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Appareil de protection respiratoire de type P100 - Les contraintes liées à l’intensité du travail et aux conditions ambiantes
Dans le secteur de la construction, l'exposition professionnelle à divers contaminants tels que l'amiante, la silice cristalline et les moisissures est présente dans plusieurs métiers. Dans ces milieux, lorsque le contrôle à la source et les mesures administratives et d'ingénierie s'avèrent insuffisants, le port d'un appareil de protection respiratoire (APR) est essentiel pour réduire les risques d'exposition aux contaminants aéroportés. Dans certaines situations de travail et de températures ambiantes...
Appareils de protection respiratoire et risques biologiques
Dans certains secteurs d'activité (soins, laboratoires, biotechnologies, élevage, abattoirs, assainissement...), les personnels peuvent être exposés à des agents biologiques transmissibles par voie respiratoire. Cette fiche indique les critères de choix et les conditions d'utilisation des appareils de protection respiratoire (APR). Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=ED%20146
In Search of a Performing Seal: Rethinking the Design of Tight-Fitting Respiratory Protective Equipment Facepieces for Users With Facial Hair
Background: Air-purifying, tight-fitting facepieces are examples of respiratory protective equipment and are worn to protect workers from potentially harmful particulate and vapors. Research shows that the presence of facial hair on users' face significantly reduces the efficacy of these devices. This article sets out to establish if an acceptable seal could be achieved between facial hair and the facepiece. The team also created and investigated a low-cost “pressure testing” method for assessing the efficacy of a seal to be used during the early design process for a facepiece designed...
Assessment of respirator fit capability test criteria for full-facepiece air-purifying respirators
An ASTM International subcommittee on Respiratory Protection, F23.65 is currently developing a consensus standard for assessing respirator fit capability (RFC) criteria of half-facepiece air-purifying particulate respirators. The objective of this study was to evaluate if the test methods being developed for half-facepiece respirators can reasonably be applied to nonpowered full-facepiece–air-purifying respirators (FF–APR). Benchmark RFC test data were collected for three families of FF–APRs (a one-size-only family, a two-size family, and a three-size family). All respirators...
NF EN 14594 - Appareils de protection respiratoire
Le présent document spécifie les caractéristiques minimales exigées des appareils de protection respiratoire (APR) isolants à adduction d'air comprimé à débit continu utilisés avec des masques complets, des demi-masques, des cagoules, des casques ou des combinaisons, ainsi que des appareils utilisés dans les opérations de projection d'abrasifs en tant qu'appareils de protection respiratoire. Source: https://www.boutique.afnor.org/norme/nf-en-14594/appareils-de-protection-respiratoire-appareils-de-protection...
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Respiratory Protection Handbook
Since 2001, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has established performance and design standards for respiratory protective devices (RPDs) to protect against chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) hazards and toxic industrial chemicals. Prior to 2001, there were no standards for the use of RPDs by U.S. emergency response personnel that covered the full range of expected CBRN threats. Federal regulations require emergency response personnel to use respirators...
Respirator use and its impact on particulate matter exposure in aluminum manufacturing facilities
Objectives: As part of a large epidemiologic study of particulate health effect, this study aimed to report respirator use among total particulate matter (TPM) samples collected in a major aluminum manufacturing company from 1966‒2013 and evaluate the impact of respirator-use adjustment on exposure estimation. Methods: Descriptive analyses were performed to evaluate respirator use across facilities and by facility type and job. Protection factors were applied to TPM measurements for recorded respirator use. Estimated TPM exposure for each job ‒ before and after respirator-use adjustment ‒ were...
Les appareils de protection respiratoire
Choix et utilisation Ce guide s'adresse à toute personne qui, en situation de travail, doit procéder au choix d'un appareil de protection respiratoire pour une situation de travail où il existe un risque d'altération de la santé par inhalation d'un air pollué par des gaz, vapeurs, poussières, aérosols ou d'un air appauvri en oxygène . Il a été élaboré avec le concours des constructeurs d'appareils et du Syndicat national des matériels et articles de protection (SYNAMAP). Après...
Reliability of N95 respirators for respiratory protection before, during, and after nursing procedures
Background: The adequate fit of an N95 respirator is important for health care workers to reduce the transmission of airborne infectious diseases in the clinical setting. This study aimed to evaluate whether adequately sealed N95 respirators may provide consistent protection for the wearer while performing nursing procedures. Methods: Participants were a group of nursing students (N = 120). The best fitting respirator for these participants was identified from the 3 common models, 1860, 1860S, and 1870+ (3M), using the quantitative fit test (QNFT) method. Participants performed nursing...
Market surveillance of FFP3 disposable respirators
Filtering Facepieces (FFPs) are disposable Respiratory Protective Equipment (RPE) for protection against dusts, particles and aerosols. They are often referred to as 'disposable dust masks', are widely used, and generally require no cleaning or maintenance. They are available in three classes: FFP1, FFP2 and FFP3, with the higher numbers corresponding to better filtering efficiency. As with all types of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) sold in the UK, they must comply with the EU PPE Directive 89/686/EEC. It is the responsibility of the manufacturer or person placing the RPE on the European...
Évaluation de l’efficacité d'un filtre N95 contre des particules ultrafines, dont les nanoparticules, en mode de débits d'air constant et cyclique simulant la respiration des travailleurs
On trouve des particules ultrafines (PUF), soit des particules dont le diamètre (Dp) est inférieur à 100 nm, dans de nombreux milieux de travail industriels, où leur inhalation peut, à long terme, causer de graves problèmes de santé. Dans certains contextes, les mesures d'ingénierie et les contrôles administratifs sont insuffisants pour protéger adéquatement les travailleurs contre l'exposition aux PUF. Un dispositif de protection personnel est alors requis, et les appareils de protection respiratoire à pièce...
Performance of Facepiece Respirators and Surgical Masks Against Surgical Smoke
Simulated Workplace Protection Factor Study Objective: Surgical smoke generated during electrocautery contains toxins which may cause adverse health effects to operating room (OR) personnel. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of surgical masks (SMs), which are routinely used in ORs, more efficient N95 surgical mask respirator (SMRs) and N100 filtering facepiece respirator (FFRs), against surgical smoke. Methods: Ten subjects were recruited to perform surgical dissections on animal tissue in a simulated OR chamber, using a standard electrocautery device, generating surgical...
Ebola Care and Lack of Consensus on Personal Protective Respiratory Equipment
The Ebola epidemic in West Africa presents a considerable occupational risk to the health personnel involved. The principal mode of virus transmission to health care personnel is through direct contact with the patient, although transmission by aerosols through the air may also occur. Many safety protocols have been suggested relating to personal protection and particularly respiratory protection. It is generally agreed that all health care workers should have easy access to personal protective equipment. However, the degree of respiratory safety escalates from a mask, to an adequate respirator...
NIOSH Updates Software for Estimating Respirator Service Life
The NIOSH MultiVapor™ tool has been updated and posted to the web. MultiVapor™ is a computer tool for estimating breakthrough times and service lives of air-purifying respirator cartridges for removing toxic organic vapors from breathed air. It can also be used for larger filters and for carbon beds of any size prepared for laboratory studies. MultiVapor™ 2.2.3 replaces the 2.1.3 version. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/multivapor/multivapor.html
New NIOSH Study Supports the OSHA Annual Fit Testing Requirements for Filtering Facepiece Respirators
Results of a recently completed NIOSH study confirm the necessity of the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) respirator fit testing requirement, both annually and when physical changes have occurred. The study's conclusions emphasize that respirator users who have lost more than 20 pounds should be re-tested to be sure that the current size and model of respirator in use still properly fits. For over three years, NIOSH researchers followed a cohort of 229 subjects measuring N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) fit and physical characteristics (e.g., face size, weight...
Investigation into exposure when the visor of air fed RPE is raised during spraying
Air-fed visors (AFV) are commonly used within the Motor Vehicle Repair (MVR) trade for protection against exposure to isocyanate paints. However, a common practice amongst paint sprayers is to flip up the visor of their AFV immediately after spraying to check the quality of the paint finish. This may be only for a few seconds but if repeated numerous times during a work shift, this could potentially result in a significant increase in exposure. The aim of this project was to determine the reduction in protection and thus potential increase in exposure when the visor is lifted and to explore potential...
Developing a Performance Standard for Combination Unit Respirators
Workshop in Brief Combination unit respirators, a respirator that employs the technology of two or more types of respiratory protection, are presently used in the United States by some law enforcement and military units to respond to situations in which there are unknown and potentially dangerous respiratory hazards; they also have some industrial uses and potential for use in emergency response. On April 30, 2015 the Institute of Medicine hosted a workshop to explore the standards and research issues relevant to these respirators and their certification by the National Personal Protective Technology...
The effect of wearer stubble on the protection given by Filtering Facepieces Class 3 (FFP3) and Half Masks
HSE Inspectors routinely come across workers with various degrees of stubble growth using respiratory protective masks, despite guidance to the contrary. This research studied the effect of 0-7 days stubble growth on the protection given by FFP3 filtering facepieces and half masks. Fifteen male volunteers took part, each testing four masks. For most, three different design FFP3 and one half mask were tested, selected from seven models of FFP3 and 2 half masks. Fit tests were carried out immediately after shaving and repeated six times during the following week, without further shaving. Results...
Fumigation
Health & safety guidance for employers & technicians carrying out fumigation operations The guidance is primarily for employers and fumigators/fumigation technicians (including the self-employed) to help them comply with the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH) when carrying out fumigation activities, both traditional pest control (invertebrate fumigation) and within the laboratory and biosecurity sectors. It will also be useful to their safety representatives. It outlines the real risks and describes the law that applies to fumigation operations. There is...
N95 Respirators use during pregnancy
Findings from recent research Recent NIOSH research has shed some light on the topic of the safety of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFR) use by pregnant workers. Women make up approximately one-half of the US work force. At any given time, about 10% of those female workers of child-bearing age (15–44 years of age) will be pregnant. Because many women are employed in occupations that require the use of protective facemasks, such as medical/surgical masks and FFR, NIOSH conducted research into the safety of FFR use while pregnant. The most frequently used FFR in the US is the N95 FFR...
Choisir une protection respiratoire contre les bioaérosols
Ce nouvel outil vise à soutenir les intervenants dans le choix d'une protection respiratoire contre les bioaérosols infectieux ou non infectieux présents dans différents milieux de travail. Source: http://74.123.92.235/bioaerosol/
Workplace performance of a loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator during nanoparticle synthesis
Nanoparticle (particles with diameter ≤100 nm) exposure is recognized as a potentially harmful size fraction for pulmonary particle exposure. During nanoparticle synthesis, the number concentrations in the process room may exceed 10 × 106 cm−3. During such conditions, it is essential that the occupants in the room wear highly reliable high-performance respirators to prevent inhalation exposure. Here we have studied the in-use program protection factor (PPF) of loose-fitting powered air purifying respirators, while workers were coating components with TiO2 or Cu x O y nanoparticles...
Experimental and modeling study of thermal exposure of a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
An experimental apparatus designed to study firefighter safety equipment exposed to a thermal environment was developed. The apparatus consisted of an elevated temperature flow loop with the ability to heat the air stream up to 200°C. The thermal and flow conditions at the test section were characterized using thermocouples and bi-directional probes. The safety equipment examined in this study was a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), including a facepiece and an air cylinder. The SCBA facepiece was placed on a mannequin headform and coupled to a breathing simulator that was programmed...
Effects of air bottle design on postural control of firefighters
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of firefighter's self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) air bottle design and vision on postural control of firefighters. Twenty-four firefighters were tested using four 30-minute SCBA bottle designs that varied by mass and size. Postural sway measures were collected using a forceplate under two visual conditions (eyes open and closed) and two stance conditions (quiet and perturbed stances). For perturbed stance, a mild backward impulsive pull at the waist was applied. In addition to examining center of pressure postural sway measures...
Review of fit test pass criteria for Filtering Facepieces Class 3 (FFP3) respirators
Respiratory Protective Equipment (RPE) is available in a range of types which often include a tight-fitting facepiece which must fit the wearer's face well for the RPE to work effectively. Good fit must be demonstrated by fit testing. In this study, 25 volunteer test subjects wearing tight-fitting FFP3 (randomly selected from 9 different models) underwent four fit tests (Bitrex qualitative taste test, Portacount particle counting with and without the N95 companion technology and the laboratory chamber method), in random order, according to methodology given in HSE guidance 282/28. The selected...
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