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Travail, emploi et douance
Sujet émergent depuis quelques années, la question des adultes doués et de la place qui leur est faite au sein de notre société met en évidence les difficultés d'intégration socio-professionnelle auxquelles ces derniers sont exposés. Bénéficiant d'une intelligence à laquelle sont cependant corrélées certaines vulnérabilités, les personnes douées ne bénéficient pas toujours de conditions favorables au développement de leur plein potentiel. Pourtant,...
Mental Illness, Social Suffering and Structural Antagonism in the Labour Process
Workplace conditions and experiences powerfully influence mental health and individuals experiencing mental illness, including the extent to which people experiencing mental ill-health are ‘disabled' by their work environments. This article explains how examination of the social suffering experienced in workplaces by people with mental illness could enhance understanding of the inter-relationships between mental health and workplace conditions, including experiences and characteristics of the overarching labour process. It examines how workplace perceptions and narratives around mental...
The effects of sleep on workplace cognitive failure and safety
Healthy employee sleep is important for occupational safety, but the mechanisms that explain the relationships among sleep and safety-related behaviors remain unknown. We draw from Crain, Brossoit, and Fisher's (in press) work, nonwork, and sleep (WNS) framework and Barnes' (2012) model of sleep and self-regulation in organizations to investigate the influence of construction workers' self-reported sleep quantity (i.e., duration) and quality (i.e., feeling well-rest upon awakening, ability to fall asleep and remain asleep) on workplace cognitive failures (i.e., lapses in attention,...
Safe Employment Integration of Recent Immigrants and Refugees
This study examined the employment preparation and work experiences of recent immigrants and refugees in Ontario, Canada, to determine key resource needs and opportunities related to safe work integration. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 service providers, program developers, and policy-makers from the immigration and employment fields. Eighteen focus groups were held with 110 recent immigrants and refugees who were looking for work or who had recently found work. An exploratory qualitative approach was used to collect and analyze the data. First jobs were often characterized by precarity...
Ségrégation professionnelle entre les femmes et les hommes : quels liens avec le temps partiel ?
La ségrégation professionnelle entre les femmes et les hommes et la concentration du temps partiel dans les métiers féminisés questionnent sur les rôles respectifs des facteurs liés à la demande et à l'offre de travail. Les femmes et les hommes exercent-ils des métiers différents en raison de leurs préférences et attitudes différenciées ou plutôt en raison de mécanismes de sélection sur le marché du travail ? Les femmes exercent-elles de façon privilégiée...
Quels liens entre les actions de prévention et le maintien en emploi des personnes à santé fragile ?
Les salariés qui sont en emploi en 2013 et qui présentent une santé altérée sont 83 % à être en emploi trois ans plus tard, contre 89 % des personnes en bonne santé. Comme pour les salariés en bonne santé, les plus diplômés et les fonctionnaires ont plus de chances e se maintenir en emploi malgré une santé altérée que les salariés moins diplômés ou en contrat de droit privé (CDD, CDI). Avoir connu très peu d'interruptions de carrière pour inactivité...
Safe Employment Integration of Recent Immigrants and Refugees
This study examined the employment preparation and work experiences of recent immigrants and refugees in Ontario, Canada, to determine key resource needs and opportunities related to safe work integration. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 service providers, program developers, and policy-makers from the immigration and employment fields. Eighteen focus groups were held with 110 recent immigrants and refugees who were looking for work or who had recently found work. An exploratory qualitative approach was used to collect and analyze the data. First jobs were often characterized by precarity...
The impact of night shift work on breast cancer
Results from the Burden of Occupational Cancer in Canada Study Background: We estimated the proportion and number of female breast cancer cases in Canada attributable to night shift work, a probable cause of breast cancer. Methods: Levin's equation was used to calculate population attributable fractions (PAFs) among Canadian women who ever worked night/rotating shifts from 1961 to 2000, accounting for labor turnover and survival to the year 2011. The calculated PAFs were applied to 2011 Canadian breast cancer incidence statistics to obtain the number of attributable cases. Results: Approximately...
Working conditions and workers' health
This report uses European Working Conditions Survey data to examine working conditions and their implications for worker's health. Ensuring the sustainability of work in the context of ageing populations implies a greater number of people in employment who can remain in the workforce for longer. The report examines the interplay between work demands – which carry an increased risk of exhaustion – and work resources – which support workers in greater engagement and well-being. The findings indicate that physical risks have not increased but remain important, while emotional...
Strategies to improve the implementation of workplace-based policies or practices targeting tobacco, alcohol, diet, physical activity and obesity
Implementation strategies are meant to improve the adoption and integration of evidence-based health interventions into routine policies and practices within specific settings. This review examined whether using these strategies improved the implementation of policies and practices in the workplace promoting: •Healthy eating •Physical activity •Weight control •Tobacco cessation •Prevention of risky alcohol consumption The review authors also wanted to know if these strategies changed employees' health behaviours, caused any unintended effects, and were good value for...
Risk Perceptions and Barriers to Protective Behavior Use Among Chemical Tank Cleaners
An Exploratory Study Chemical tank cleaners' occupational diseases and injuries are largely unknown due to a lack of monitoring and limited research. Their potential exposure to highly corrosive chemicals—including sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide, and ferric chloride—suggests that tank cleaners represent an at-risk occupational group. This pilot study explored tank cleaners' risk perceptions and barriers to using personal protective equipment and other protective behaviors in their workplace. Data sources included a survey (n = 29) and interviews (n ...
Social influence and safe behavior in manufacturing
This research presents a model designed to explore the cognitive and social mechanisms that mediate the relationship between organizational safety climate and safety behaviors. Specifically the presented research demonstrates the usefulness of Sussmann and Vecchio (1982) social influence interpretation of worker motivation to understand safety motivation. Survey data was collected from 428 employees in seven factories within the electronics industry in China. The data were analyzed using structural modelling. The results suggest that factory workers with more knowledge about the products, organization...
Long-term occupational trajectories and suicide
A 22-year follow-up of the GAZEL cohort study Objective: Most suicides occur among individuals of working age. Risk is elevated in some occupational groups, however relations between long-term occupational trajectories and suicide are not well known. We describe career-long occupational trajectories and examine their influence on suicide. Methods: Data come from GAZEL, a French cohort study set among employees of a large national utilities company. Occupational grade was obtained from company records from the time of hiring (1953?1988). Groupbased trajectory models were used to define occupational...
La formation initiale
Le développement de compétences en santé et sécurité au travail dans l'enseignement professionnel et supérieur doit permettre aux jeunes d'acquérir une culture de prévention avant même leur premier emploi. Il contribue également à la diffusion de celle-ci dans l'entreprise. Les 18-24 ans ont près de deux fois plus d'accidents du travail que les autres salariés, selon la Caisse nationale d'assurance mala-die (Cnam). En revanche, une étude de l'INRS montre que les jeunes en formation...
Les ouvriers intérimaires sont-ils plus exposés aux risques professionnels?
En France, les ouvriers intérimaires, qui représentent la majorité des personnes en intérim et 8 % des ouvriers, sont très fortement exposés à des contraintes physiques dans leur travail. Ils sont 22 % à manipuler des charges lourdes plus de 20 heures par semaine contre 12 % pour l’ensemble des ouvriers. Ces contraintes s’expliquent toutefois davantage par les caractéristiques des métiers qu’exercent les intérimaires que par leur statut d’intérimaire. À première vue, les ouvriers...
Guide de bonnes pratiques pour favoriser l’embauche, le maintien et le retour en emploi des travailleurs expérimentés
Ce guide propose des mesures et de bonnes pratiques pour favoriser l'embauche, le maintien et le retour en emploi des travailleurs expérimentés. Il s'adresse aux organisations qui désirent encourager ces travailleurs à poursuivre leur carrière et favoriser l'embauche et le retour en emploi des travailleurs expérimentés après une absence. Il vise à les appuyer dans la mise en place de milieux de travail accueillants et répondant à la réalité de ces travailleurs. Le guide propose aussi des mesures...
Gender differences in injuries attributed to workplace violence in Ontario 2002-2015
Objectives: The aim of the study is to compare trends in the incidence of injury resulting from workplace violence for men and women at the population level over the period 2002–2015 among working-age adults in Ontario, Canada. Methods: Administrative records of injury resulting from workplace violence were obtained from two population-based data sources in Ontario: 21 228 lost-time workers' compensation claims (2002–2015) and 13 245 records of non-scheduled emergency department visits (2004–2014), where the main problem was attributed to a workplace violence...
Determinants of Workplace Injuries and Violence Among Newly Licensed RNs
Workplace injuries, such as musculoskeletal injuries, needlestick injuries, and emotional and physical violence, remain an issue in U.S. hospitals. To develop meaningful safety programs, it is important to identify workplace factors that contribute to injuries. This study explored factors that affect injuries in a sample of newly licensed registered nurses (NLRNs) in Florida. Regressions were run on models in which the dependent variable was the degree to which the respondent had experienced needlesticks, work-related musculoskeletal injuries, cuts or lacerations, contusions, verbal violence, physical...
Job burnout: The contribution of emotional stability and emotional self-efficacy beliefs
Consistent with insights from both trait and social cognitive theories, this study presents a theoretical model positing emotional self-efficacy beliefs in managing negative emotions at work as a key mechanism that contributes to mediate the negative relationship between emotional stability – a trait highly associated with positive affect and mental health – and job burnout. To test this assertion, a two-wave study using a representative sample of 416 new military cadets of an Italian military academy was designed. Military cadets were involved in the study 2 months after their entrance...
Do age and gender contribute to workers’ burnout symptoms?
Background: Despite mounting evidence on the association between work stress and burnout, there is limited knowledge about the extent to which workers' age and gender are associated with burnout. Aims: To evaluate the relationship between age, gender and their interaction with burnout in a sample of Canadian workers. Methods: Data were collected in 2009–12 from a sample of 2073 Canadian workers from 63 workplaces in the province of Quebec. Data were analysed with multilevel regression models to test for linear and non-linear relationships between age and burnout. Analyses adjusted for...
Adverse effect of long work hours on incident diabetes in 7065 Ontario workers followed for 12 years
Objective: According to the International Diabetes Federation, the most important challenge for prevention is now to identify social and environmental modifiable risk factors of diabetes. In this regard, long work hours have recently been linked with diabetes, but more high-quality prospective studies are needed. We evaluated the relationship between long work hours and the incidence of diabetes among 7065 workers over a 12-year period in Ontario, Canada. Research: design and methods Data from Ontario respondents (35–74 years of age) to the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey were prospectively...
Implications of work effort and discretion for employee well-being and career-related outcomes
An integrative assessment How does work effort affect employee outcomes? The authors bridge distinct literatures on the well-being versus career-related implications of work effort by analyzing the relation of overtime work and work intensity to both types of outcomes. They also extend examination of the role of discretion in modifying the effects of work effort from well-being to career-related outcomes. Using data from the fifth and sixth European Working Conditions Surveys, the authors show that greater work effort relates strongly to reduced well-being and modestly to inferior career-related...
Conséquences de la survenue du cancer sur les parcours professionnels
Une analyse sur données médico-administratives Ce rapport étudie les effets à court et moyen termes de la survenue d'un cancer sur l'emploi et l'activité. Il utilise la base de données Hygie, produite par l'Irdes à partir des données administratives de la Caisse nationale de l'Assurance maladie et de la Caisse nationale d'assurance vieillesse. Hygie permet de reconstituer la carrière de l'individu ainsi que les événements de santé. Une première partie exploite la dimension rétrospective...
Working safely at some times and unsafely at others
A typology and within-person process model of safety-related work behaviors Why do individuals choose to work safely in some instances and unsafely in others? Though this inherently within-person question is straightforward, the preponderance of between-person theory and research in the workplace safety literature is not equipped to answer it. Additionally, the limited way in which safety-related behaviors tend to be conceptualized further restricts understanding of why individuals vary in their safety-related actions. We use a goal-focused approach to conceptually address this question of behavioral...
Work stress and risk of death in men and women with and without cardiometabolic disease
A multicohort study Background: Although some cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines suggest a need to manage work stress in patients with established cardiometabolic disease, the evidence base for this recommendation is weak. We sought to clarify the status of stress as a risk factor in cardiometabolic disease by investigating the associations between work stress and mortality in men and women with and without pre-existing cardiometabolic disease. Methods: In this multicohort study, we used data from seven cohort studies in the IPD-Work consortium, initiated between 1985 and 2002 in Finland...
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