2015-12-01 12:00 - Messages

Provision Increases Reported PPE Use for Mexican Immigrant Farmworkers

Objective: Personal protective equipment (PPE) reduces pesticide exposures, but many farmworkers complain that it is difficult to obtain. We examined if PPE provision increased usage. We also delivered motivational messaging aimed to promote PPE use.
Methods: First, we delivered a daily survey through a mobile phone app to assess PPE use. Farmworkers subsequently received a daily, individualized motivational message based on their PPE use and reported difficulties. PPE use was evaluated at baseline and at the close of the study.
Results: PPE behaviors improved for gloves (P?≤?0.01) and safety glasses (P?≤?0.001). Use of long-sleeved shirts, hats, and long pants were already consistently used at baseline and did not exhibit significant change.
Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that PPE provision and delivery of motivational messaging through mobile phones may increase PPE usage for farmworkers.

Source: Snipes, Shedra Amy; Smyth, Joshua M.; Murphy, Dennis; Miranda, Patricia Y.; Ishino, Francisco Alejandro Montiel. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine: December 2015, Volume 57, Issue 12, p. 1343-1346.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000563

Heat strain imposed by personal protective ensembles

Quantitative analysis using a thermoregulation model
The objective of this paper is to study the effects of personal protective equipment (PPE) and specific PPE layers, defined as thermal/evaporative resistances and the mass, on heat strain during physical activity. A stepwise thermal manikin testing and modeling approach was used to analyze a PPE ensemble with four layers: uniform, ballistic protection, chemical protective clothing, and mask and gloves. The PPE was tested on a thermal manikin, starting with the uniform, then adding an additional layer in each step. Wearing PPE increases the metabolic rates [Formula: see text], thus [Formula: see text] were adjusted according to the mass of each of four configurations. A human thermoregulatory model was used to predict endurance time for each configuration at fixed [Formula: see text] and at its mass adjusted [Formula: see text]. Reductions in endurance time due to resistances, and due to mass, were separately determined using predicted results. Fractional contributions of PPE's thermal/evaporative resistances by layer show that the ballistic protection and the chemical protective clothing layers contribute about 20 %, respectively. Wearing the ballistic protection over the uniform reduced endurance time from 146 to 75 min, with 31 min of the decrement due to the additional resistances of the ballistic protection, and 40 min due to increased [Formula: see text] associated with the additional mass. Effects of mass on heat strain are of a similar magnitude relative to effects of increased resistances. Reducing resistances and mass can both significantly alleviate heat strain.

Source: Xu X, Gonzalez JA, Santee WR, Blanchard LA, Hoyt RW. Int. J. Biometeorol. 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-015-1100-0 

Predictors of Adherence to Safe Handling Practices for Antineoplastic Drugs

A Survey of Hospital Nurses
Background: Despite growing awareness of the hazards of exposure to antineoplastic drugs (ADs), surveys continue to find incomplete adherence to recommended safe handling guidelines. A 2011 survey of healthcare workers presents an opportunity to examine factors associated with adherence among 1094 hospital nurses who administered ADs. Methods: Data for these hypothesis-generating analyses were taken from an anonymous, web-based survey of healthcare workers. Regression modeling was used to examine associations between a number of predictors (engineering controls, work practices, nurse perceptions, and nurse and hospital characteristics) and three outcomes reported by nurses: use of personal protective equipment (PPE); activities performed with gloves previously worn to administer ADs; and spills of ADs. Results: Adherence to safe handling guidelines was not universal, and AD spills were reported by 9.5% of nurses during the week prior to the survey. Familiarity with safe handling guidelines and training in safe handling were associated with more reported PPE use. Nurse-perceived availability of PPE was associated with more reported PPE use and lower odds of reported spills. Use of closed system drug-transfer devices and luer-lock fittings also decreased the odds of self-reported AD spills, while more frequent AD administration increased the risk. AD administration frequency was also associated with performing more activities with gloves previously worn to administer ADs, and nurse perception of having adequate time for taking safety precautions with fewer such activities. Conclusions: The results suggest that training and familiarity with guidelines for safe handling of ADs, adequate time to adhere to guidelines, and availability of PPE and certain engineering controls are key to ensuring adherence to safe handling practices. Further assessment of training components and engineering controls would be useful for tailoring interventions targeting these areas.

Source: Sharon R. Silver, Andrea L. Steege & James M. Boiano. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2015.1091963

NIOSH Firefighter Body Dimension Data Supports Design Changes and Safety

We have come to rely on, and expect firefighters to rush into burning buildings, put out flames, and save lives. Yet, each year many firefighters die in the line of duty and thousands more sustain injuries. For these reasons, researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recorded and developed the first database of firefighter body measurements (also known as anthropometric information) to improve the design, and ultimately the safety, of fire apparatus and equipment that firefighters depend on to help protect themselves on the job.

Source: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/updates/upd-12-2-15.html

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