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ASTM F2101 - Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Bacterial Filtration Efficiency (BFE) of Medical Face Mask Materials, Using a Biological Aerosol of Staphylococcus aureus
This test method is used to measure the bacterial filtration efficiency (BFE) of medical face mask materials, employing a ratio of the upstream bacterial challenge to downstream residual concentration to determine filtration efficiency of medical face mask materials. This test method is a quantitative method that allows filtration efficiency for medical face mask materials to be determined. The maximum filtration efficiency that can be determined by this method is 99.9 %. This test method does not apply to all forms or conditions of biological aerosol exposure. Users of the test method should...
Environmental and Personal Protective Equipment Contamination during Simulated Healthcare Activities
Providing care to patients with an infectious disease can result in the exposure of healthcare workers (HCWs) to pathogen-containing bodily fluids. We performed a series of experiments to characterize the magnitude of environmental contamination—in air, on surfaces and on participants—associated with seven common healthcare activities. The seven activities studied were bathing, central venous access, intravenous access, intubation, physical examination, suctioning and vital signs assessment. HCWs with experience in one or more activities were recruited to participate and performed one...
Vêtements de protection en salle blanche, une performance parfois compromise
Une étude récente révèle que que les vêtements réutilisables sont vulnérables aux dommages causés par le blanchissage et la stérilisation. Les vêtements réutilisables utilisés dans la production stérile et aseptique nécessitent des cycles répétés de lavage et de stérilisation pour maintenir leur efficacité, en utilisant des techniques telles que l'irradiation gamma. Les données de propriétés physiques sont souvent disponibles pour les nouveaux...
Report Explores New Types of Respiratory Protection for Use in Health Care
A new report from the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine explores the potential for use of half-facepiece elastomeric respirators in the U.S. health care system with a focus on the economic, policy, and implementation challenges and opportunities. The report examines two circumstances, routine and surge use, in which half-facepiece reusable elastomeric respirators could be considered in health care settings. A free prepublication copy of the report is available online . The study was done at the request of NIOSH and the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases...
A 10-year descriptive analysis of UK Maritime and Coastguard data on lifejacket use and drowning prevention
The study investigated if incidences of death by drowning in the UK could have been prevented through the use of lifejackets over a ten year period. This study was a retrospective analysis of fatal maritime incident data collected by the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) between the years 2007 and 2016. A Casualty Review Panel (CRP) met annually to categorise incidents into five groups based on the likelihood of a lifejacket preventing death. Descriptive analyses were performed on the overall fatalities, data were stratified by year, sex, age, and activity. Ten year data were categorised based...
Slips, Trips, and Falls Among Home Care Aides
A Mixed-Methods Study Objective: To address the gap of knowledge about slips, trips, and falls (STFs) among home care aides (HCAs) who work in clients' homes. Methods: This mixed method study used survey and focus group data of HCAs in a Medicaid-funded homecare program. Results: STFs were common with over 12% of HCAs reporting occurrence in the previous 12 months, of whom 58% fell to the ground. Both survey and focus group data identified ice, clutter, workload, rushing and other hazards. Focus group data explained the reasons for not reporting STFs, even among those who sustained injury,...
Risk of self-contamination during doffing of personal protective equipment
Background: The aim of this study was to describe the risk of self-contamination associated with doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) and to compare self-contamination with various PPE protocols. Methods: We tested 10 different PPE donning and doffing protocols, recommended by various health organizations for Ebola. Ten participants were recruited for this study and randomly assigned to use 3 different PPE protocols. After donning of PPE, fluorescent lotion and spray were applied on the external surface of the PPE to simulate contamination, and ultraviolet light was used to count fluorescent...
Identification and Characterization of Failures in Infectious Agent Transmission Precaution Practices in Hospitals
A Qualitative Study Importance: Using personal protective equipment (PPE) and transmission-based precautions are primary strategies for reducing the transmission of infectious agents. Objective: To identify and characterize failures in transmission-based precautions, including PPE use, by health care personnel that could result in self-contamination or transmission during routine, everyday hospital care. Design, Setting, and Participants: This qualitative study involved direct observation inside and outside patient rooms on clinical units from March 1, 2016, to November 30, 2016. Observations occurred...
NFPA 1999 - Standard on Protective Clothing and Ensembles for Emergency Medical Operations
This standard specifies requirements for EMS protective clothing to protect personnel performing patient care during emergency medical operations from contact with blood and body fluid-borne pathogens. It also includes additional requirements that provide limited protection from specified CBRN terrorism agents. Source: https://www.nfpa.org/codes-and-standards/all-codes-and-standards/list-of-codes-and-standards/detail?code=1999
NF EN ISO 27065 - Habillement de protection - Exigences de performance pour les vêtements de protection portés par les opérateurs appliquant des pesticides et pour les travailleurs de rentrée
Le présent document établit les exigences de performance minimale, de classification et de marquage pour les vêtements de protection portés par les opérateurs manipulant des pesticides ainsi que par les travailleurs de rentrée. Aux fins du présent document, le terme "pesticide" s'applique aux insecticides, herbicides, fongicides et autres substances appliquées sous forme liquide qui sont destinés à prévenir, détruire, repousser ou contenir les organismes nuisibles ou les mauvaises herbes en milieu agricole...
Preventing falls: Choosing compatible Fall Protection Supplementary Devices (FPSD) for bridge maintenance work using virtual prototyping
Apart from struck-by safety incidents, fall-related injuries are a major concern in bridge maintenance work. To protect against falls from bridge decks, maintenance workers largely rely on existing bridge guardrails. However, a large number of bridge guardrails do not comply with the regulatory height requirement of 42 ± 3 in. for sufficient fall protection – although appropriate for vehicular traffic. To address this fall protection issue, a few departments of transportation (DOTs) have adopted Fall Protection Supplementary Devices (FPSDs). These devices are temporarily installed...
ASTM F903 - 18 - Standard Test Method for Resistance of Materials Used in Protective Clothing to Penetration by Liquids
Significance and Use: This test method is normally used to evaluate the barrier effectiveness against penetration of liquids through materials, seams, closures, or other planar assemblies used in protective clothing and specimens from finished items of protective clothing. Finished items of protective clothing include gloves, arm protectors, aprons, coveralls, suits, hoods, boots, and similar items. Scope: This test method is used to test specimens of protective clothing materials, assemblies such as seams and closures, or interfaces used in the construction of protective clothing. The resistance...
ASTM F2669 - 12(2018) - Standard Performance Specification for Protective Clothing Worn by Operators Applying Pesticides
Scope: This specification establishes minimum performance, classification, and labeling requirements for protective clothing worn by operators applying pesticide products, primarily field strength, in liquid form. Protective clothing items covered by this specification include, but are not necessarily limited to, liquid-tight or spray-tight garments, coveralls, jackets, shirts, and pants. This specification addresses protection provided by protective accessories, with the exception of those used for the protection of the head, hands, and feet. This specification does not address protection against...
ASTM F2130 - 11(2018) - Standard Test Method for Measuring Repellency, Retention, and Penetration of Liquid Pesticide Formulation Through Protective Clothing Materials
Significance and Use: This test method can be used for laboratory screening of protective clothing material used to manufacture garments and accessories worn by pesticide workers. This test method can be used for the development and evaluation of new protective clothing materials. This test method can be used for the evaluation of protective clothing materials against new pesticide formulations. Scope: This test method measures repellency, retention, and penetration of a known volume of liquid pesticide when applied to protective clothing material. No external hydrostatic or mechanical pressure...
ASTM E3108-18 - Standard Practice for Conformity Assessment of Protective Gloves Worn by Law Enforcement and Corrections Officers
Scope: This practice establishes the conformity assessment requirements for protective gloves worn by law enforcement and corrections officers. It was developed based on end user input regarding hazards of concern and operational requirements of officers.2 This practice provides two options for conformity assessment: (1) supplier's declaration of conformity (SDOC) and (2) certification. This practice is intended to be used by purchasers and suppliers in the procurement of gloves that meet Specification E3109, and the purchaser is responsible for selecting either SDOC or certification. Source...
ASTM E3109-18 - Standard Specification for Protective Gloves Worn by Law Enforcement and Corrections Officers
Scope: This specification addresses protective gloves worn by law enforcement and corrections officers. This specification and related standards were developed by subject matter experts, including experienced end users, using data from a survey of more than 800 U.S. law enforcement and corrections officers. This specification addresses performance requirements, performance ratings, and test methods for whole gloves and for glove components (for example, materials, layers). Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/E3109.htm
Influences on use of hand moisturizers in nurses
Background: Nurses are at high risk of hand dermatitis. Regular hand moisturizing can prevent dermatitis, but nurses' use of hand moisturizers is suboptimal. Aims: To establish (i) what beliefs about hand dermatitis and hand moisturizer use are associated with hand moisturizer use by nurses at home and at work and (ii) if hand moisturizer use behaviours in nurses are associated with the prevalence of hand dermatitis. Methods: We used a questionnaire to investigate nurses' knowledge, beliefs and behaviours regarding hand dermatitis and use of hand moisturizers. Results: The response rate...
Prévention de l’exposition cutanée aux pesticides chez les producteurs de pommes et facteurs influençant le port des vêtements de protection
Des recherches internationales ont déterminé que la peau constituait la principale voie d'exposition aux pesticides utilisés en agriculture. L'utilisation des équipements de protection individuelle (ÉPI) joue un rôle clé dans la prévention des risques liés à l'exposition. L'utilisation non systématique des ÉPI prescrits est toutefois documentée et constitue une cible prioritaire des interventions pour la réduction de l'exposition aux pesticides. Cette étude approfondit les...
A Pilot Study of Nanoparticle Levels and Field Evaluation of N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators on Construction Sites
Little attention has been paid to the generated submicron ultrafine and nanoparticles and their exposure levels on construction jobsites. This information is needed because cytotoxicity of nanoparticles is well known now. In addition, the performance of particulate respirators generally used by construction workers has never been evaluated in field conditions against ultrafine and nano-sized particles. We hypothesized that workers on construction jobsites are exposed to high levels of nanoparticles and current NIOSH-recommended N95 respirators may not provide them adequate protection against aerosolized...
Respirator use and its impact on particulate matter exposure in aluminum manufacturing facilities
Objectives: As part of a large epidemiologic study of particulate health effect, this study aimed to report respirator use among total particulate matter (TPM) samples collected in a major aluminum manufacturing company from 1966‒2013 and evaluate the impact of respirator-use adjustment on exposure estimation. Methods: Descriptive analyses were performed to evaluate respirator use across facilities and by facility type and job. Protection factors were applied to TPM measurements for recorded respirator use. Estimated TPM exposure for each job ‒ before and after respirator-use adjustment ‒ were...
Modified gloves: A chance for the prevention of nosocomial infections
Background: Non-sterile gloves primarily serve as a barrier protection for health care workers (HCWs). However, pathogens may often contaminate the skin of HCWs during glove removal; therefore, pathogens may be further transmitted and cause nosocomial infections. Methods: A field study was conducted comparing contamination rates when using standard gloves or a new modified product equipped with an additional flap (doffing aid) for easier removal. Gloves were removed after bathing gloved hands in an artificial fluorescent lotion. The number of contamination spots was then visually examined using...
Débroussaillage - 3e édition
Cette brochure traite des travaux de débroussaillage, des techniques de travail et des situations dangereuses. On y décrit également les responsabilités de l'employeur et du travailleur, l'équipement de protection individuelle à utiliser et des règles à suivre en matière de premiers secours et de premiers soins. Pour cette 3e édition, des changements importants ont été apportés aux pages 14-15 et 16 où il est question du choix des lames. Source: http://www.cnesst.gouv.qc.ca/Publications/200...
‘VIOLET’: a fluorescence-based simulation exercise for training healthcare workers in the use of personal protective equipment
Background: Healthcare workers caring for patients with high-consequence infectious diseases (HCIDs) require protection from pathogen exposure, for example by wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). Protection is acquired through the inherent safety of the PPE components, but also their safe and correct use, supported by adequate training and user familiarity. However, the evidence base for HCID PPE ensembles and any associated training is lacking, with subsequent variation between healthcare providers. Aim: To develop an evidence-based assessment and training tool for evaluating PPE ensembles...
Firefighter attitudes, norms, beliefs, barriers, and behaviors toward post-fire decontamination processes in an era of increased cancer risk
Firefighters' are exposed to carcinogens such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during fires and from their personal protective equipment (PPE). Recent research has shown that decontamination processes can reduce contamination on both gear and skin. While firefighter cultures that honor dirty gear are changing, little is known about current attitudes and behaviors toward decontamination in the fire service. Four hundred eighty-five firefighters from four departments completed surveys about their attitudes, beliefs, perceived norms, barriers, and...
ASTM F2100 - 11(2018) - Standard Specification for Performance of Materials Used in Medical Face Masks
This specification covers the classifications, performance requirements, and test methods for the materials used in the construction of medical face masks that are used in health care services such as surgery and patient care. Medical face mask material performance is based on testing for bacterial filtration efficiency, differential pressure, sub-micron particulate filtration efficiency, resistance to penetration by synthetic blood, and flammability. This specification does not address all aspects of medical face mask design and performance, the effectiveness of medical face mask designs as related...
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