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NF EN 14325 - Habillement de protection contre les produits chimiques
La présente Norme européenne spécifie la classification de la performance et les méthodes d'essai pour les matériaux utilisés dans les vêtements de protection chimique, y compris les gants et les chaussures. Lorsque les gants et les bottes font partie intégrante du vêtement, il convient que les exigences en matière de barrière de protection chimique auxquelles ils sont soumis soient les mêmes pour que pour les étoffes. Il s'agit d'une norme de référence à laquelle les normes...
ASTM F2100 - 11(2018) - Standard Specification for Performance of Materials Used in Medical Face Masks
This specification covers the classifications, performance requirements, and test methods for the materials used in the construction of medical face masks that are used in health care services such as surgery and patient care. Medical face mask material performance is based on testing for bacterial filtration efficiency, differential pressure, sub-micron particulate filtration efficiency, resistance to penetration by synthetic blood, and flammability. This specification does not address all aspects of medical face mask design and performance, the effectiveness of medical face mask designs as related...
ASTM F2053 - 00(2017) - Standard Guide for Documenting the Results of Airborne Particle Penetration Testing of Protective Clothing Materials
This guide is intended to encourage thorough and consistent documentation of airborne particle penetration testing and its results. Uniform information and performance data increase the likelihood of selecting proper particle protective clothing by direct comparison of one material with another. A standard format for test information and data also encourages computer storage of test results for easy retrieval, comparison, and correlations. This guide provides a format for documenting information and performance data for an airborne particle penetration test. Documented data and information are...
ASTM F1001 - 12(2017) - Standard Guide for Selection of Chemicals to Evaluate Protective Clothing Materials
This guide establishes a recommended list of challenge chemicals to encourage those who evaluate chemical protective clothing to test a minimum number of chemicals in common. This list will simplify the comparison of data from different sources. This guide may also serve material developers or evaluators in screening candidate protective clothing materials. Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/F1001.htm
ASTM F1868-17 - Standard Test Method for Thermal and Evaporative Resistance of Clothing Materials Using a Sweating Hot Plate
The thermal resistance and evaporative resistance provided by fabrics, films, coatings, foams, and leathers, including multi-layer assemblies, is of considerable importance in determining their suitability for use in fabricating protective clothing systems. The thermal interchange between people and their environment is, however, an extremely complicated subject that involves many factors in addition to the steady-state resistance values of fabrics, films, coatings, foams, and leathers, including multi-layer assemblies. Therefore, thermal resistance values and evaporative resistance values measured...
Market surveillance of FFP3 disposable respirators
Filtering Facepieces (FFPs) are disposable Respiratory Protective Equipment (RPE) for protection against dusts, particles and aerosols. They are often referred to as 'disposable dust masks', are widely used, and generally require no cleaning or maintenance. They are available in three classes: FFP1, FFP2 and FFP3, with the higher numbers corresponding to better filtering efficiency. As with all types of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) sold in the UK, they must comply with the EU PPE Directive 89/686/EEC. It is the responsibility of the manufacturer or person placing the RPE on the European...
Performance of Facepiece Respirators and Surgical Masks Against Surgical Smoke
Simulated Workplace Protection Factor Study Objective: Surgical smoke generated during electrocautery contains toxins which may cause adverse health effects to operating room (OR) personnel. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of surgical masks (SMs), which are routinely used in ORs, more efficient N95 surgical mask respirator (SMRs) and N100 filtering facepiece respirator (FFRs), against surgical smoke. Methods: Ten subjects were recruited to perform surgical dissections on animal tissue in a simulated OR chamber, using a standard electrocautery device, generating surgical...
Investigation into exposure when the visor of air fed RPE is raised during spraying
Air-fed visors (AFV) are commonly used within the Motor Vehicle Repair (MVR) trade for protection against exposure to isocyanate paints. However, a common practice amongst paint sprayers is to flip up the visor of their AFV immediately after spraying to check the quality of the paint finish. This may be only for a few seconds but if repeated numerous times during a work shift, this could potentially result in a significant increase in exposure. The aim of this project was to determine the reduction in protection and thus potential increase in exposure when the visor is lifted and to explore potential...
Z94.1-15 - Industrial protective headwear
Performance, selection, care, and use The latest edition of CSA Z94.1 – Industrial Protective Headwear – Performance, Selection, Care and Use joins our suite of Personal Protective Equipment standards and applies to protective headwear for industrial, construction, mining, utility, and forestry workers. It defines the areas of the head that are to be protected and basic performance requirements. According to OHS Regulations – Section 12.4, only when there is a foreseeable danger to a worker's head at a work site is industrial headwear required. Employers can help to reduce...
Fighting Ebola: A Grand Challenge for Development
How NIOSH is Helping Design Improved Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is the largest in history and is unprecedented in many ways, including the large number of healthcare workers who have been infected while treating patients. The large scale of the epidemic, as well as the two healthcare workers who contracted Ebola while caring for the first case in the United States, has directed particular attention to the personal protective equipment (PPE) used by healthcare workers to reduce their risk of infection. PPE is designed to create...
An empirical analysis of thermal protective performance of fabrics used in protective clothing
Fabric-based protective clothing is widely used for occupational safety of firefighters/industrial workers. The aim of this paper is to study thermal protective performance provided by fabric systems and to propose an effective model for predicting the thermal protective performance under various thermal exposures. Different fabric systems that are commonly used to manufacture thermal protective clothing were selected. Laboratory simulations of the various thermal exposures were created to evaluate the protective performance of the selected fabric systems in terms of time required to generate second...
Assessment of the human responses to the influence of personal liquid cooling system in the hot environment
Purpose – People working in the hot environment are constantly exposed to the overheating, that can lead to cardiovascular disorders and as a consequence result in occupational diseases. The purpose of this paper is to present developed personal liquid cooling system that is able to efficiently draw excess heat from the human organism, protecting against thermal stress. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents study concerning the assessment of effect of the coolant temperature in the developed liquid cooling garment (LCG) on physiological parameters of the subjects (heart rate...
Measuring the acoustic response of a compartment fire
Rescue teams have a small window of time to locate a downed firefighter. Their task is made more difficult due to low visibility, smoke, toxic gases, and high temperatures. In the United States, most firefighters are equipped with a Personal Alarm Safety System (PASS) device that emits an alarm sound, when the firefighter becomes incapacitated. Rescue teams can then follow this sound to the source to locate the downed firefighter. While the PASS device has been enormously successful, anecdotal evidence has shown it fails in some interesting scenarios. For example, cases have been recorded where...
The Use of Respirators to Reduce Inhalation of Airborne Biological Agents
Respiratory protection devices are an important element of an overall contagion control strategy when infectious biological aerosols are potentially present in an occupational environment. In health care facilities, N95 class FFR certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) are typically the minimum class of respiratory protection recommended. In contrast, studies exist that suggest that surgical masks normally used in health care settings may be equally effective in reducing disease transmission. The “respirator versus surgical mask” debate continues...
Assessment of subjective and objective measurement systems of earplug attenuation on an individual - RR975
Systems that measure earplug attenuation for individual wearers are commercially available and the work detailed in this report aimed to assess the performance and test the reliability of two types of available system: objective measurement and subjective equal loudness. Systems were chosen to represent a type of system rather than a specific model of device and because they: were commercially available through leading manufacturers; were designed for use by operators with a minimal level of training or expertise; could be used with a range of earplugs; and were typical of the state of the art...
Prémédia, un logiciel pour évaluer l'efficacité des appareils de protection respiratoire
Certains appareils de protection respiratoire (APR) sont équipés de cartouches absorbantes dont l'efficacité est limitée dans le temps. Cette durée de fonctionnement dépend du type de cartouche ainsi que des conditions dans lesquelles travaille l'utilisateur. Dans l'optique d'aider ce dernier à estimer le temps d'utilisation d'une cartouche, l'INRS a mis au point Prémédia, logiciel de calcul prédictif disponible gratuitement en ligne. Source : https://premedia.inrs.fr/Premedia/jsp/Accueil.jsp
NIOSH HPD Well-Fit™: The Future is Fit-Testing
For workers and others who are exposed to dangerously loud noises which cannot be reduced or eliminated, hearing protection devices (HPDs) are absolutely necessary to save their hearing. But if HPDs are not properly selected or correctly worn, the devices may not block out enough noise and the wearer may still risk a loss of hearing. How can a person tell if their HPDs are fit correctly? A new development from NIOSH – HPD Well-FitTM – can quickly and inexpensively test the performance of hearing protection. This fit testing technology is a huge advancement in efforts to save workers'...
Evaluation of N95 Respirator Use with a Surgical Mask Cover: Effects on Breathing Resistance and Inhaled Carbon Dioxide
Objective: For pandemic influenza outbreaks, the Institute of Medicine has recommended using a surgical mask cover (SM) over N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) among healthcare workers as one strategy to avoid surface contamination of the FFR which would extend its efficacy and reduce the threat of exhausting FFR supplies. The objective of this investigation was to measure breathing air quality and breathing resistance when using FFRs with US Food and Drug Administration-cleared SM and without SM. Methods : Thirty National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved FFR...
The effects of wearing respirators on human fine motor, visual, and cognitive performance
When selecting a respirator, it is important to understand how employees' motor, visual and cognitive abilities are impacted by the personal protective equipment. This study compares dust, powered-air-purifying and full-face, negative-pressure respirators. Thirty participants performed three varied tasks. Each participant performed each task without a respirator and while wearing the three respirator types. The tasks included a hand tool dexterity test, the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test and the Serial Sevens Test to evaluate fine motor, visual and cognitive performance, respectively. The...
Développement de procédure de mesure de l'efficacité des filtres N95 à capturer les nanoparticules
La croissance phénoménale des produits nanotechnologiques soulève des inquiétudes quant à l’exposition humaine aux nanoparticules ainsi produites, lesquelles peuvent poser des risques pour la santé et la sécurité des travailleurs. Outre l’élimination à la source ou la diminution de l’exposition, la ventilation, locale ou générale, et la protection personnelle, en particulier respiratoire, sont les moyens de contrôle à privilégier dans ce contexte. Or, le bon fonctionnement de...
Valeurs limites d'exposition au bruit et port de protecteurs individuels (ED 133)
La protection acoustique réellement procurée par les protecteurs individuels contre le bruit (serre-tête antibruit, bouchons d'oreille...) est généralement inférieure à celle annoncée par les fabricants. Cette publication propose une méthode et des outils pour estimer le niveau sonore réellement subi par les salariés lorsqu'ils portent des protections antibruit. Source : http://www.inrs.fr/accueil/produits/mediatheque/doc/publications.html?refINRS=ED%20133
ASTM standards 2012- Protective Clothing
American Society for Testing and Materials. - ASTM standards on disc : standards worldwide 2012. Occupational Health and Safety—standard practices and guides look at the health and safety aspects of various working environments. Standards also cover hazard communications and the safe handling of metal working fluids. Protective Clothing—standards evaluate the performance of biological, chemical, physical, flame-resistant, and thermal protective clothing. Source: Occupational Health and Safety; Protective Clothing. ASTM, 2012, October, Volume 11.03 . http://www.astm.org/BOOKSTORE/BOS...
The situation in the PPE sector
The primary aim of this seminar was to give up-to-date information regarding the PPE regulations, research results, selection and use of PPE and the state of the art level of PPE. The second aim of the seminar was to bring together European PPE experts dealing with legislation, standardization, selection and use of PPE, testing, certification, research, manufacturing, market surveillance and workplace inspection. The seminar was organized by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) Finland, BG BAU Germany, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health Finland, and the European Safety Federation...
A foot manikin for optimization of footwear
Heat loss and moisture retention properties of footwear were characterized using a walking thermal manikin foot. The same type of military boot was equipped with different membranes and a single boot type was used to evaluate four different sock fabrics. Both boot membranes and sock fabrics were assessed under three conditions. GORE TEX with IQ TEX resulted in a higher heat loss during walking without sweating compared to the other membranes. GORE TEX with IQ TEX retained more moisture in the sock compared to the other membranes but also retained more moisture in the inlay sole compared to halve...
Assessment of Factors Affecting the Continuing Performance of Firefighters' Protective Clothing: A Literature Review
There has been some research into the level of damage and changes to important properties of firefighters' protective clothing after exposure to conditions such as elevated temperature and ultra violet radiation. However, at this time, the results are not comprehensive enough to develop a standard procedure to estimate the remaining useful life of firefighters' protective clothing. There is also a need to develop non-destructive techniques to evaluate clothing, for most tests used to evaluate properties of clothing are destructive, and visual cues cannot completely assess the level of deterioration...
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