs, perceived norms, barriers, and...
ASTM F1461 - 17 - Standard Practice for Chemical Protective Clothing Program
This practice is intended to promote the proper selection, use, maintenance, and understanding of the limitations of chemical protective clothing (CPC) by users, employers, employees, and other persons involved in programs requiring CPC, thereby limiting potentially harmful and unnecessary skin exposures. Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/F1461.htm
Modified gloves: A chance for the prevention of nosocomial infections
Background: Non-sterile gloves primarily serve as a barrier protection for health care workers (HCWs). However, pathogens may often contaminate the skin of HCWs during glove removal; therefore, pathogens may be further transmitted and cause nosocomial infections. Methods: A field study was conducted comparing contamination rates when using standard gloves or a new modified product equipped with an additional flap (doffing aid) for easier removal. Gloves were removed after bathing gloved hands in an artificial fluorescent lotion. The number of contamination spots was then visually examined using...
Disinfection of gloved hands for multiple activities with indicated glove use on the same patient
Most hand hygiene guidelines recommend that gloves should be changed during patient care when an indication for hand disinfection occurs. Observational studies indicate that the majority of healthcare workers (HCWs) do not disinfect their hands at all during continued glove wear. The aim of this narrative review is to assess the potential benefits and risks for disinfecting gloved hands during patient care for multiple activities with indicated glove use on the same patient. Continued glove wear for multiple activities on the same patient often results in performing procedures, including aseptic...
Effects of organizational safety practices and perceived safety climate on PPE usage, engineering controls, and adverse events involving liquid antineoplastic drugs among nurses
Antineoplastic drugs pose risks to the healthcare workers who handle them. This fact notwithstanding, adherence to safe handling guidelines remains inconsistent and often poor. This study examined the effects of pertinent organizational safety practices and perceived safety climate on the use of personal protective equipment, engineering controls, and adverse events (spill/leak or skin contact) involving liquid antineoplastic drugs. Data for this study came from the 2011 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers which...
Z94.3.1-16 - Guideline for selection, use, and care of eye and face protectors
This is the second edition of CSA Z94.3.1, Guideline for selection, use, and care of eye and face protectors. It supersedes the previous edition, published in 2009 under the title Selection, use, and care of protective eyewear. The Guideline covers the selection, use, and care of eye and face protectors and provides advice for the proper selection of eye and face protection for specific hazardous activities. Major changes to this edition include the following: a) added terminology on compliance and certification of eye and face protectors (see Table 1); b) revised the laser classes in accordance...
Personal protective equipment for preventing highly infectious diseases due to exposure to contaminated body fluids in healthcare staff
In epidemics of highly infectious diseases, such as Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) or SARS, healthcare workers (HCW) are at much greater risk of infection than the general population, due to their contact with patients' contaminated body fluids. Contact precautions by means of personal protective equipment (PPE) can reduce the risk. It is unclear which type of PPE protects best, what is the best way to remove PPE, and how to make sure HCWs use PPE as instructed. To evaluate which type or component of full-body PPE and which method of donning or removing (doffing) PPE have the least risk of self...
Face shields for infection control: A review
Face shields are personal protective equipment devices that are used by many workers (e.g., medical, dental, veterinary) for protection of the facial area and associated mucous membranes (eyes, nose, mouth) from splashes, sprays, and spatter of body fluids. Face shields are generally not used alone, but in conjunction with other protective equipment and are therefore classified as adjunctive personal protective equipment. Although there are millions of potential users of face shields, guidelines for their use vary between governmental agencies and professional societies and little research is available...
NIOSH Updates Software for Estimating Respirator Service Life
The NIOSH MultiVapor™ tool has been updated and posted to the web. MultiVapor™ is a computer tool for estimating breakthrough times and service lives of air-purifying respirator cartridges for removing toxic organic vapors from breathed air. It can also be used for larger filters and for carbon beds of any size prepared for laboratory studies. MultiVapor™ 2.2.3 replaces the 2.1.3 version. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/multivapor/multivapor.html
New NIOSH Study Supports the OSHA Annual Fit Testing Requirements for Filtering Facepiece Respirators
Results of a recently completed NIOSH study confirm the necessity of the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) respirator fit testing requirement, both annually and when physical changes have occurred. The study's conclusions emphasize that respirator users who have lost more than 20 pounds should be re-tested to be sure that the current size and model of respirator in use still properly fits. For over three years, NIOSH researchers followed a cohort of 229 subjects measuring N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) fit and physical characteristics (e.g., face size, weight...
Precautionary Practices of Respiratory Care Practitioners who Administer Aerosolized Medications
A recent article from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) found that safe handling of aerosolized medications is not always universally practiced in healthcare settings, placing workers, co-workers and even family members at risk. This article was published in the October issue of the Respiratory Care and is available online. Results are derived from the 2011 Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers, the largest federally-sponsored survey of healthcare workers in the U.S. which addresses safety and health practices relative to chemical agents routinely...
Assessing barriers to the use of fall protection in small residential construction companies in New Jersey
Three focus groups were conducted with residential construction workers from local New Jersey labor organizations to characterize barriers to fall protection use among residential construction contractors who work for companies with fewer than ten employees. Thirty-six residential construction workers volunteered to participate, the average age was thirty-nine years, and twenty-four (67%) were of Hispanic origin. Twelve (33%) of the participants reported having fallen from greater than 6 ft at work and twenty (56%) of the participants had known someone who has fallen from greater than 6 ft...
Contamination of Health Care Personnel During Removal of Personal Protective Equipment
Importance: Contamination of the skin and clothing of health care personnel during removal of personal protective equipment (PPE) contributes to dissemination of pathogens and places personnel at risk for infection. Objectives: To determine the frequency and sites of contamination on the skin and clothing of personnel during PPE removal and to evaluate the effect of an intervention on the frequency of contamination. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a point-prevalence study and quasi-experimental intervention from October 28, 2014, through March 31, 2015. Data analysis began November...
Baseline evaluation with a sweating thermal manikin of personal protective ensembles recommended for use in West Africa
OBJECTIVE: Experience with the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) ensembles by health care workers responding to the Ebola outbreak in the hot, humid conditions of West Africa has prompted reports of significant issues with heat stress that has resulted in shortened work periods. METHODS: A sweating thermal manikin was used to ascertain the time to achievement of a critical core temperature of 39°C while wearing 4 different PPE ensembles similar to those recommended by the World Health Organization and Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders) at 2 different ambient...
Disinfection of personal protective equipment for management of Ebola patients
Bessesen et al highlight the potential utility of reusable elastomeric face masks to bypass the risk of N95 respirator shortages during a respiratory illness pandemic and stress the importance of efficacious disinfection to reuse facial protective equipment safely.1 We would like to take the opportunity to underline the need that awareness on personal protective equipment (PPE) stocks is included in any pandemic preparedness plan. The demand for PPE must be established on the basis of the health care facility's role, defined by public health authorities to create a coordinated network approach...
The use and non-use of seat belts in the operation of forward tipping dumpers
In the event of a forward tipping dumper (FTD) overturning, the operator will be protected from death and serious injury by wearing their seat belt. The seat belt works in combination with the roll over protection system (ROPS) to keep the operator in their seat, preventing them being crushed by the machine. Unfortunately, a proportion of operators choose to operate FTDs without wearing a seat belt and thus increasing their risk of death or serious injury should the machine overturn. Using semi-structured interviews to gauge the opinions of trainers, original equipment manufacturers, seat and seat...
Adherence to Precautionary Guidelines for Compounding Antineoplastic Drugs
A Survey of Nurses and Pharmacy Practitioners Precautionary guidelines detailing standards of practice and equipment to eliminate or minimize exposure to antineoplastic drugs during handling activities have been available for nearly three decades. To evaluate practices for compounding antineoplastic drugs, the NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers was conducted among members of professional practice organizations representing primarily oncology nurses, pharmacists, and pharmacy technicians. This national survey is the first in over 20 years to examine selfreported use of...
Investigation into exposure when the visor of air fed RPE is raised during spraying
Air-fed visors (AFV) are commonly used within the Motor Vehicle Repair (MVR) trade for protection against exposure to isocyanate paints. However, a common practice amongst paint sprayers is to flip up the visor of their AFV immediately after spraying to check the quality of the paint finish. This may be only for a few seconds but if repeated numerous times during a work shift, this could potentially result in a significant increase in exposure. The aim of this project was to determine the reduction in protection and thus potential increase in exposure when the visor is lifted and to explore potential...
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