Parcourir par tags

Tous les tags » Conception (RSS)
In Search of a Performing Seal: Rethinking the Design of Tight-Fitting Respiratory Protective Equipment Facepieces for Users With Facial Hair
Background: Air-purifying, tight-fitting facepieces are examples of respiratory protective equipment and are worn to protect workers from potentially harmful particulate and vapors. Research shows that the presence of facial hair on users' face significantly reduces the efficacy of these devices. This article sets out to establish if an acceptable seal could be achieved between facial hair and the facepiece. The team also created and investigated a low-cost “pressure testing” method for assessing the efficacy of a seal to be used during the early design process for a facepiece designed...
Résistance des garde-corps en bois fixés sur des structures neuves et comportement sous charges de garde-corps métalliques fixés sur des structures existantes
Malgré les réglementations nationales et internationales qui exigent de protéger les travailleurs exposés à un risque de chute, les chutes de hauteur restent l'une des principales causes de décès pour les travailleurs de la construction. Elles sont la deuxième cause d'accidents en ce qui a trait aux coûts (397 millions de dollars par an sur la période 2010-2012) et représentent 16,1 % des décès au travail en 2017. Les garde-corps temporaires sont un moyen efficace de protection contre les chutes de...
Analyse du potentiel d’application des textiles intelligents en santé et en sécurité au travail
Les textiles intelligents sont des structures capables de détecter, de réagir et de s'adapter à un grand nombre de stimuli : électriques, magnétiques, thermiques, optiques, acoustiques, mécaniques, chimiques, etc. Ils offrent potentiellement des perspectives très intéressantes dans le domaine de la santé et de la sécurité au travail, par exemple, pour des systèmes de localisation intégrés, le suivi des conditions physiologiques des travailleurs, des systèmes chauffants et refroidissants...
ASTM F2010 / F2010M - 18 - Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Glove Effects on Wearer Finger Dexterity Using a Modified Pegboard Test
Scope: This test method is used for evaluating finger dexterity while wearing gloves. This test method covers procedures in which the wearer picks up small objects between the thumb and index finger. This test method is suitable for evaluating gloves and other forms of hand protection that allow the wearer to pick up small objects between their thumb and index finger. This test method does not address all effects of glove use on hand function. Other methods should be considered to evaluate the effects of gloves on grip, tactility, and other hand functions of interest. The values stated in SI units...
ASTM F2053 - 00(2017) - Standard Guide for Documenting the Results of Airborne Particle Penetration Testing of Protective Clothing Materials
This guide is intended to encourage thorough and consistent documentation of airborne particle penetration testing and its results. Uniform information and performance data increase the likelihood of selecting proper particle protective clothing by direct comparison of one material with another. A standard format for test information and data also encourages computer storage of test results for easy retrieval, comparison, and correlations. This guide provides a format for documenting information and performance data for an airborne particle penetration test. Documented data and information are...
ASTM F1407 - 12(2017) - Standard Test Method for Resistance of Chemical Protective Clothing Materials to Liquid Permeation
Permeation Cup Method This test method establishes a standard procedure for rapidly (in 1 h or less) determining the chemical resistance of specimens of protective clothing materials. This test method can be used to rank materials as to their suitability for use with liquids of known or unknown composition. The breakthrough detection time, permeation rate, or cumulative permeation can be used to identify protective clothing materials that are more likely to limit potential exposures to chemicals. Longer breakthrough detection times and lower cumulative amounts permeated and permeation rates are...
ASTM F1001 - 12(2017) - Standard Guide for Selection of Chemicals to Evaluate Protective Clothing Materials
This guide establishes a recommended list of challenge chemicals to encourage those who evaluate chemical protective clothing to test a minimum number of chemicals in common. This list will simplify the comparison of data from different sources. This guide may also serve material developers or evaluators in screening candidate protective clothing materials. Source: https://www.astm.org/Standards/F1001.htm
ASTM F1868-17 - Standard Test Method for Thermal and Evaporative Resistance of Clothing Materials Using a Sweating Hot Plate
The thermal resistance and evaporative resistance provided by fabrics, films, coatings, foams, and leathers, including multi-layer assemblies, is of considerable importance in determining their suitability for use in fabricating protective clothing systems. The thermal interchange between people and their environment is, however, an extremely complicated subject that involves many factors in addition to the steady-state resistance values of fabrics, films, coatings, foams, and leathers, including multi-layer assemblies. Therefore, thermal resistance values and evaporative resistance values measured...
Personal protective equipment and women
Guidance for workplace representatives on ensuring it is a safe fit Despite a legal duty on bosses to provide the correct Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to their staff free of charge, only 3 in 10 women (29%) told a survey that the PPE they wear to keep them safe at work is specifically designed for women. Women responding to the survey work in a range of jobs, including in the emergency services, retail and manufacturing, engineering and scientific research. Many reported that ill-fitting PPE which isn't designed to protect women workers gets in the way of them doing their job safely...
Protection respiratoire. Réaliser des essais d'ajustement
Lors du processus de sélection d'un appareil de protection respiratoire, il est indispensable de s'assurer que le modèle choisi est adapté à son porteur en réalisant un essai d'ajustement. Cette brochure décrit l'objectif des essais d'ajustement, les différentes méthodes d'essai existantes, le rôle de l'opérateur d'essai d'ajustement. Elle précise les critères permettant de considérer l'étanchéité au visage comme satisfaisante. Source: http://www...
Explorations of Design Factors for Developments of Protective Gardening Gloves
The purpose of this study was to identify important design factors for protective gardening gloves and consider possible design features for these gloves. A mixed methods procedure was used involving market research, an online survey, and a focus group. Ten design factors of protective gardening gloves were identified: skin cut and puncture protection, dirt and insect protection, UV ray protection, water resistance/waterproofness, dexterity, comfort of movement, breathability, ease of donning and doffing, durability, and ease of care. Potential consumers' preferred design features for each...
Résistance des matériaux de protection aux agresseurs mécaniques multiples
Coupure et perforation simultanées Les lacérations de type perforation et coupure représentent une part importante des blessures aux mains dans plusieurs milieux de travail. Les agresseurs mécaniques comme la pointe d'un couteau, des échardes de métal, des pièces mal ébavurées ou des éclats de verre peuvent être très diversifiés et constituer des risques multiples. Le port de gants de protection contribue à réduire ces risques. Cependant, les gants n'offrent pas toujours une résistance...
Performance of Facepiece Respirators and Surgical Masks Against Surgical Smoke
Simulated Workplace Protection Factor Study Objective: Surgical smoke generated during electrocautery contains toxins which may cause adverse health effects to operating room (OR) personnel. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of surgical masks (SMs), which are routinely used in ORs, more efficient N95 surgical mask respirator (SMRs) and N100 filtering facepiece respirator (FFRs), against surgical smoke. Methods: Ten subjects were recruited to perform surgical dissections on animal tissue in a simulated OR chamber, using a standard electrocautery device, generating surgical...
Z96-15 - High-visibility safety apparel
This is the third edition of CSA Z96, High-visibility safety apparel. It supersedes the previous editions published in 2009 and 2002. This edition incorporates advice on selection, use, and care of high-visibility safety material taken from the CSA Z96.1 Guideline (see Annex A). It is designed to be in technical harmony with ANSI/ISEA 107 and ISO 20471. The focus of this Standard is on the performance of retroreflective and background materials incorporated into garments intended to provide the wearer with increased conspicuity under both wellilluminated and low-light or dark work environmental...
NIOSH Firefighter Body Dimension Data Supports Design Changes and Safety
We have come to rely on, and expect firefighters to rush into burning buildings, put out flames, and save lives. Yet, each year many firefighters die in the line of duty and thousands more sustain injuries. For these reasons, researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recorded and developed the first database of firefighter body measurements (also known as anthropometric information) to improve the design, and ultimately the safety, of fire apparatus and equipment that firefighters depend on to help protect themselves on the job. Source: http://www.cdc.gov...
The use and non-use of seat belts in the operation of forward tipping dumpers
In the event of a forward tipping dumper (FTD) overturning, the operator will be protected from death and serious injury by wearing their seat belt. The seat belt works in combination with the roll over protection system (ROPS) to keep the operator in their seat, preventing them being crushed by the machine. Unfortunately, a proportion of operators choose to operate FTDs without wearing a seat belt and thus increasing their risk of death or serious injury should the machine overturn. Using semi-structured interviews to gauge the opinions of trainers, original equipment manufacturers, seat and seat...
One Size Does Not Fit All
When your safety and your life depends on it, you need your equipment to fit properly. This is especially true in the workplace. Improper fit may prevent workers from performing their job duties safely and effectively. If your respirator does not seal properly to your face, if your gloves are too big, if your seatbelt cannot buckle with your safety gear on . . . you get the picture. Anthropometry is the science of defining human body dimensions and physical characteristics. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducts anthropometric research to prevent work-related...
Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective clothing during periodical changes in air temperature
The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5°C with an amplitude of 6°C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature...
Firefighter hand anthropometry and structural glove sizing
A new perspective OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the current use and fit of structural firefighting gloves and developed an improved sizing scheme that better accommodates the U.S. firefighter population. BACKGROUND: Among surveys, 24% to 30% of men and 31% to 62% of women reported experiencing problems with the fit or bulkiness of their structural firefighting gloves. METHOD: An age-, race/ethnicity-, and gender-stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the United States participated in the study. Fourteen hand dimensions relevant to glove design were measured. A cluster analysis...
Z94.1-15 - Industrial protective headwear
Performance, selection, care, and use The latest edition of CSA Z94.1 – Industrial Protective Headwear – Performance, Selection, Care and Use joins our suite of Personal Protective Equipment standards and applies to protective headwear for industrial, construction, mining, utility, and forestry workers. It defines the areas of the head that are to be protected and basic performance requirements. According to OHS Regulations – Section 12.4, only when there is a foreseeable danger to a worker's head at a work site is industrial headwear required. Employers can help to reduce...
Effects of air bottle design on postural control of firefighters
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of firefighter's self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) air bottle design and vision on postural control of firefighters. Twenty-four firefighters were tested using four 30-minute SCBA bottle designs that varied by mass and size. Postural sway measures were collected using a forceplate under two visual conditions (eyes open and closed) and two stance conditions (quiet and perturbed stances). For perturbed stance, a mild backward impulsive pull at the waist was applied. In addition to examining center of pressure postural sway measures...
Review of fit test pass criteria for Filtering Facepieces Class 3 (FFP3) respirators
Respiratory Protective Equipment (RPE) is available in a range of types which often include a tight-fitting facepiece which must fit the wearer's face well for the RPE to work effectively. Good fit must be demonstrated by fit testing. In this study, 25 volunteer test subjects wearing tight-fitting FFP3 (randomly selected from 9 different models) underwent four fit tests (Bitrex qualitative taste test, Portacount particle counting with and without the N95 companion technology and the laboratory chamber method), in random order, according to methodology given in HSE guidance 282/28. The selected...
Fighting Ebola: A Grand Challenge for Development
How NIOSH is Helping Design Improved Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is the largest in history and is unprecedented in many ways, including the large number of healthcare workers who have been infected while treating patients. The large scale of the epidemic, as well as the two healthcare workers who contracted Ebola while caring for the first case in the United States, has directed particular attention to the personal protective equipment (PPE) used by healthcare workers to reduce their risk of infection. PPE is designed to create...
Health Care Workers’ Reported Discomfort While Wearing Filtering Face-Piece Respirators
Filtering face-piece respirators (FFRs) are one method of protecting health care workers from airborne particles; however, research suggests adherence is poor, perhaps due to worker discomfort. Three separate focus groups were conducted at two Veterans Affairs health care facilities. Seventeen health care workers who reported using FFRs as part of their job duties were in the focus groups. Focus group transcripts were coded using qualitative descriptive coding techniques. Participants described experiences of discomfort and physical mask features they believed contributed to discomfort. Participants...
Assessment of the human responses to the influence of personal liquid cooling system in the hot environment
Purpose – People working in the hot environment are constantly exposed to the overheating, that can lead to cardiovascular disorders and as a consequence result in occupational diseases. The purpose of this paper is to present developed personal liquid cooling system that is able to efficiently draw excess heat from the human organism, protecting against thermal stress. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents study concerning the assessment of effect of the coolant temperature in the developed liquid cooling garment (LCG) on physiological parameters of the subjects (heart rate...
Plus de Messages Page suivante »

Abonnement courriel

Messages récents

Catégories

Mots-Clés (Tags)

Blogoliste

Archives