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Coefficient of friction, walking speed and cadence on slippery and dry surfaces: shoes with different groove depths
Objective. The present study aimed to determine the coefficient of friction (COF), walking speed (WS) and cadence while walking on slippery and dry surfaces using shoes with different sole groove depths to predict likelihood of fall. Background. Design of shoe sole groove is crucial to prevent slipping during walking. Methods. 22 healthy young men (mean age 24.5, body mass index 22.5) volunteered for this semi-experimental study. Six different conditions of the test (combination of three shoes and two surfaces) were defined and the condition was repeated three times. In total, 396 trials (22 subjects × 3...
Efficacy of a rubber outsole with a hybrid surface pattern for preventing slips on icy surfaces
Conventional winter-safety footwear devices, such as crampons, can be effective in preventing slips on icy surfaces but the protruding studs can lead to other problems such as trips. A new hybrid (rough and smooth) rubber outsole was designed to provide high slip resistance without use of protruding studs or asperities. In the present study, we examined the slip resistance of the hybrid rubber outsole on both dry (-10 °C) and wet (0 °C) icy surfaces, in comparison to three conventional strap-on winter anti-slip devices: 1) metal coils ("Yaktrax Walker"), 2) gritted (sandpaper...
Perceived risks for slipping and falling at work during wintertime and criteria for a slip-resistant winter shoe among Swedish outdoor workers
The leading cause of work related accidents in Sweden is falls. Many slips and falls occur on icy and snowy surfaces, but there is limited knowledge about how to prevent accidents during outdoor work in winter conditions. The purpose of this study was to describe risk factors of slips and falls and criteria for slip-resistant winter shoes from a user perspective. The result is based on focus group interviews with 20 men and women working in mail delivery, construction and home care in Sweden. The data was analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Risk factors described were related to physical...
Norme CSA Z195 – Chaussures de protection
Nouvelle édition Partout au Canada, les travailleurs sont tenus de protéger leurs pieds des dangers présents sur les lieux de travail en sélectionnant des chaussures de protection certifiées par Groupe CSA et en les utilisant adéquatement. La marque CSA indique aux consommateurs que leurs chaussures ont été certifiées en fonction des normes de performance en vigueur en matière de protection. La nouvelle édition de la norme CSA Z195 énonce les exigences relatives aux chaussures antidérapantes, dotées...
Safety and Occupational Footwear
This new, one-of-a kind ASTM reference guide provides the latest information on safety and occupational footwear. Topics cover: • Construction of footwear • Component materials • Performance requirements • Use and maintenance As well as an in-depth understanding into specific areas of concern, such as slip resistance, the number one cause of concern across all industries. Source:
Temporal changes in the required shoe-floor friction when walking following an induced slip
Biomechanical aspects of slips and falls have been widely studied to facilitate fall prevention strategies. Prior studies have shown changes in gait after an induced slipping event. As such, most researchers only slip participants one time to avoid such changes that would otherwise reduce the external validity of experimental results. The ability to slip participants more than once, after allowing gait to return to a natural baseline, would improve the experimental efficiency of such studies. Therefore, the goal of this study was to characterize the temporal changes in required shoe-floor friction...
Optimisation of the mechanical slip resistance test for footwear used in EN ISO 13287:2007 - Follow on study
The measurement of the slip resistance of footwear is inherently difficult due to the complexity of the human gait, which leads to changing values of the biomechanical parameters during the walking step. Only some steps result in a slipping heel, which compounds the difficulty in identifying the values of the parameters that need to be simulated. A number of studies have attempted to measure the parameters of walking and/or a slip, in order that realistic values can be incorporated into tests attempting to replicate the slip process. Source :
Development of new footwear sole surface pattern for prevention of slip-related falls
In this study, a new rubber surface pattern for a footwear sole was developed to prevent slip-related falls. This pattern shows a high static coefficient of friction (SCOF) and a high dynamic coefficient of friction (DCOF) when sliding against a liquid contaminated surface. A hybrid rubber block, in which a rubber block with a rough surface (Ra = 30.4 μm) was sandwiched between two rubber blocks with smooth surfaces (Ra = 0.98 μm), was prepared. The ratio of the rough surface area to the whole rubber block surface area r was 0%, 30%, 50%, 80%, and 100%. The coefficient of friction of the...
Assessment of slip resistance under footwear materials, tread designs, floor contamination, and floor inclination conditions
Slip and fall incidences are common in our daily lives. They are not only important environmental safety issues but also important occupational safety and health problems. The purpose of this study was to use the Brungraber Mark II to measure the friction so as to investigate the effects of the shoe sole, surface condition and the inclined angle of the floor and their interactions on friction coefficient. The results of the study showed the effects of all the main factors and their interactions were significant (p<0.001). Engineering designs & ergonomic interventions in slip & fall prevention...
Identifying Risk Factors of Falls among B.C.’s Healthcare Workers
This study examined data on workplace falls among healthcare workers in a large B.C. health region, to identify the factors leading to fall related injuries and report the associated compensation costs and days lost from work. Monitoring workplace falls in healthcare is critical to understanding the size of the problem, characterizing trends, estimating the economic burden, improving knowledge among health professionals, policy makers and the workers, and designing, implementing and evaluating appropriate interventions. Source :
Footwear and modifications to goods vehicles in the UK road haulage sector
The central aim of this survey was to produce a set of baseline data, based on the opinions of HGV drivers, that described practices within the UK road haulage sector relating to slip, trip and falls risk factors. The survey explored risk factors relating to footwear and vehicle safety fittings eg ladders, steps, handrails and load bed covering. The research employed face-to face sample survey methodology that allowed reasonable generalisation to the UK population of HGV drivers. Source :
Monitoring the slip resistance of emerging workplace footwear
Employers use a variety of control measures to reduce the risk of slips, but if a significant slip risk remains, introducing footwear with slip-resistant properties may be the only effective way they can further reduce the risk. The objective of this study was to generate information on the slip resistance of emerging footwear using a test developed by the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) - the HSL ramp test. There is also a European Standard test for footwear slip resistance, but the test surfaces and contaminants used in the standard only give a limited picture of the slip resistance properties...
Protective footwear
This is the sixth edition of CSA Z195, Protective footwear, covering design and performance requirements for protective footwear, including toe protection, sole puncture protection, metatarsal protection, electric-shock-resistant soles, slip-resisting soles, and other requirements relating to the general stability of footwear. It supersedes the previous editions, published in 2002, 1992, 1984, and 1981, and the first edition, entitled Safety Footwear, published in 1970. Source :
Assessment of slips safety information/literature provided by flooring and footwear suppliers
Nearly 11,000 workers suffered serious injury as a result of a slip or trip in 2007. A key element of HSE's work to reduce slips and trips is to raise awareness of how slip risks can be controlled through the use of suitable flooring and footwear. Source:
Dermatites de contact aux équipements de protection individuelle (EPI)
Les dermatoses professionnelles aux équipements de protection individuelle (EPI) sont essentiellement des dermatites de contact d'irritation et/ou allergiques et des urticaires de contact. Les professions exposées dépendent de l'EPI, par exemple, le personnel de santé surtout pour les gants, les salariés du BTP pour les gants, bottes et chaussures de sécurité... La plupart des EPI sont irritants surtout en cas de port prolongé.$File/Visu...
Footwear - new updated testing table
A new footwear samples table update to the report ‘HSL/2007/33 Further slip-resistance testing of footwear for use at work' is now available for download. The ongoing programme of testing has generated results for a further 20 footwear samples. Six of these are new in this most recent update.

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