2016-04-01 12:00 - Messages

Méthode de choix d'un dispositif de protection sensible pour sécuriser une machine

Pour réduire les risques mécaniques liés à l'utilisation des machines fixes, l'utilisateur ou le concepteur peut avoir recours à des équipements de protection sensibles. Mais comment faire son choix parmi tous les dispositifs disponibles? Une méthode mise au point par l'INRS offre des éléments de réponses pour sélectionner la protection la mieux adaptée à la mise en sécurité de la machine.

Source: Thiay, David (2016). Hygiène et Sécurité du Travail, 242, 52-57.

Managing risks linked to machinery in sawmills by controlling hazardous energies

Theory and practice in eight sawmills
Machines pose various types of hazards and exposure to these hazards can result in injury or death. Risks linked to machinery can be managed by controlling hazardous energies. Safety procedures are thus used to control hazardous energies on machinery when workers perform different tasks such as maintenance, unjamming, or repair work. These procedures are part of a safety management policy for hazardous energies. The policy is described in a document referred to as the lockout program, which includes activities and work targeted by lockout, audits, hazard identification, training, communication and so on. The objective of this paper is to understand how the lockout program is actually implemented. As such, seven lockout programs from eight sawmills were analyzed. Twenty-two interviews were conducted with machine operators, maintenance workers and managers to gain a better understanding of the actual application of lockout programs, identify weak points and propose improvements. Fifty-seven lockout procedures were also observed. It was found that (i) hazard identification was incomplete, (ii) lockout program signatures and dates were missing, (iii) actual lockout practices were better than the procedures described in the programs regarding lockout hardware, rules to observe when using lockout hardware (e.g. keeping keys in one's possession at all times) and machinery design for facilitating lockout, (iv) locks were applied to control systems during minor unjamming contrary to lockout principles, and (v) permits were issued as alternatives to lockout for troubleshooting without risk assessment. In actual fact, risk assessment is needed for both interventions requiring lockout and those without lockout.

Source: Poisson, Pascal; Chinniah, Yuvin. Safety Science. Volume 84, April 2016, p. 117-130.

Learning from major accidents to improve system design

Despite the massive developments in new technologies, materials and industrial systems, notably supported by advanced structural and risk control assessments, recent major accidents are challenging the practicality and effectiveness of risk control measures designed to improve reliability and reduce the likelihood of losses. Contemporary investigations of accidents occurred in high-technology systems highlighted the connection between human-related issues and major events, which led to catastrophic consequences. Consequently, the understanding of human behavioural characteristics interlaced with current technology aspects and organisational context seems to be of paramount importance for the safety & reliability field. First, significant drawbacks related to the human performance data collection will be minimised by the development of a novel industrial accidents dataset, the Multi-attribute Technological Accidents Dataset (MATA-D), which groups 238 major accidents from different industrial backgrounds and classifies them under a common framework (the Contextual Control Model used as basis for the Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method). The accidents collection and the detailed interpretation will provide a rich data source, enabling the usage of integrated information to generate input to design improvement schemes. Then, implications to improve robustness of system design and tackle the surrounding factors and tendencies that could lead to the manifestation of human errors will be effectively addressed.

Source: Moura, Raphael; Beer, Michael; Patelli, Edoardo; Lewis, John; Knoll, Franz. Safety Science. Volume 84, April 2016, p. 37-45.

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