Travail, emploi et douance

Sujet émergent depuis quelques années, la question des adultes doués et de la place qui leur est faite au sein de notre société met en évidence les difficultés d'intégration socio-professionnelle auxquelles ces derniers sont exposés. Bénéficiant d'une intelligence à laquelle sont cependant corrélées certaines vulnérabilités, les personnes douées ne bénéficient pas toujours de conditions favorables au développement de leur plein potentiel. Pourtant, les politiques publiques, qu'elles soient européennes ou nationales, tendraient à ce qu'une attention particulière leur soit accordée au sein des organisations socio-productives – prise en charge par la collectivité qui, à n'en pas douter et au regard des enjeux que recouvre la promotion de la diversité et de la qualité de vie au travail, ne peut que leur être profitable tant elle leur permettrait d'intégrer toutes les ressources de l'intelligence humaine.

Source: Jaffré, Y. G., Dulon, L. et Verbeek, S. (2019). Perspectives interdisciplinaires sur le travail et la santé, (21-1).
https://journals.openedition.org/pistes/6296

L’utilité de la formation dans la prévention des risques psychosociaux au travail

Cet article se propose d'alimenter la réflexion sur l'intervention dans le champ de la santé au travail. Dans cette recherche, nous nous sommes plus particulièrement centrée sur la capacité d'une action de formation sur la prévention des risques psychosociaux au travail (RPS) à développer des ressources psychosociales nouvelles dans les organisations. Les résultats sont issus de l'analyse de 14 plans d'action et comparent le niveau d'importance des ressources élaborées selon qu'il y ait eu ou pas une formation des acteurs impliqués en amont de la démarche de prévention primaire. L'analyse des résultats montre que, paradoxalement, la formation a tendance à centrer l'action des acteurs sur des réponses individuelles.

Source: Rouat, S. (2019). Perspectives interdisciplinaires sur le travail et la santé, (21-1).
https://journals.openedition.org/pistes/6217

Une forme de gestion désincarnée de l’activité

L'exemple d'une formation en santé et sécurité du travail destinée aux préposés aux bénéficiaires au Québec
Cet article a pour objectif d'illustrer les limites d'un mode de gestion désincarné de l'activité réelle de travail. Nous prenons l'exemple d'un mode de gestion « top-down » d'une formation en santé au travail destinée aux préposés aux bénéficiaires travaillant dans les organisations gériatriques au Québec. À partir d'une étude qualitative (neuf entrevues semi-dirigées avec des préposés) visant à déterminer les facteurs favorables à l'application de cette formation, nous décrivons trois résultats principaux. D'une part, l'activité des préposés est structurée quotidiennement en matière de rythmes de travail et de balises temporelles. D'autre part, les préposés utilisent des stratégies de régulation des temporalités qui contreviennent en partie aux savoirs transmis lors de la formation initiale. Enfin, le contenu du programme de formation n'est pas fréquemment respecté. Nous émettons deux recommandations visant le développement d'autres formations en nous basant sur la participation directe des préposés.

Source: Aubry, F. et Feillou, I. (2019). Perspectives interdisciplinaires sur le travail et la santé, (21-1).
https://journals.openedition.org/pistes/6177

Causal inferences of external–contextual domains on complex construction, safety, health and environment regulation

A robust and pragmatic regulatory framework that is based on a good understanding of the external–context domains of countries is fundamental for Safety, Health and Environment (SHE). However, in many developing and emerging economies the regulatory framework for SHE is complex and the external–context domains are poorly understood and not factored in SHE. Using Nigeria as a case, the study examines the causal inferences of the social, cultural, political, religious and institutional contexts on the complex Construction Safety, Health and Environment (CSHE) regulatory framework using a qualitative research approach. The findings show that the external-context domain factors are indirect determinants of CSHE regulation. There is evidence that the main external-context factors include the dysfunctional and fragmented health and safety (H&S) regulatory environments, which is exacerbated by the poor governmental and political attention on H&S. While political influence results in the low threat of regulation, ‘Nigerian factors' such as ‘the no follow-up culture' result in inadequate governmental and political involvement, among many, poor regulation and inadequate H&S laws. Although the need for a consolidated CSHE regulatory framework is emphasised hence recommended, it should be resilient to social and political pressure.

Source: Umeokafor, N., Windapo, A. et Evangelinos, K. (2019). Safety Science, 118, 379-388.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2019.05.033

Safety Culture: An Integration of Existing Models and a Framework for Understanding Its Development

Objective: This study reviews theoretical models of organizational safety culture to uncover key factors in safety culture development.
Background: Research supports the important role of safety culture in organizations, but theoretical progress has been stunted by a disjointed literature base. It is currently unclear how different elements of an organizational system function to influence safety culture, limiting the practical utility of important research findings.
Method: We reviewed existing models of safety culture and categorized model dimensions by the proposed function they serve in safety culture development. We advance a framework grounded in theory on organizational culture, social identity, and social learning to facilitate convergence toward a unified approach to studying and supporting safety culture.
Results: Safety culture is a relatively stable social construct, gradually shaped over time by multilevel influences. We identify seven enabling factors that create conditions allowing employees to adopt safety culture values, assumptions, and norms; and four behaviors used to enact them. The consequences of these enacting behaviors provide feedback that may reinforce or revise held values, assumptions, and norms.
Conclusion: This framework synthesizes information across fragmented conceptualizations to clearly depict the dynamic nature of safety culture and specific drivers of its development. We suggest that safety culture development may depend on employee learning from behavioral outcomes, conducive enabling factors, and consistency over time.

Source: Bisbey, T. M., Kilcullen, M. P., Thomas, E. J., Ottosen, M. J., Tsao, K. et Salas, E. (2019). Human Factors.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720819868878

Suicides and deaths of undetermined intent among veterinary professionals from 2003 through 2014

OBJECTIVE: To analyze data for death of veterinary professionals and veterinary students, with manner of death characterized as suicide or undetermined intent from 2003 through 2014. SAMPLE: Death records for 202 veterinary professionals and veterinary students. PROCEDURES: Decedents employed as veterinarians, veterinary technicians or technologists, or veterinary assistants or laboratory animal caretakers and veterinary students who died by suicide or of undetermined intent were identified through retrospective review of National Violent Death Reporting System records. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and mechanisms and circumstances of death were compared among veterinary occupational groups. RESULTS: 197 veterinary professionals and 5 veterinary students had deaths by suicide or of undetermined intent. Among decedents employed at the time of death, SMRs for suicide of male and female veterinarians (1.6 and 2.4, respectively) and male and female veterinary technicians or technologists (5.0 and 2.3, respectively) were significantly greater than those for the general US population, whereas SMRs for suicide of male and female veterinary assistants or laboratory animal caretakers were not. Poisoning was the most common mechanism of death among veterinarians; the drug most commonly used was pentobarbital. For most (13/18) veterinarians who died of pentobarbital poisoning, the death-related injury occurred at home. When decedents with pentobarbital poisoning were excluded from analyses, SMRs for suicide of male and female veterinarians, but not veterinary technicians or technologists, did not differ significantly from results for the general population. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested higher SMRs for suicide among veterinarians might be attributable to pentobarbital access. Improving administrative controls for pentobarbital might be a promising suicide prevention strategy among veterinarians; however, different strategies are likely needed for veterinary technicians or technologists.

Source: Witte, T. K., Spitzer, E. G., Edwards, N., Fowler, K. A. et Nett, R. J. (2019). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 255(5), 595-608.
https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.255.5.595

Mental Illness, Social Suffering and Structural Antagonism in the Labour Process

Workplace conditions and experiences powerfully influence mental health and individuals experiencing mental illness, including the extent to which people experiencing mental ill-health are ‘disabled' by their work environments. This article explains how examination of the social suffering experienced in workplaces by people with mental illness could enhance understanding of the inter-relationships between mental health and workplace conditions, including experiences and characteristics of the overarching labour process. It examines how workplace perceptions and narratives around mental illness act as discursive resources to influence the social realities of people with mental ill-health. It applies Labour Process Theory to highlight how such discursive resources could be used by workers and employers to influence the power, agency and control in workplace environments and the labour process, and the implications such attempts might have for social suffering. It concludes with an agenda for future research exploring these issues.

Source: Woods, M., Macklin, R., Dawkins, S. et Martin, A. (2019). Work, Employment and Society.
https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0950017019866650

Télépression au travail, relation entre l’utilisation de la messagerie électronique au travail et les échanges leader-membres

Rôles de la reconnaissance et de la charge de travail
La messagerie électronique (ME) au travail est l’outil de communication le plus utilisé au sein des entreprises actuelles. Cette étude exploratoire tente de comprendre la relation entre l’utilisation perçue de la messagerie électronique et la qualité des relations leader-membres, d’une part, et la télépression, d’autre part, en testant les effets médiateurs de la reconnaissance et de la charge de travail. Les résultats auprès de 56 salariés juniors indiquent que l’utilisation de la messagerie électronique est liée positivement à la qualité des échanges leader-membres et négativement à la télépression. Les effets de l’utilisation perçue de la messagerie électronique sur les échanges entre leader et membres sont médiatisés par la reconnaissance. Les effets de l’utilisation perçue de la ME sur la télépression sont médiatisés par la charge de travail. La présente étude expose ces relations complexes et équivoques, tout en apportant de nouvelles pistes de recherches.

Source: Dose, É., Desrumaux, P. et Rekik, M. (2019). Le travail humain, 82(2), 151-181.
https://doi.org/10.3917/th.822.0151

Sickness presenteeism: Are we sure about what we are studying?

A research based on a literature review and an empirical illustration
Background: There has been an increasing interest in studying sickness presenteeism (SP). An ever‐increasing amount of scientific literature is published using this term, yet there appears to be considerable heterogeneity in how it is assessed, which could result in substantial differences in the definition and interpretation of the phenomenon really being studied. We aim to discuss what really is being studied, depending on how the phenomenon is operationalized, measured, and analyzed.
Methods: A study based on a literature review and an empirical illustration using data of the third Spanish Psychosocial Risks Survey (2016).
Results: Differences are observed based on the population in which SP is measured, the cut‐off points used to define a worker as presenteeist, the reasons for an SP episode and even an analysis of the phenomenon treated as a count or as a dichotomous.
Conclusions: Without being completely exclusive, it seems that restricting the population of analysis to only those workers who consider that they should not have gone to work due to their health, and/or establishing low cut‐off points to define someone as presenteeist, would more clearly delimit the study of SP to the exercise of a right to sick leave. In contrast, working with the entire population or using high cut‐off points appears to relate the study of SP more with health status and less with the exercise of rights. On the other hand, taking the reasons for SP into account would probably help to improve interpretation of the phenomenon.

Source: Navarro, A., Salas‐Nicás, S., Llorens, C., Moncada, S., Molinero‐Ruíz, E. et Moriña, D. (2019). American journal of industrial medicine, 62(7), 580-589.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22982

Demographic differences in safety proactivity behaviors and safety management in Chinese small-scale enterprises

The study examines demographic differences in safety proactivity behaviors (i.e., safety whistleblowing, safety voice, and safety initiative) and safety procedure, safety management, and safety hazards identification. The data was collected from 503 employees in Chinese small–scale enterprises by using one–way ANOVA. The results showed that safety proactivity behaviors were significantly correlated with age groups, safety initiative with education level, and safety management with gender. Safety procedure, safety management and safety hazards identification were significantly correlated with age groups and safety hazards identification with education level. However, there were no gender–based differences in safety proactivity behaviors, safety procedures, and safety hazards identification, and none in safety whistleblowing and safety voice, safety management, and safety procedure based on the education level. There were also no differences in safety proactivity behaviors, safety procedure, safety management, and safety hazards identification based on tenure. This offers practical suggestions to owner–managers of small–scale enterprises to address the current situation and to improve the safety proactivity behaviors of employees as well as improve the safety procedure, safety management, and safety hazards identification.

Source: Wang, Q., Mei, Q., Liu, S., Zhou, Q. et Zhang, J. (2019). Safety Science, 120, 179-184.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2019.06.016

Carcinogenicity of night shift work

In June, 2019, a Working Group of 27 scientists from 16 countries met at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon, France, to finalise their evaluation of the carcinogenicity of night shift work. This assessment will be published in volume 124 of the IARC Monographs.
In 2007, shift work involving circadian disruption was classified as “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A), on the basis of sufficient evidence in experimental animals and limited evidence of breast cancer in humans. In this updated evaluation, the Working Group chose the name “night shift work” to better describe the exposure circumstances and to reflect the main evidence base for the human cancer studies. The re-evaluation was motivated by the large number of new, high-quality epidemiologic studies including additional cancer sites. However, the Working Group noted the considerable variability in the detail and quality of exposure information on night shift work reported in these studies. Exposure information was more detailed in case-control studies, including in those nested within cohorts, than in cohort studies. A number of occupational, individual, Carcinogenicity of night shift work lifestyle, and environmental factors might mediate, confound, or moderate potential cancer risk in night shift workers.
The Working Group concluded there was limited evidence that night shift work causes breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. This evaluation was based on comprehensive searches of the literature, screening of the studies using established inclusion criteria, and evaluation of study quality, including a standardised review of exposure assessment. Greater weight was given to the most informative human cancer studies based on methodologic considerations, including study size, potential selection bias, night work assessment quality (most notably, potential for misclassification), and control for potential confounding factors. The largest number of informative studies examined breast cancer, several examined prostate and colorectal cancer, while fewer were done on other cancers.

Source: Carcinogenicity of night shift work. (2019). Lancet, 20(8), 1058-1059. 
https://www.etui.org/fr/content/download/36983/371131/file/lancet.pdf

Workplace violence and development of burnout symptoms

A prospective cohort study on 1823 social educators
Purpose: Burnout and workplace violence (WPV) have been associated in cross-sectional studies, but longitudinal studies with solid methods and adequate sample sizes are lacking. This study investigates whether WPV increases burnout symptoms during a 12-month period.
Methods: Questionnaire data were collected on 1823 social educators at baseline and 12-month follow-up, coupled with additionally 12 monthly text-message surveys on exposure to WPV. Using general linear modelling for repeated measures, we estimated change over time in burnout symptoms in three WPV exposure groups (none, low, high).
Results: A time by exposure to WPV interaction existed for development of burnout; F(2) = 7.2, p = 0.001 η2 = 0.011. Burnout increased significantly within the group of low exposure; F(1) = 6.8, p = 0.01 and high exposure; F(1) = 6.7 p = 0.001, but not within the non-exposed F(1) = 2.1 p = 0.15. At follow-up, both the low exposed and high exposed had significantly higher levels of burnout compared to the non-exposed.
Conclusion: Exposure to WPV increases level of burnout within a 12-month period. We propose that assessment of burnout in future studies should utilize instruments capable of detecting small changes. We further propose that prevention against employee burnout could be improved using monitoring targeted at employees exposed to WPV.

Source: Pihl-Thingvad, J., Elklit, A., Brandt, L. P. A. et Andersen, L. L. (2019). International archives of occupational and environmental health.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-019-01424-5

The effects of sleep on workplace cognitive failure and safety

Healthy employee sleep is important for occupational safety, but the mechanisms that explain the relationships among sleep and safety-related behaviors remain unknown. We draw from Crain, Brossoit, and Fisher's (in press) work, nonwork, and sleep (WNS) framework and Barnes' (2012) model of sleep and self-regulation in organizations to investigate the influence of construction workers' self-reported sleep quantity (i.e., duration) and quality (i.e., feeling well-rest upon awakening, ability to fall asleep and remain asleep) on workplace cognitive failures (i.e., lapses in attention, memory, and action at work) and subsequent workplace safety behaviors (i.e., safety compliance and safety participation) and reports of minor injuries. Construction workers from two public works agencies completed surveys at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Our results suggest that workers with more insomnia symptoms on average reported engaging in fewer required and voluntary safety behaviors and were at a greater risk for workplace injuries. These effects were mediated by workplace cognitive failures. In addition, workers with greater sleep insufficiency on average reported lower safety compliance, but this effect was not mediated by workplace cognitive failures. These results have implications for future workplace interventions, suggesting that organizations striving to improve safety should prioritize interventions that will reduce workers' insomnia symptoms and improve their ability to quickly fall asleep and stay asleep throughout the night.

Source: Brossoit, R. M., Crain, T. L., Leslie, J. J., Hammer, L. B., Truxillo, D. M. et Bodner, T. E. (2019). Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 24(4), 411-422.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000139

Association Between Reported Long Working Hours and History of Stroke in the CONSTANCES Cohort

Background and Purpose: Long working hours (LWHs) are a potential risk factor for stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate this association in a large general population cohort.
Methods: We used the French population-based cohort, CONSTANCES (Cohorte des Consultants des Centres d'Examens de Santé), to retrieve information on age, sex, smoking, and working hours from the baseline, self-administered questionnaire. Other cardiovascular risk factors and previous occurrence of stroke were taken from a parallel medical interview. We defined LWH as working time >10 hours daily for at least 50 days per year. Participants with primarily part-time jobs were excluded as were those with stroke before LWH exposure. We used logistic models to estimate the association between LWH and stroke, stratified by age, sex, and occupation. In additional modeling, we excluded subjects whose stroke occurred within 5 years of the first reported work exposure.
Results: Among the 143 592 participants in the analyses, there were 1224 (0.9%) strokes, 42 542 (29.6%) reported LWH, and 14 481 (10.1%) reported LWH for 10 years or more. LWH was associated with an increased risk of stroke: adjusted odds ratio of 1.29 (95% CI, 1.11–1.49). Being exposed to LWH for 10 years or more was more strongly associated with stroke, adjusted odds ratio of 1.45 (95% CI, 1.21–1.74). The association showed no differences between men and women but was stronger in white-collar workers under 50 years of age.
Conclusions: This large analysis reveals a significant association between stroke and exposure to LWH for 10 years or more. The findings are relevant for individual and global prevention.

Source: Fadel, M., Sembajwe, G., Gagliardi, D., Pico, F., Li, J., Ozguler, A., ... et Iavicoli, S. (2019). Stroke.
https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.025454

Shift work and mental health: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background: Shift work is common. However, research findings are mixed regarding the impact of shift work on mental health. This systematic review sought to provide a comprehensive summary of existing research examining the association between different types of shift work and mental health. The review included large-scale, non-occupation-specific research.
Methods: Four electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science and SCOPUS were searched to identify studies that reported on the statistical association between shift work and mental health and that used population-based samples. Two reviewers extracted information about study characteristics and data on the association between shift work and mental health. A meta-analysis was performed for longitudinal studies adopting a ‘broad binary' measure of shift work.
Results: Thirty-three studies were included in the final review—10 cross-sectional studies, 22 longitudinal studies, and 1 study that included both. Findings were grouped based on whether the measure of shift work focussed on: (1) night/evening work, (2) weekend work, (3) irregular/unpredictable work schedule, or (4) a broad binary measure. There was a reasonable level of evidence that overall, when a broad binary measure was adopted, shift work was associated with poorer mental health—this finding was supported by the meta-analysis results. There was also some evidence that irregular/unpredictable work was associated with poorer mental health. There was less evidence for night/evening and minimal evidence for weekend work. Inconsistencies in study methodology, limited contrasting and combining the results.
Conclusions: The association between shift work and mental health is different across types of shift work. The evidence is strongest for a broad binary, general measure of shift work and for irregular or unpredictable shift work. There is a need for continued research that adopts consistent and clear measures of shift work.

Source: Zhao, Y., Richardson, A., Poyser, C., Butterworth, P., Strazdins, L. et Leach, L. S. (2019). International Achives of Occupational and Environmental Health.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-019-01434-3

Safe Employment Integration of Recent Immigrants and Refugees

This study examined the employment preparation and work experiences of recent immigrants and refugees in Ontario, Canada, to determine key resource needs and opportunities related to safe work integration. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 service providers, program developers, and policy-makers from the immigration and employment fields. Eighteen focus groups were held with 110 recent immigrants and refugees who were looking for work or who had recently found work. An exploratory qualitative approach was used to collect and analyze the data. First jobs were often characterized by precarity and poor working conditions. Most recent immigrants and refugees had little knowledge about their rights at work and were not sure what to do when mistreated or were asked to do something unsafe at work. The settlement and employment programs that included occupational health and safety information were not systematic and were hindered by a lack of consistent funding and diffusion of responsibility. We identify optimal points in the settlement process where information can be provided, and some of the roles that can be played most effectively by service agencies, regulatory bodies, and employers.

Source: Kosny, A., Yanar, B., Begum, M., Al-khooly, D., Premji, S., Lay, M. A. et Smith, P. M. (2019). Journal of International Migration and Integration.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12134-019-00685-w

Organisational climate and employee health outcomes: A systematic review

Organisational climate, particularly safety climate, has been documented as a crucial element in promoting occupational health and safety. However, most previous studies have focused more on safety issues (e.g., injuries and accidents) rather than health outcomes (e.g., illnesses, stress, etc). A comprehensive review is also lacking in relation to understanding the organisational climate–health relationship between different levels of analysis, different data sources and different analytical procedures. We conducted a systematic review to investigate previous scholarly contributions to organisational climate and health. The reviewed articles were obtained from three databases: ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and EBSCOHost Academic Premier Search. After reading the abstracts and full texts, we included 56 articles in our review. We found that the influence of organisational climate on employee health has been supported in prior research. However, hypotheses at the individual level are more frequently supported than those at the organisational level. Even though most studies analysed self-reported data and, thus, possibly suffered from common method bias, half of the studies were explicitly or implicitly trying to reduce the bias. Studies with and without remedies for reducing common method bias yielded similar results, suggesting that common method bias has little impact on organisational climate research. Overall, almost no differences were found among the different organisational climate constructs. The current review includes several recommendations for future research.

Source: Loh, M. Y., Idris, M. A., Dormann, C. et Muhamad, H. (2019). Safety Science, 118, 442-452.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2019.05.052

Les salariés utilisent-ils les outils de prévention des risques professionnels ?

Près de neuf salariés sur dix reçoivent des informations sur les risques que leur travail fait courir à leur santé ou à leur sécurité, notamment via des formations spécifiques ou lors de visites avec un médecin du travail. Cependant, les femmes en bénéficient moins souvent que les hommes, comme si les risques qui les concernaient étaient moins visibles. Les consignes de sécurité et les équipements de protection individuelle contre le bruit ou les risques chimiques ne sont pas toujours bien utilisés, notamment quand l’intensité du travail est élevée et le rythme des changements très rapide.
Parmi les salariés les plus exposés, 38 % sont dans une situation de prévention défaillante : 6 % n’ont ni information ni consigne, 19 % ne peuvent pas appliquer les consignes et 19 % n’ont pas des équipements de protection suffisants. Les mesures de prévention sont mieux appliquées quand l’établissement tient des réunions régulières de service, suit des normes de qualité ou dispose d’un comité d’hygiène, de sécurité et des conditions de travail (CHSCT).

Source: https://dares.travail-emploi.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/dares_analyses_salaries_outils_prevention_risques_professionnels.pdf

Ségrégation professionnelle entre les femmes et les hommes : quels liens avec le temps partiel ?

La ségrégation professionnelle entre les femmes et les hommes et la concentration du temps partiel dans les métiers féminisés questionnent sur les rôles respectifs des facteurs liés à la demande et à l'offre de travail. Les femmes et les hommes exercent-ils des métiers différents en raison de leurs préférences et attitudes différenciées ou plutôt en raison de mécanismes de sélection sur le marché du travail ? Les femmes exercent-elles de façon privilégiée certaines professions parce qu'elles leur offrent la possibilité de travailler à temps partiel ou est-ce plutôt parce que les femmes exercent majoritairement certaines professions que le temps partiel y est plus répandu ?
L'exploitation des enquêtes Emploi de l'Insee de 2013 à 2016 atteste d'une ségrégation sexuée importante en France : plus d'une femme sur quatre devrait échanger sa profession avec un homme pour parvenir à une distribution équilibrée de chaque

Source: https://dares.travail-emploi.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/dares_etudes_segregation_professionnelle_femmes_hommes_temps_partiel.pdf

Le présentéisme au travail. Mieux évaluer pour mieux prévenir

Le présentéisme au travail, ou le fait de venir travailler alors que l'on est malade, est un phénomène rarement étudié en France car sa mesure de grande échelle était impossible jusqu'à récemment. Dans ce document de travail, nous utilisons les données de l'enquête Conditions de Travail 2013, première enquête nationale en population générale permettant une mesure du phénomène afin d'évaluer les déterminants de sa durée sur une année. Déterminer les caractéristiques de l'emploi qui favorisent le présentéisme permet d'orienter les pratiques permettant de le limiter. En effet, la littérature a montré que ce phénomène entraînait des pertes importantes pour l'employeur comme l'employé, en termes de productivité d'une part, de bien-être et de santé d'autre part.
À l'aide de modèles de comptage, nous montrons que le présentéisme est un phénomène assez marqué en termes de qualité de vie au travail. En effet, il est positivement corrélé d'abord à une charge de travail élevée, à de fortes contraintes de temps, de rythme ; ensuite, il est aussi lié à l'absence d'autonomie, de latitude décisionnelle. De surcroît, le soutien des collègues et des superviseurs, qui vient parfois atténuer la combinaison délétère charge de travail-faible latitude décisionnelle, apparaît limiter également la durée du présentéisme.
Si la réduction du phénomène de présentéisme est un objectif pour les organisations productives, ces résultats suggèrent que les employeurs devraient considérer comment limiter la charge de travail imposée aux salariés et leur concéder une véritable autonomie de décision dans l'organisation de leur travail au jour le jour.
De plus, l'insécurité du travail est également corrélée au présentéisme des travailleurs, tandis qu'au contraire les indicateurs d'un travail intéressant, comme d'un travail bien reconnu, les incitent à s'absenter lorsqu'ils sont malades.
Enfin, cette étude montre également qu'une part importante de l'influence des conditions et du vécu au travail sur le présentéisme peut avoir un effet délétère sur la santé des travailleurs. Néanmoins elle ne permet pas déterminer le sens de causalité entre santé et présence au travail mais il s'agit d'une piste importante de recherche future.

Source: http://ceet.cnam.fr/publications/documents-de-travail/le-presenteisme-au-travail-mieux-evaluer-pour-mieux-prevenir-1094542.kjsp

Effectiveness of occupational e-mental health interventions

A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of occupational e-mental health interventions aimed at stress, depression, anxiety, burnout, insomnia, mindfulness, well-being, and alcohol misuse and their potential treatment moderators.
Methods: We systematically reviewed randomized control trials published in English using three electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL) and three register trials. A pooled effect size for each mental health area was calculated using random-effects modelling. For each meta-analysis, we conducted an analysis of potential moderators (ie, type of recruitment, age, gender, initial psychological symptoms, guidance, therapy type, and study quality).
Results: In total, 50 studies were included in the systematic review, and 34 studies were included in the metaanalyses. We noted moderate treatment effects on stress (Hedges’g=0.54), insomnia (g=0.70), and burnout
(g=0.51) and small treatment effects on depression (g=0.30), anxiety (g=0.34), well-being (g=0.35), and mindfulness (g=0.42). The pooled effect on alcohol intake was small and nonsignificant.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that occupational e-mental health interventions are associated with significant health improvements. However, more research is required to understand which factors contribute to the variation in effectiveness of particular interventions depending on the mental health area and characteristics of participants and interventions.

Source: Phillips, E. A., Gordeev, V. S. et Schreyögg, J. (2019). Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.383910.5271/sjweh.3839

Effectiveness of psychological and educational interventions for the prevention of depression in the workplace

A systematic review and meta-analysis
Objectives :Psychological and educational interventions for the prevention of depression have a small-to-moderate effect. However, little is known about their effectiveness in the workplace. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions through a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT).
Methods: We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CIS-DOC and Open Grey for RCT. Search was supplemented with manual searches of reference lists of relevant meta-analyses and trials. We included RCT that assessed either the incidence of depression or the reduction of depressive symptoms, which excluded participants with baseline depression. Measurements were required to have been made using validated instruments and participants recruited in the workplace. Independent evaluators selected studies, evaluated risk bias (Cochrane Collaboration's tool) and extracted from RCT. The combined OR was estimated using the fixed-effects model. Heterogeneity was measured by I2 and Cochrane's Q.
Results: Of the 1963 abstracts reviewed, 69 were selected for review in fulltext. Only three RCT met our inclusion criteria, representing 1246 workers from three different countries and continents. The combined odds ratio was 0.25 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11–0.60, P=0.002]; I2=0% and Q=0.389 (P=0.823). The risk of bias was low in one RCT and moderate and high in the other two, respectively.
Conclusion: Psychological or educational interventions in the workplace may prevent depression, although the quality of evidence was low.

Source: Bellón, J. A., Conejo-Cerón, S., Cortés-Abela, C., Pena-Andreu, J. M., García-Rodríguez, A. et Moreno-Peral, P. (2019). Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 35(1),7-18.
https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3791

Psychosocial Work Conditions and Mental Health: Examining Differences Across Mental Illness and Well-Being Outcomes

Objectives: Psychosocial work conditions are determinants of mental illness among worker populations. However, while the focus on negative aspects of mental health has generated important contributions to the development of workplace interventions, there is less evidence on the factors that support the positive aspects of mental well-being. This study aimed to examine the association between psychosocial work conditions and mental health outcomes among a representative sample of Canadian workers; and to assess whether the relationships are consistent across measures of mental illness versus mental well-being.
Methods: Population-based data were obtained from the cross-sectional 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey. Psychosocial work conditions were measured using an abbreviated version of the Job Content Questionnaire. For mental illness, we focused on major depressive episodes, generalized anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorders in the past 12 months, as measured using Composite International Diagnostic Interview criteria. Mental well-being was defined as having flourishing mental health, based on items from the Mental Health Continuum—Short Form. Regression models provided odds ratios (ORs) and fitted probabilities for the relationship between work conditions and mental health, adjusting for covariates.
Results: Higher levels of job control, social support, and job security were associated with being free of disorders (ORs ranging from 1.08 to 1.15) as well as having flourishing mental health (ORs ranging from 1.10 to 1.14). Lower physical effort was associated with decreased odds of having flourishing mental health (OR 0.89). Psychological demands were not associated with any of the mental health outcomes in the fully-adjusted models. The overall pattern of these relationships was consistent across the two outcome models, although there was evidence of heterogeneity on the absolute probability scale. Specifically, there was a relatively stronger relationship between job control/social support/physical demands and well-being outcomes, compared with disorder outcomes.
Conclusions: Psychosocial work conditions were associated with both negative and positive measures of mental health. However, mental illness and mental well-being may represent complementary, yet distinct, aspects in relation to psychosocial work conditions. Interventions targeting the psychosocial work environment may serve to improve both of these dimensions, although the measurement and examination of specific dimensions may be required to obtain an integrated and comprehensive understanding of mental health in the workplace.

Source: Fan, J. K., Mustard, C. et Smith, P. M. (2019). Annals of work exposures and health, 63(5), 546-559.
https://doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxz028
Quels liens entre les actions de prévention et le maintien en emploi des personnes à santé fragile ?

Les salariés qui sont en emploi en 2013 et qui présentent une santé altérée sont 83 % à être en emploi trois ans plus tard, contre 89 % des personnes en bonne santé.
Comme pour les salariés en bonne santé, les plus diplômés et les fonctionnaires ont plus de chances e se maintenir en emploi malgré une santé altérée que les salariés moins diplômés ou en contrat de droit privé (CDD, CDI).
Avoir connu très peu d'interruptions de carrière pour inactivité, ou encore avoir de bons rapports sociaux dans son travail, sont des facteurs favorables au maintien en emploi des salariés à la santé altérée. De même, les salariés qui, en 2013, avaient bénéficié récemment d'une visite auprès d'un médecin du travail, sont plus nombreux à se maintenir en emploi en 2016 malgré des problèmes de santé.

Source: https://dares.travail-emploi.gouv.fr/dares-etudes-et-statistiques/etudes-et-syntheses/dares-analyses-dares-indicateurs-dares-resultats/article/quels-liens-entre-les-actions-de-prevention-et-le-maintien-en-emploi-des

Stressful by design: Exploring health risks of ride-share work

Introduction: For-hire driving work, such as taxi driving, is characterized by long hours of sedentary behaviour, passenger assault, lack of benefits or support, and isolating working conditions that jeopardize good health. The for-hire driving industry has recently expanded to include a new group of ride-share drivers from digital platforms such as Uber and Lyft; this has substantially increased the number of people engaged in for-hire driving. However, there is very little existing research on ride-share drivers' health and safety in relation to their work, and no research on the Canadian context.
Methods: This paper draws from a qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews and focus groups with ride-share drivers and passengers, taxi drivers, taxi and ride-share managers, and other industry key informants in a large Canadian city. This paper focuses on ride-share drivers' health risks on the job.
Results: This study finds that ride-share drivers face physical and mental health risks resulting from ride-sharing work that are distinct to ride-share work, as well as ones similar to taxi driving and other transportation work. We find that the nature of the work is stressful by design: ride-share drivers face regular stressors and pressures from passengers, such as to speed and drive young children without proper booster seats. They also describe weight gain and muscle pain.
Conclusion: As greater numbers of passengers opt for ride-share transportation and more people take up ride-share work, understanding potential short- and long-term health implications is an important area of inquiry. Understanding the working conditions of ride-share drivers can support the development of appropriate policy and practice tools to improve ride-share drivers' health and safety.

Source: Bartel, E., MacEachen, E., Reid-Musson, E., Meyer, S. B., Saunders, R., Bigelow, P., ... et Varatharajan, S. (2019). Journal of Transport & Health, 14.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2019.100571

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