2017-10-01 12:00 - Messages

Protéger les travailleurs du froid : mieux comprendre pour mieux agir

Dans de nombreux secteurs industriels, les travailleurs sont confrontés à des contraintes thermiques extrêmes et en particulier à des froids pouvant être intenses. Des normes internationales définissent le travail au froid à des températures égales ou inférieures à 10°C. Par exemple, les ouvriers de l'industrie alimentaire de transformation sont exposés, plusieurs heures par jour, à des températures comprises entre 0 et +10°C pour maintenir la chaine du froid (à des fins de conservation des denrées alimentaires) voire même à des températures inférieures à -20°C pour les produits congelés. Que ce soit dans des lieux fermés (entrepôts frigorifiques, abattoirs) ou en extérieur (construction, agriculture, services publics, etc.), la contrainte thermique par le froid peut avoir des conséquences importantes sur la santé (gelures, hypothermie), sur la sécurité (perte de vigilance et de sensibilité) et s'avérer parfois fatale.
Le premier article de cette veille explore les performances cognitives de huit participants humains exposés 24 heures à une température de 7,5°C. Il en découle quelques recommandations en cas d'exposition prolongée au froid. Le second article présente de récents travaux menés sur le transfert de chaleur à travers différentes couches textiles, utilisées dans la conception de vêtement de protection contre le froid (VPF). En particulier, il rapporte l'influence des caractéristiques géométriques, structurelles et de masse de ces couches sur les propriétés de transfert de masse et de chaleur, et donc sur le confort thermique, à travers des VPF.

Source: http://bvs.mag.anses.fr/sites/default/files/BVS-mg-032-Vinches-Halle.pdf

Modified gloves: A chance for the prevention of nosocomial infections

Background: Non-sterile gloves primarily serve as a barrier protection for health care workers (HCWs). However, pathogens may often contaminate the skin of HCWs during glove removal; therefore, pathogens may be further transmitted and cause nosocomial infections.
Methods: A field study was conducted comparing contamination rates when using standard gloves or a new modified product equipped with an additional flap (doffing aid) for easier removal. Gloves were removed after bathing gloved hands in an artificial fluorescent lotion. The number of contamination spots was then visually examined using ultraviolet light.
Results: There were 317 individuals who participated in this study: 146 participants (104 nurses and 42 physicians) used standard gloves, whereas 171 participants (118 nurses and 53 physicians) used the modified product. Use of the modified gloves instead of the standard product (15.8% vs 73.3%, respectively; P < .001) and being a physician rather than a nurse (29.5% vs 47.7%, respectively; P = .003) were the only independent risk factors for reduction of contamination.
Conclusions: This study shows that the modified product could, at least in vitro, significantly reduce the rate of hand and wrist contamination during removal compared with standard gloves. By this, it may significantly improve the overall quality of patient care when used on the wards directly at the patient's site.

Source: Gleser, M., Schwab, F., Solbach, P., & Vonberg, R. P. (2017). American Journal of Infection Control.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2017.08.024

Evaluation of surgical glove integrity and factors associated with glove defect

Background: Surgical glove perforation may expose both patients and staff members to severe complications. This study aimed to determine surgical glove perforation rate and the factors associated with glove defect.
Material and methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between January and March 2017 at a Tunisian university hospital center in 3 different surgical departments: urology, maxillofacial, and general and digestive. The gloves were collected and tested to detect perforations using the water-leak test as described in European Norm NF EN 455-1. For percentage comparisons, the χ2 test was used with a significance threshold of 5%.
Results: A total of 284 gloves were collected. Of these, 47 were found to be perforated, a rate of 16.5%. All perforations were unnoticed by the surgical team members. The majority of perforated gloves (61.7%) were collected after urology procedures (P = .00005), 77% of perforated gloves were detected when the duration of the procedure exceeded 90 minutes (P = .001), and 96% were from brand A, which were the thicker gloves (P = .015).
Conclusions: This study highlighted an important problem neglected by surgical teams. The findings reaffirm the importance of double-gloving and changing gloves in surgeries of more than 90 minutes' duration.

Source: Tlili, M. A., Belgacem, A., Sridi, H., Akouri, M., Aouicha, W., Soussi, S., ... & Dhiab, M. B. (2017). American Journal of Infection Control.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2017.07.016

Abonnement courriel

Messages récents

Catégories

Mots-Clés (Tags)

Blogoliste

Archives