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The impact of night shift work on breast cancer
Results from the Burden of Occupational Cancer in Canada Study Background: We estimated the proportion and number of female breast cancer cases in Canada attributable to night shift work, a probable cause of breast cancer. Methods: Levin's equation was used to calculate population attributable fractions (PAFs) among Canadian women who ever worked night/rotating shifts from 1961 to 2000, accounting for labor turnover and survival to the year 2011. The calculated PAFs were applied to 2011 Canadian breast cancer incidence statistics to obtain the number of attributable cases. Results: Approximately...
Gender differences in injuries attributed to workplace violence in Ontario 2002-2015
Objectives: The aim of the study is to compare trends in the incidence of injury resulting from workplace violence for men and women at the population level over the period 2002–2015 among working-age adults in Ontario, Canada. Methods: Administrative records of injury resulting from workplace violence were obtained from two population-based data sources in Ontario: 21 228 lost-time workers' compensation claims (2002–2015) and 13 245 records of non-scheduled emergency department visits (2004–2014), where the main problem was attributed to a workplace violence...
Do age and gender contribute to workers’ burnout symptoms?
Background: Despite mounting evidence on the association between work stress and burnout, there is limited knowledge about the extent to which workers' age and gender are associated with burnout. Aims: To evaluate the relationship between age, gender and their interaction with burnout in a sample of Canadian workers. Methods: Data were collected in 2009–12 from a sample of 2073 Canadian workers from 63 workplaces in the province of Quebec. Data were analysed with multilevel regression models to test for linear and non-linear relationships between age and burnout. Analyses adjusted for...
Adverse effect of long work hours on incident diabetes in 7065 Ontario workers followed for 12 years
Objective: According to the International Diabetes Federation, the most important challenge for prevention is now to identify social and environmental modifiable risk factors of diabetes. In this regard, long work hours have recently been linked with diabetes, but more high-quality prospective studies are needed. We evaluated the relationship between long work hours and the incidence of diabetes among 7065 workers over a 12-year period in Ontario, Canada. Research: design and methods Data from Ontario respondents (35–74 years of age) to the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey were prospectively...
Work stress and risk of death in men and women with and without cardiometabolic disease
A multicohort study Background: Although some cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines suggest a need to manage work stress in patients with established cardiometabolic disease, the evidence base for this recommendation is weak. We sought to clarify the status of stress as a risk factor in cardiometabolic disease by investigating the associations between work stress and mortality in men and women with and without pre-existing cardiometabolic disease. Methods: In this multicohort study, we used data from seven cohort studies in the IPD-Work consortium, initiated between 1985 and 2002 in Finland...
Post-traumatic Reactions and Their Predictors among Workers Who Experienced Serious Violent Acts
Are There Sex Differences? Background: Serious violent acts (e.g. physical violence, robbery, sexual aggression and death threats) are among the most visible and notable examples of workplace violence. Although women are commonly found to be at higher risk for post-traumatic reactions following workplace violence, little is known as regards sex differences concerning the types of post-traumatic reactions and their predictors. Objective: This study aimed to describe sex differences in the post-traumatic reactions of serious violent acts and the predictors of such reactions. Methods: The study was...
Gendered Pathways to Burnout: Results from the SALVEO Study
Burnout is a pervasive mental health problem in the workforce, with mounting evidence suggesting ties with occupational and safety outcomes such as work injuries, critical events and musculoskeletal disorders. While environmental [work and non-work, work-to-family conflict (WFC)] and individual (personality) pathways to burnout are well documented, little is known about how gender comes to influence such associative patterns. The aim of the study consisted in examining gendered pathways to burnout. The study analysed data derived from the SALVEO study, a cross-sectional study of 2026 workers from...
Night Shift Work Increases the Risks of Multiple Primary Cancers in Women
A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 61 Articles A growing number of studies have examined associations between night shift work and the risks of common cancers among women, with varying conclusions. We did a meta-analysis to identify whether long-term night shift work increased the risks of common cancers in women. We enrolled 61 articles involving 114,628 cases and 3,909,152 participants from Europe, North America, Asia, and Australia. Risk estimates were performed with a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression analyses about breast cancer were conducted...
Night Shift Work Increases the Risks of Multiple Primary Cancers in Women
A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 61 Articles A growing number of studies have examined associations between night shift work and the risks of common cancers among women, with varying conclusions. We did a meta-analysis to identify whether long-term night shift work increased the risks of common cancers in women. We enrolled 61 articles involving 114,628 cases and 3,909,152 participants from Europe, North America, Asia, and Australia. Risk estimates were performed with a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression analyses about breast cancer were conducted...
Outdoor Light at Night and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Nurses’ Health Study II
Background: Animal and epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to light at night (LAN) may disrupt circadian patterns and decrease nocturnal secretion of melatonin, which may disturb estrogen regulation, leading to increased breast cancer risk.Objectives: We examined the association between residential outdoor LAN and breast cancer incidence using data from the nationwide U.S.-based Nurses' Health Study II cohort.Methods:We followed 109,672 women from 1989 through 2013. Cumulative LAN exposure was estimated using time-varying satellite data for a composite of persistent nighttime illumination...
Does influence at work modify the relation between high occupational physical activity and risk of heart disease in women?
Purpose: To investigate whether influence at work modifies the association between demanding and strenuous occupational physical activity (OPA) and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Methods: A sample of 12,093 nurses aged 45–64 years from the Danish Nurse Cohort Study was followed for 20.6 years by individual linkage to incident IHD in the Danish National Patient Registry. Information on OPA, influence at work, other occupational factors and known risk factors for IHD was collected by self-report in 1993. Results: During follow-up 869 nurses were hospitalised with incident IHD. Nurses...
Occupational factors and markers of ovarian reserve and response among women at a fertility centre
Objectives: To explore whether work schedules and physically demanding work were associated with markers of ovarian reserve and response. Methods: This analysis included women (n=473 and n=313 for ovarian reserve and ovarian response analysis, respectively) enrolled in a prospective cohort study of couples presenting to an academic fertility centre (2004-2015). Information on occupational factors was collected on a take-home questionnaire, and reproductive outcomes were abstracted from electronic medical records. Generalised linear models and generalised linear mixed models were used to evaluate...
Addressing Occupational Violence
An overview of conceptual and policy considerations viewed through a gender lens This report reviews the international literature and a selection of regulatory instruments with respect to occupational violence - work-related violence involving incidents in which a person is physically, psychologically or sexually assaulted, threatened, harassed, bullied or mobbed in circumstances relating to their work. This definition covers a broad range of actions and behaviours that can create a risk to the health and safety of employees. This report provides an overview of policy strategies addressing the...
Women's occupational health and safety management
An issue for corporate social responsibility This study measures the extent to which the gender perspective is taken into account in Occupational Health & Safety (OHS) management and proposes an innovative approach for managing it. This work is an exploratory study of the relations between women's OHS and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) through the examination of the main management practices that literature supports in a survey conducted at 117 companies in Spain with different levels of commitment to gender equality. Overall, the practices in question are found to be deployed to...
Chronic Disease Risks From Exposure to Long-Hour Work Schedules Over a 32-Year Period
Objectives: This study aims at evaluating the chronic disease risk related to prolonged work in long-hour schedules for eight major chronic diseases: heart disease, non-skin cancer, arthritis, diabetes, chronic lung disease, asthma, chronic depression, and hypertension. Methods: The study used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 covering 32 years of job history (1978 to 2009) for 7492 respondents. Logistic regression analyses were performed to test the relationship between average weekly work hours, and the reported prevalence of those conditions for each individual. Results...
The effect of motherhood and work on women's time pressure
A cohort analysis using the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health This is the first study using the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women´s Health to identify time stress in younger Australian women over a 17-year period with a focus on motherhood and work. Understanding the sources of time stress is important if policy-makers want to design and successfully implement health policies, and family-friendly parental leave and childcare policies. Source: Otterbach S, Tavener M, Forder P, Powers J, Loxton D, Byles J. Scand J Work Environ Health , 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.5271...
Job strain and informal caregiving as predictors of long-term sickness
A longitudinal multi-cohort study This study is the first to investigate the joint effects of job strain and informal caregiving on long-term sickness absence. The main finding was that informal caregiving responsibilities and/or high job strain predicted long-term sickness absence among women. Source: Mortensen J, Dich N, Lange T, Alexanderson K, Goldberg M, Head J, Kivimäki M, Madsen IEH, Rugulies R, Vahtera J, Zins M, Rod NH. Scand J Work Environ Health . http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3587
Night shift work and other determinants of estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate among middle-aged nurses and midwives
The study examined the association between rotating night shift work and blood concentrations of selected sex hormones among nurses and midwives. A positive and significant association between the total duration of night shift work and estradiol level observed among postmenopausal women tends to support the hypothesis linking night shift work with increased risk of breast cancer. Source: Juvani A, Oksanen T, Virtanen M, Elovainio M, Salo P, Pentti J, Kivimäki M, Vahtera J. Scand J Work Environ Health , 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3581
L’effet des contraintes physiques du travail sur les maladies cardiovasculaires chez les femmes
Enquête Santé et itinéraire professionnel, vagues 2006 et 2010, France En France, les maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV) représentent la première cause de mortalité chez les femmes. Le rôle du milieu professionnel dans l'apparition de ces pathologies est peu documenté. L'objectif de cette étude est d'évaluer l'effet de l'exposition aux contraintes physiques du travail sur la déclaration de MCV chez les femmes. Source: http://www.invs.sante.fr/beh/2016/7-8/2016_7-8_7.html
A multilevel study on the association of observer-assessed working conditions with depressive symptoms among female eldercare workers from 56 work units in 10 care homes in Denmark
OBJECTIVES: Eldercare workers in Denmark have a higher prevalence of poor psychological health than other occupational groups. We examined the association between working conditions assessed by trained observers and depressive symptoms assessed by self-report in a study of female Danish eldercare workers. METHODS: Working conditions were observed based on action regulation theory and defined as (1) regulation requirements, a workplace resource providing opportunity for decision-making and skill development and (2) barriers for task completion. We examined the associations of individual and work...
Gender-specific association between night-work exposure and type-2 diabetes
Results from longitudinal study of adult health, ELSA-Brasil Objectives Diabetes is a multifactorial disease of increasing prevalence. The literature suggests an impact of night work on metabolic components, though the relationship with diabetes is unclear. Our aim was to investigate gender-specific associations between night work and type-2 diabetes (DM2) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) using baseline data of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Methods The cohort comprised 15 105 civil servants, aged 35–74 years. Baseline assessments (2008–2010) included...
The Breast Cancer Fund: Working Women and Breast Cancer
The State of the Evidence Based on the current evidence, action to reduce workplace exposures linked to breast cancer is imperative. The Breast Cancer Fund has spent nearly 15 years translating the science that links environmental exposures to breast cancer, and advocating for change. In the past several years, it has become increasingly evident that the workplace may be a substantive source of many of these exposures and of the resulting risk for breast cancer. Source: http://www.etui.org/fr/content/download/21116/176339/file/working-women-and-breast-cancer-1.pdf
Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy
Results from a Danish cohort study Objective: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10–29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. Methods: Data from 51 874 pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996–2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated...
Workplace stress and working from home influence depressive symptoms among employed women with young children
BACKGROUND: Poor balance between work and family can be a major stressor for women with young children and have a negative impact on emotional well-being. Family-friendly workplace attributes may reduce stress and depressive symptoms among this population. However, few studies have analyzed the role of specific workplace attributes on mental health outcomes among women with young children because available data are limited. PURPOSE: This study examines the impact of workplace attributes on changes in depressive symptoms among working women with young children between 6 and 24 months of age. METHOD...
Physical Capacity and Risk for Long-Term Sickness Absence
A Prospective Cohort Study Among 8664 Female Health Care Workers Objective: To assess the prospective associations between self-reported physical capacity and risk of long-term sickness absence among female health care workers. Methods: Female health care workers answered a questionnaire about physical capacity and were followed in a national register of sickness absence lasting for two or more consecutive weeks during 1-year follow-up. Using Cox regression hazard ratio analyses adjusted for age, smoking, body mass index, physical workload, job seniority, psychosocial work conditions, and previous...
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