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Safe Employment Integration of Recent Immigrants and Refugees
This study examined the employment preparation and work experiences of recent immigrants and refugees in Ontario, Canada, to determine key resource needs and opportunities related to safe work integration. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 service providers, program developers, and policy-makers from the immigration and employment fields. Eighteen focus groups were held with 110 recent immigrants and refugees who were looking for work or who had recently found work. An exploratory qualitative approach was used to collect and analyze the data. First jobs were often characterized by precarity...
Safe Employment Integration of Recent Immigrants and Refugees
This study examined the employment preparation and work experiences of recent immigrants and refugees in Ontario, Canada, to determine key resource needs and opportunities related to safe work integration. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 service providers, program developers, and policy-makers from the immigration and employment fields. Eighteen focus groups were held with 110 recent immigrants and refugees who were looking for work or who had recently found work. An exploratory qualitative approach was used to collect and analyze the data. First jobs were often characterized by precarity...
Differences in safety training among smaller and larger construction firms with non-native workers
Evidence of overlapping vulnerabilities Collaborative efforts between the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) led to a report focusing on overlapping occupational vulnerabilities, specifically small construction businesses employing young, non-native workers. Following the report, an online survey was conducted by ASSE with construction business representatives focusing on training experiences of non-native workers. Results were grouped by business size (50 or fewer employees or more than 50 employees). Smaller businesses...
Job Complexity, Race, and Socioeconomic Status
Examining Health Disparities from an Occupational Perspective Research conducted in the United States on racial/ethnic health disparities and socioeconomic status (SES) has not fully considered occupation. Because racial and ethnic groups are not represented equally in all occupations, differences in job characteristics may help explain racial/ethnic health disparities. Two recent studies by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) explore job complexity as a factor that contributes to racial health disparities. Source: https://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2017/10/05...
Going beyond the injury: regulatory conditions contributing to Latina/o immigrants’ occupational psychosocial stressors
Going beyond the injury: regulatory conditions contributing to Latina/o immigrants' occupational psychosocial stressors BACKGROUND: Utilizing a psychosocial stress approach, we report psychosocial stressors that Latina/o immigrant day laborers in Baltimore report as workplace hazards and the contextual factors that shape these stressors. METHODS: Through a community-academic partnership, we conducted focus groups (n = 18) and key informant interviews (n = 9) using instruments developed between academics and the community partner to inquire Latina/o immigrants' jobs, hazard awareness, occupational...
Undocumented status as a social determinant of occupational safety and health
The workers' perspective BACKGROUND: Undocumented immigration to the United States has grown dramatically over the past 25 years. This study explores undocumented status as a social determinant of occupational health by examining its perceived consequences on workplace safety of Latino immigrants. METHODS: Guided by the Theory of Work Adjustment, qualitative analysis was conducted on transcripts from focus groups and individual interviews conducted with a convenience sample of Latino immigrant workers. RESULTS: Participants reported that unauthorized status negatively impacted their safety...
Results of a community-based survey of construction safety climate for Hispanic workers
BACKGROUND: Hispanic construction workers experience high rates of occupational injury, likely influenced by individual, organizational, and social factors. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the safety climate of Hispanic construction workers using worker, contractor, and supervisor perceptions of the workplace. METHODS: We developed a 40-item interviewer-assisted survey with six safety climate dimensions and administered it in Spanish and English to construction workers, contractors, and supervisors. A safety climate model, comparing responses and assessing contributing factors was created based on...
Effects of Social Determinants on Chinese Immigrant Food Service Workers' Work Performance and Injuries
Mental Health as a Mediator Objective: The effects of social discrimination, job concerns, and social support on worker mental health and the influence of mental health on occupational health outcomes have been documented intermittently. We propose an integrated, theory-driven model to distinguish the impact of social determinants on work performance and injuries and the mediating effects of mental health problems. Methods: The US Chinese immigrant food service workers (N = 194) completed a multimeasure interview; we tested the integrated model using structural equation modeling. Results: Mental...
Are immigrants in Canada over-represented in riskier jobs relative to Canadian-born labor market participants?
BACKGROUND: This paper uses new data to examine the gap in injury and fatality rates between immigrant men and women and their Canadian-born counterparts. METHODS: Data from the 2011 National Household Survey and the Association of Workers' Compensation Boards of Canada were used to determine the difference in occupational and industry injury and fatality rates between various arrival cohorts of immigrants and those Canadian born. RESULTS: For both men and women, there is no significant difference in occupational injury and fatality rates between various arrival cohorts of immigrants and Canadian...
The dynamics of union responses to migrant workers in Canada
This study examines how five unions in the Canadian province of Alberta responded to a sudden influx of temporary foreign workers (TFWs), as part of Canadian employers' increased use of migrant workers in the mid-2000s. The authors find three types of response to the new TFW members: resistive, facilitative and active. Furthermore, these responses were dynamic and changing over time. The different responses are best explained not by the unions' institutional context, but by internal factors shaping each union's response. Drawing upon the concept of referential unionisms, the study explores...
Overlapping Vulnerabilities
The Occupational Health and Safety of Young Immigrant Workers in Small Construction Firms The American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) are the initiators of an intervention effort to reach workers experiencing overlapping occupational safety and health (OSH) vulnerabilities in small construction businesses. This report focuses on three populations that research indicates are at increased risk for adverse work-related health outcomes—Hispanic immigrants (individuals born in Latin America who currently live in the United...
Medical repatriation of migrant farm workers in Ontario
A descriptive analysis BACKGROUND: Approximately 40 000 migrant farm workers are employed annually in Canada through temporary foreign worker programs. Workers experiencing health conditions that prevent ongoing work are normally repatriated to their home country, which raises concerns about human rights and health equity. In this study, we present data on the reasons for medical repatriation of migrant farm workers in Ontario. METHODS: In this retrospective descriptive study, we examined medical repatriation data from Foreign Agricultural Resource Management Services, a non-profit corporation...
The influence of demographics and working conditions on self-reported injuries among Latino day laborers
BACKGROUND: The majority of day laborers in the USA are Latinos. They are engaged in high-risk occupations and suffer high occupational injury rates. OBJECTIVES: To describe on-the-job injuries reported by Latino day laborers, explore the extent that demographic and occupational factors predict injuries, and whether summative measures for total job types, job conditions, and personal protective equipment (PPE) predict injuries. METHODS: A community survey was conducted with 327 participants at 15 corners in Houston, Texas. Hierarchical and multiple logistic regressions explored predictors of occupational...
Taking risks and survival jobs
Foreign-born workers and work-related injuries in Australia Higher rates of work-related injuries (WRI) have been reported among foreign-born workers in many countries, but little is known about the situation in Australia, which initially had large waves of European followed by Asian migration and where the recruitment of skilled migrants has dominated recently. The aim of the study was to examine WRI among foreign-born workers in Australia. This was a two phase mixed methods study. The first stage used the 2005/6 and 2009/10 Australian national Multi-Purpose Household Survey (MPHS) information...
Latino migrant farmworker student development of safety instructional videos for peer education
The purpose of this community-based study was to test effectiveness of a peer-education safety education program that included student-produced videos and photovoice, nested in a 7-week summer Migrant Education Program. The second aim was to evaluate psychometrics of an adapted safety survey from Westaby and Lee used to evaluate changes in safety knowledge and attitudes. This was a one-group pre/post design intervention study. The convenience sample was Latino migrant students (N = 117, middle school [grades 6-8, n = 37], lower school [grades 3-5, n = 80]), with data collected at baseline and post...
Assessing the effectiveness of the Pesticides and Farmworker Health Toolkit
A curriculum for enhancing farmworkers' understanding of pesticide safety concepts Among agricultural workers, migrant and seasonal farmworkers have been recognized as a special risk population because these laborers encounter cultural challenges and linguistic barriers while attempting to maintain their safety and health within their working environments. The crop-specific Pesticides and Farmworker Health Toolkit (Toolkit) is a pesticide safety and health curriculum designed to communicate to farmworkers pesticide hazards commonly found in their working environments and to address Worker Protection...
Evaluation of a pilot promotora program for Latino forest workers in southern Oregon
BACKGROUND: Forest work, an occupation with some of the highest injury and illness rates, is conducted primarily by Latino immigrant workers. This study evaluates a pilot program where promotoras (lay community health educators) provided occupational health and safety trainings for Latino forest workers. METHODS: Evaluation methods included a focus group, post-tests, and qualitative feedback. RESULTS: Community capacity to address working conditions increased through (i) increased leadership and community access to information and resources; and (ii) increased worker awareness of workplace health...
Travailleurs immigrants et santé et sécurité du travail
Ce numéro Travailleurs immigrants et santé et sécurité du travail (SST) veut apporter un modeste éclairage sur le cumul des précarités liées aux conditions de SST au travail, au statut migratoire, aux liens fragiles d'emploi, à la faiblesse des revenus, à la non-reconnaissance des compétences et à l'incapacité d'exercer ses droits. Les travaux de SST ici regroupés s'intéressent aux travailleurs ayant divers profils : des résidents permanents embauchés par les petites...
Organization of work in the agricultural, forestry, and fishing sector in the US southeast
Implications for immigrant workers' occupational safety and health BACKGROUND: There is widespread agreement that work organization is an important element of occupational safety and health, but the health effects of many aspects of work organization are likely to vary considerably across different sectors of work and geographies. METHODS: We examined existing employment policies and work organization-related research relevant specifically to immigrant workers in the Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing (AgFF) Sector of the US workforce focusing, when possible, on the southeastern US. RESULTS...
Promouvoir l'intégration des travailleuses et travailleurs domestiques
En Europe, comme dans maintes autres régions du monde, le travail domestique a pour caractéristique d'attirer un nombre important et croissant de migrants, ont la plupart sont des femmes. Alors que le travail domestique a été une source d'emploi pour au moins 2.5 millions d'hommes et de femmes en Europe, en majorité des migrants, des politiques d'immigration nationale de plus en plus restrictives sont adoptées. Elles conduisent à ce que de nombreux migrants soient pris au piège d'un statut irrégulier ou d'un...
Mesures de santé et de sécurité du travail dans les petites entreprises montréalaises embauchant une main-d’œuvre immigrante
Les stratégies favorables à la prise en charge Dans les sociétés qui misent sur l'embauche des travailleurs immigrants pour combler leurs besoins de main-d'œuvre, la gestion des pratiques SST en contexte de diversité ethnoculturelle devient un sujet incontournable. De ces préoccupations ont émergé les questions suivantes : quels sont les stratégies et les arguments favorables à la prise en charge de la SST dans les petites entreprises qui embauchent de façon importante une main-d'œuvre immigrante...
Diverse cultures at work: ensuring safety and health through leadership and participation
The differences between cultures are helpful in understanding discrepancies when several nationalities are working together. Cross-cultural studies describe characteristics of cultures and differences between different cultures. Therefore, the cross-cultural literature is very helpful in describing general differences that may occur in multinationals, as well as in multicultural teams. In this report the focus is on managing cultural diversity in occupational safety and health, i.e. aspects of leadership and participation that benefit multicultural work teams. Source : https://osha.europa.eu/en...
Occupational Health Policy and Immigrant Workers in the Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Sector
Background Immigrant workers make up an important portion of the hired workforce in the Agricultural, Forestry and Fishing (AgFF) sector, one of the most hazardous industry sectors in the US. Despite the inherent dangers associated with this sector, worker protection is limited. Methods This article describes the current occupational health and safety policies and regulatory standards in the AgFF sector and underscores the regulatory exceptions and limitations in worker protections. Immigration policies and their effects on worker health and safety are also discussed. Emphasis is placed on policies...
Migrant and seasonal crop worker injury and illness across the Northeast
Background: Northeast farmworkers are a small, widely dispersed, and isolated population. Little is known about their occupational injury and illness risk. Methods: Researchers conducted chart reviews in migrant health centers across the Northeast, and calculated incidence-density for agricultural morbidity based on a new method for estimating total worker hours at risk, and adjusting for cases seen at other sources of care. Results: An estimated annual average of 1,260 cases translated to an incidence of 30.27 per 10,000 worker weeks, (12.7 per 100 FTEs). Straining/spraining events (56% cases...
Occupational safety in multicultural teams and organizations: A research agenda
Safety is an important issue in the workplace, in particular at the lower end of the labor market where the workforce often consists of people with different cultural backgrounds. Studies have underlined the potential threats to occupational safety of this workforce. Surprisingly, however, very little research has been conducted on national culture and occupational safety. In this paper, we examine how national culture may play a role in important antecedents of safety behavior that have identified in the meta-analysis of Christian et al. (2009). We discuss safety knowledge, safety motivation,...
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