2016-11-01 12:00 - Messages

A hybrid human and organizational analysis method for railway accidents based on HFACS-Railway Accidents (HFACS-RAs)

Accidents continue to be the major concern in the railway industry, and human factors have been proved to be the prime causes to railway accidents. In this paper, the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System-Railway Accidents (HFACS-RAs) framework is proposed to identify and classify human and organizational factors involved in railway accidents. To establish an applicable HFACS-RAs framework, large amount of incident and accident data are collected and the existing safety flaws are identified by safety experts, manufactures and railway managers who have attended the HFACS workshop. To find out the leading accident casual factors, the Analytical Network Process (ANP) method combined with Fuzzy Decision Making Trail and Evaluation (DEMATEL) method is adopted to analyze the influence relationships of human and organization factors classified by HFACS-RAs framework after its reliability is demonstrated. The expert judgement is required in most phases in this study for the uncertainty and complexity of the human and organizational factors and the proposed method to identify the main casual factors is elaborated in the case study. The relevant preventative measures can be raised to avoid the recurrence of similar accidents after the investigation. Finally some considerations on further work are discussed.

Source: Zhan, Q., Zheng, W., & Zhao, B. (2017). Safety science, 91, 232-250.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2016.08.017

The use of vehicle structure in load securing on heavy goods vehicles

Securing loads for safe transport is a legal requirement in the UK. It helps to protect the driver of the vehicle, other road users and pedestrians during the vehicle's journey from vehicle rollover or load detachment, and the driver and unloading personnel from the risks inherent in unloading a load that has been able to move in transit.
This report assesses the legislation applicable to the transport of goods in the UK under both road traffic and health and safety at work legislation. It assesses the guidance available to operators and consignors and the methods of securing loads that are commonly-used at present.
It is suggested that the concept of the load securing system, which comprises the structure of the vehicle, physical barriers to movement, and/or lashings, be given more prominence in current practice. In order to make effective use of the vehicle structure, it is important to ensure that the structure is in sound condition, and that vehicle headboards and bulkheads, in particular, are both strong enough to resist forward movement of the load and also maintained in serviceable condition to protect the driver from ingress of the load to the cab.

Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr1078.htm

A study of the generic safety-integrity requirements of fairground rides

The use of computer-based control systems allows modern fairground rides to perform increasingly complex functions at very high speeds. In some cases, passenger safety will depend on the correct operation of these control systems, so their failure could compromise passenger safety. As a result, it is important that the rate of potentially dangerous control-system failures is adequately low in relation to the hazard level associated with the functions that they carry out.
Quantitative risk assessment techniques are used in, for example, the process and manufacturing industries, but these techniques have been slow in moving to the fairground industry. To try and rectify this, this report sets out to illustrate how quantitative risk assessment techniques can be used to determine the target Safety Integrity Level (SIL) for the control systems of three diverse types of fairground ride, with the intention of encouraging the use of these techniques and also to indicate the expected target SIL requirements for the control systems of these typical types of ride.

Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr1080.htm

Grues à tour

Gestion des zones d'interférence et des zones interdites sur les chantiers
Compte tenu des contraintes propres à certains chantiers, les grues à tour se trouvent souvent implantées au coeur de zones d'interférence et de zones interdites. L'objet de ce guide est de repréciser les règles de bonne pratique en matière de choix et d'utilisation des dispositifs de sécurité de gestion de ces zones à risque ainsi que les règles en matière de formation du personnel. Il vient compléter la collection des appareils de levage et s'adresse à un large public : chefs d'établissement, préventeurs, formateurs et conducteurs de grues à tour.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/media.html?refINRS=ED%206255

A new approximation for risk assessment using the AHP and Fine Kinney methodologies

The most important stage in the field of occupational health and safety is the assessment stage, where the risk point of each identified hazard is calculated, and a determination is made as to whether the hazard level is acceptable or unacceptable. In the field of risk assessment, the Fine Kinney method is commonly used in practice. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) might also be used as an efficient method in determining the importance levels of the hazards in risk assessment studies, but the AHP method does not determine whether the hazards are at an acceptable level based on their risk points. In this paper, a risk assessment study has been conducted in a large manufacturing company in which the hazards were determined based on experience, and the past 10 years' statistical records were categorized and each category has been prioritized using the AHP method. The hazards determined in the field have also been assessed using the Fine Kinney method. The relation between the assessment of the risk class in the Fine Kinney risk assessment and the AHP points has been examined and the risk class intervals for AHP have been determined. In the study, an approach has been developed based on the fact that the measure of the risk class in the Fine Kinney risk assessment method could be used with the results obtained using the AHP method; therefore, the importance levels and risk classes of the hazards might be able to be determined together with the AHP method.

Source: Kokangül, A., Polat, U., & Dagsuyu, C. (2017). Safety science, 91, 24-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2016.07.015

Access to and work on flatbed vehicles

Flatbed vehicles are widely used to transport many types of goods on the road. They offer advantages over closed vehicles in terms of easy access to the load bed for loading and unloading and versatility of use.
A number of fatal or major incidents are reported to HSE and local authorities where drivers, members of the public, or site personnel have been injured during the loading and unloading of these vehicles.
This report describes a multi-disciplinary, mixed-method approach to research on this topic, comprising both quantitative and qualitative analysis, undertaken to establish contributory factors to incidents and areas of concern when accessing or working on flatbed vehicles.

Source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr1079.htm

AHP-based analysis of the risk potential of safety incidents

Case study of cranes in the construction industry
The use of data collected from near-miss reports has added value to safety in high-hazard industries such as aviation and the process industry, but this procedure has not yet taken root in construction management practice. Although the management of near-miss reporting systems and the collection of near-miss event reports have been the focus of recent research efforts, the structural analyses of reports have not yet been investigated. This paper reports on a multi-phase research that studied near misses related to crane work and their safety risk potential. Former research stages concentrated on collecting near-miss as well as accident stories and established a structured database of tower-crane related events. The reported events were further classified into five homogeneous clusters and their potential for escalating into accidents at a given outcome severity level was assessed. The research stage reported in this paper builds on the results of the previous stage results, and implements the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to evaluate the quantitative outcome severity level values, thus computing each event's total risk potential. The research outcomes reveal inter-relations between technical factors and human factors in the tower-crane domain. Further application is demonstrated, using the risk potential values for construction company safety assessments.

Source: Raviv, G., Shapira, A., & Fishbain, B. (2017). Safety science, 91, 298-309.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2016.08.027

A novel train control approach to avoid rear-end collision based on geese migration principle

For current train interval control based on Automatic Train Protection (ATP) system, when the ATP outputs erroneous commands or is unable to realize fail-safety in the case of ATP equipment failure, train rear-end collision will be likely to happen. The “7.23” train accident happened in 2011 in China is a typical example. A method of parallel control of train interval by using both Centralized Traffic Control (CTC) and ATP, or simplified as CTC&ATP based interval control, is proposed. By adding some hardware and software into the existing CTC system, the CTC can monitor train following interval and give early warning. In this method CTC based interval control works together with the existing ATP, the monitoring of train interval will be doubled. This method can improve the safety of train interval control, compensate for the lack of control when the autonomic control fails, and avoid common cause failures. The geese migration theory is used in the proposed method, in which the CTC controls the train interval as the goose line, while the ATP controls the train interval as goose interval. This paper analyzes the necessity and feasibility of the proposed CTC based train interval pre-warning and control method, and explains the basic structure of the system, data acquisition, train following interval calculation, pre-warning rules and implementation of the system. The CTC based train interval calculation model was established and the warning distances under different speed were calculated. The safety and reliability of CTC&ATP train interval control system were analyzed.

Source: Wang, J., Wang, J., Roberts, C., Chen, L., & Zhang, Y. (2017). Safety science, 91, 373-380.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2016.08.025

Analyzing risk factors in crane-related near-miss and accident reports

Learning lessons from near-miss reports is a well-known procedure in various high-hazard industries. The construction industry tends to adopt near-miss management systems, but the procedure is relatively new and has not yet been fully explored or understood. Although the management of near-miss reporting systems in construction has been investigated, no effort appears to have been made to suggest a methodology for technically investigating the content of near-miss reported events. This paper reports a study that implemented both qualitative and quantitative analysis methods for a structured investigation of tower-crane-related incident stories (near misses and accidents). The study began by collecting a large number of incident stories (51 accidents and 161 near misses) that were qualitatively analyzed to form an incident database that served as raw material for further quantitative analyses. The database structure definitions contained categories, which in turn contained variables, such as defining the event severity outcomes on a six-point scale from ‘1' – near miss to ‘6' – fatality. Further quantitative analysis suggests comparing groups of similar or identical incidents. The groups (clusters) were established by implementing k-means clustering based on the database definitions as variables. The relative risk potential of each cluster was then quantified by comparing each cluster's severity outcome occurrences to those of the other clusters and to the entire database as well. Findings from the analyses suggest that technical failures are the most hazardous risk factors within the tower crane domain.

Source: Raviv, G., Fishbain, B., & Shapira, A. (2017). Safety science, 91, 192-205.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2016.08.022

Personal factors and consequences of electrical occupational accidents in the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors

Electrical accidents at work are characterised by the severity of the damage caused. Since the circumstances surrounding this type of accidents can have an impact on their outcome, this study identifies significant relationships between personal factors and the consequences of these accidents for various sectors of activity. This study is based on an analysis of dependence relationships in 55 categories classified into 10 variables associated with 14,022 electrical accidents which occurred in Spain between 2003 and 2012. The results obtained show that the three sectors of activity are impacted differently by electrical accidents for both direct and indirect contact. Likewise, a higher proportion of severe and fatal accidents is confirmed compared to the total number of accidents in the country; this figure is multiplied by 22 in the case of fatal accidents due to direct electrical contact in the primary sector. The analysis of personal factors identified statistically significant relationships between this type of accident and the workers' sex, age, experience, nationality and occupation. These results show that the competent authorities must promote actions to verify that the installations and equipment used in the workplace comply with applicable legislation regarding protection against direct and indirect electrical contact. Likewise, it is necessary to design strategies to provide workers with education and training that is adapted to their personal and occupational circumstances to protect them against electrical risks.

Source: Castillo-Rosa, J., Suárez-Cebador, M., Rubio-Romero, J. C., & Aguado, J. A. (2017). Safety science, 91, 286-297.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2016.08.021

Une application pour travailler en sécurité face au risque électrique

En 12 questions clés, l’application INRS Elec aide les utilisateurs à identifier les situations potentiellement dangereuses lors d’interventions sur des installations ou des équipements électriques. L’application est disponible sur tablette et PC.

Source: http://www.inrs.fr/actualites/INRS-Elec.html

Perspectives sur le travail de demain: La robotique

Les machines font partie de la réalité humaine depuis longtemps, mais la révolution industrielle a marqué un tournant décisif dans leur utilisation. À l'époque, leur signification et leur importance furent généralement reconnues, mais suscitèrent des réactions très variables: d'aucuns les perçurent comme une menace, et d'autres comme des opportunités prometteuses. Aujourd'hui, à l'heure de la technologie ubiquitaire et en pleine période de transition, nous sommes confrontés à une situation similaire concernant, cette fois-ci, les machines et processus intelligents.
Comme décrit ci-dessous, «l'évolution (ou révolution) ubiquitaire» va ouvrir la voie à une nouvelle ère où des machines et équipements pourront être installés partout - même dans le corps humain; les robots sont en passe de devenir des assistants humains et, à long terme, des collègues de travail.

Source: https://osha.europa.eu/sites/default/files/publications/documents/FR-W-818-%20Robotics%20dicussion%20paper.pdf

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