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Risk assessment in safety of machinery
Impact of construction flaws in risk estimation parameters In the risk assessment approach as defined in the International Standard ISO 12100: 2010, risk estimation is an essential step that allows machinery designers and users to determine the level of risk, and to identify the most critical hazardous situations. Previous studies demonstrated that the numerous qualitative tools proposed to estimate risks in safety of machinery take several forms, and that many of their features can significantly influence the level of risk obtained. In this study, the impact of some of these features was assessed...
Fault tree analysis and risk mitigation strategies for mine hoists
Mine hoist are an essential part of an underground mine. In addition to extracting the ore from the mine, this machine transports the miners from the surface to the various underground levels of the mine. The two main hazards to which minors in the cage are exposed to are rope severance and loss of control of the hoisting machine. In both cases, the risk is the crashing of the cage at one end of the shaft. Hoisting accident and fatalities are rare but still happen despite the use of safety catches to retain the cage in the event of rope severance. The objective of this article is to improve mine...
Literature review on the incentives and solutions for the bypassing of guards and protective devices on machinery
Bypassing guards and protective devices on machinery can lead to serious and fatal accidents. The aim of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive review that sheds light on the definition of bypassing, related regulations and standards, workers' incentives to bypass, and possible solutions to overcome this issue. The review generated 72 incentives to bypass guards and protective devices and 82 solutions. Some of the most frequent incentives included the necessity to remove safeguards in order to perform activities (e.g. adjustment, troubleshooting, maintenance, and installation), a lack of...
Estimation of probability of harm in safety of machinery using an investigation systemic approach and Logical Analysis of Data
In safety of machinery, estimating the probability of occurrence of harm is a recurrent problem. This paper proposes and applies a new method to estimate that probability. Information regarding accidents involving machinery that is gathered and analyzed by experts is formatted based on a systemic-inspired model using the MELITO concept. Then, Logical Analysis of Data (LAD) is used to extract knowledge automatically to characterize accidents. MELITO describes the context in which the accident has occurred, gathering information about the moment (M), equipment (E), location (L), individual (I), task...
Worker safety and injury severity analysis of earthmoving equipment accidents
Introduction: Research on construction worker safety associated with construction equipment has mostly focused on accident type rather than injury severity and the embedded factor relationships. Significant variables and their effects on the degree of injury are examined for earthmoving equipment using data from OSHA. Four types of equipment, backhoe, bulldozer, excavator, and scraper are included in the study. Accidents involving on-foot workers and equipment operators are investigated collectively, as well as separately. Methods: Cross tabulation analysis was conducted to establish the associations...
Les espaces confinés
Les espaces confinés sont présents dans tous les secteurs d'activité. Ils sont néanmoins encore souvent méconnus ou mal identifiés et, par conséquent, ils constituent un parent pauvre en matière de prévention des risques. Pourtant, le personnel qui évolue en leur sein est exposé à des risques mortels. Des mesures de prévention et des formations existent pour assurer les interventions le plus en sécurité possible. Source: (2017). Travail & sécurité (789), 13-24. http://www...
Validation of the impact of architectural flaws in six machine risk estimation tools
To address the hazards inherent in industrial machinery, machine designers and users must conduct risk assessments and use risk reduction measures. Machine risk estimation plays a crucial role in choosing and prioritizing risk reduction methods (e.g., level of performance required for the safety-related control system). A large number of machine risk estimation tools exist, and each tool has its own specific parameters and architecture. Flaws in a tool may bias risk estimation and lead to the adoption of inappropriate or insufficient risk reduction methods. An earlier study identified potential...
E.CLOS - Un outil pour la gestion des risques en espace clos
L’IRSST vient de mettre en ligne un outil d’analyse et de gestion des risques pour les interventions en espace clos. Nommé E.CLOS, cet outil est destiné aux personnes qualifiées en la matière, soit les préventeurs, gestionnaires, donneurs d’ouvrage, maîtres d’œuvre, concepteurs-intégrateurs et sauveteurs. L’outil prend en considération les principaux dangers potentiels et il tient compte du contexte normatif et réglementaire du Québec. E.CLOS peut servir autant à la conception qu’à...
Introduction of the human factor in the estimation of accident frequencies through fuzzy logic
The frequency of occurrence of an accident scenario is one of the key aspects to take into consideration in the field of risk assessment. This frequency is commonly assessed by a generic failure frequency approach. Although every data source takes into account different variables, aspects such as the human factor are not explicitly detailed, mainly because this factor is laborious to quantify. In the present work, the generic failure frequencies are modified using fuzzy logic. This theory allows the inclusion of qualitative variables that are not considered by traditional methods and to deal with...
Numerical analysis of passive safety systems in forklift trucks
90 accidents involving forklift trucks occur each year in Poland, resulting in nearly 100 injured persons including 10–15 fatalities. The most frequent and most dangerous accidents include those caused by the loss of stability of a forklift truck with the operator inside, resulting in its tip-over. More than a half of this type of incidents have a fatal outcome. The paper describes results of tests aimed at verifying the effectiveness of passive safety systems used to protect the operator against the effects of the truck tip-over. The tests were performed with the use of numerical simulation...
Exploring the human and physical factors associated with telescopic handler overturning risks
A combination of machine instability and various human factors elements are important precipitating factors in telescopic handler overturn incidents. Industry guidance makes a number of assumptions about the impact of operator “knowledge gaps”, however the link between operator knowledge gaps and overturn risk is, at present, hypothetical and remains empirically untested. This study was done to identify: - the full range of human factors issues that might potentially contribute to telescopic handler overturn incidents; - the human factors issues that appear to be most important in terms...
Phénomènes, situations, événements dangereux et dommages
Ce document est un aide-mémoire présentant une méthode qui permet d’analyser les risques associés aux machines dangereuses utilisées dans les milieux de travail. La méthode est fondée sur des principes éprouvés. L’analyse du risque, telle qu’elle y est présentée, sert à repérer les phénomènes dangereux, à estimer les risques et à choisir les mesures de sécurité appropriées. Il comprend entre autres un modèle de grille d’analyse...
A study of the generic safety-integrity requirements of fairground rides
The use of computer-based control systems allows modern fairground rides to perform increasingly complex functions at very high speeds. In some cases, passenger safety will depend on the correct operation of these control systems, so their failure could compromise passenger safety. As a result, it is important that the rate of potentially dangerous control-system failures is adequately low in relation to the hazard level associated with the functions that they carry out. Quantitative risk assessment techniques are used in, for example, the process and manufacturing industries, but these techniques...
A new approximation for risk assessment using the AHP and Fine Kinney methodologies
The most important stage in the field of occupational health and safety is the assessment stage, where the risk point of each identified hazard is calculated, and a determination is made as to whether the hazard level is acceptable or unacceptable. In the field of risk assessment, the Fine Kinney method is commonly used in practice. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) might also be used as an efficient method in determining the importance levels of the hazards in risk assessment studies, but the AHP method does not determine whether the hazards are at an acceptable level based on their risk...
Access to and work on flatbed vehicles
Flatbed vehicles are widely used to transport many types of goods on the road. They offer advantages over closed vehicles in terms of easy access to the load bed for loading and unloading and versatility of use. A number of fatal or major incidents are reported to HSE and local authorities where drivers, members of the public, or site personnel have been injured during the loading and unloading of these vehicles. This report describes a multi-disciplinary, mixed-method approach to research on this topic, comprising both quantitative and qualitative analysis, undertaken to establish contributory...
Expérimentation pratique de paramètres et d’outils d’estimation du risque
Dans une démarche d'appréciation du risque telle que définie dans la norme internationale ISO 12100:2010, l'estimation du risque est une étape essentielle permettant aux concepteurs et aux utilisateurs de machines de déterminer le niveau de risque et les situations dangereuses les plus critiques. Deux études antérieures financées par l'Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST) ont permis de révéler que les nombreux outils qui permettent de réaliser...
Développement d’un outil d’analyse du risque et de catégorisation des interventions en espace clos
Cette recherche vise à prévenir les accidents en espaces clos en aidant les entreprises à appliquer la réglementation en vigueur. Les deux objectifs spécifiques sont de (i) mieux comprendre la gestion des risques en espace clos et déterminer les difficultés en se basant sur la littérature et des observations sur le terrain et (ii) développer un outil d'analyse du risque et de catégorisation des interventions en espace clos qui répond aux besoins établis dans la première partie du projet. La méthode...
Réussir l'acquisition d'une machine ou d'un équipement de travail
Acquérir une machine ou un équipement de production ne se limite pas à la comparaison de performances techniques et de prix. Ce guide propose une démarche et des conseils pour réussir le processus d'acquisition en intégrant la santé et la sécurité des utilisateurs, les exigences techniques de la future machine et les usages attendus. Dans un premier temps, une démarche sous forme de logigramme est présentée et commentée, suivie d'une proposition de cahier des charges d'achat d'une machine...
Les risques professionnels liés aux systèmes industriels automatisés
Compte-rendu de la 8e conférence internationale sur la sécurité des systèmes industriels automatisés - SIAS 2015 La conférence internationale SIAS 2015, organisée par l'Institut für Arbeitsschutz (IFA) en partenariat avec d'autres organismes de recherche, était consacrée à la prévention des risques professionnels associés aux systèmes industriels automatisés. Elle fut notamment l'occasion de dresser un panorama des dernières innovations proposées ou prévues dans...
Learning from major accidents to improve system design
Despite the massive developments in new technologies, materials and industrial systems, notably supported by advanced structural and risk control assessments, recent major accidents are challenging the practicality and effectiveness of risk control measures designed to improve reliability and reduce the likelihood of losses. Contemporary investigations of accidents occurred in high-technology systems highlighted the connection between human-related issues and major events, which led to catastrophic consequences. Consequently, the understanding of human behavioural characteristics interlaced with...
Sécurité des machines. Modes de fonctionnement protections neutralisées
Lors de la conception des équipements de travail, la prise en compte des différents besoins d'intervention hors production est souvent difficile. Pour la faciliter, cette brochure propose d'identifier ces interventions et présente une analyse de l'accidentologie. Elle examine également les conditions de mise en oeuvre d'une intervention particulière, l'observation du processus, en proposant des principes de solutions lorsque des protections doivent être neutralisées. Cete brochure concerne à la fois les concepteurs de machines...
Trends of occupational fatalities involving machines - United States (1992-2010)
Background: This paper describes trends of occupational machine-related fatalities from 1992–2010. We examine temporal patterns by worker demographics, machine types (e.g., stationary, mobile), and industries. Methods: We analyzed fatalities from Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries data provided by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We used injury source to identify machine-related incidents and Poisson regression to assess trends over the 19-year period. Results: There was an average annual decrease of 2.8% in overall machine-related...
Presse à injection de plastique horizontale avec équipements périphériques
La zone dangereuse du moule d’une presse à injection est le site de plusieurs phénomènes dangereux. Certains dangers trouvent leur origine dans la presse elle-même, d’autres résultent des équipements périphériques utilisés avec les presses à injection. Ce guide permet de définir les zones à risque et les moyens de réduction du risque pour améliorer la sécurité des travailleurs. Il porte spécifiquement sur les risques liés à l’utilisation d’une...
Work-related fatalities associated with unsafe design of machinery, plant and powered tools, (2006-2011)
This study examined 523 worker fatalities for which there was sufficient information on the circumstances to make a judgement on the contribution of unsafe design to the incident. Of these, 63 fatalities (12%) were determined to have been either definitely caused by unsafe design or design-related factors clearly contributed to the fatality. A further 125 fatalities (24%) were considered possibly design-related: these included incidents where the circumstances suggested that unsafe design played a role or were incidents that might have been prevented had existing safety technology been used. The...
A visual analytics system for railway safety management
The working environment of railways is challenging and complex and often involves high-risk operations which affect both the company staff and inhabitants of the towns and cities alongside the railway lines. Rail companies adopt several strategies to reduce the exposure to risk of their employees and the public, which involve having trained personnel, safety technologies and work practices. However, despite this, railways remain high-risk operations and unfortunate incidents still occur. In this paper a visual analytics system is employed to help in the management of railway safety. This system...
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