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Une forme de gestion désincarnée de l’activité
L'exemple d'une formation en santé et sécurité du travail destinée aux préposés aux bénéficiaires au Québec Cet article a pour objectif d'illustrer les limites d'un mode de gestion désincarné de l'activité réelle de travail. Nous prenons l'exemple d'un mode de gestion « top-down » d'une formation en santé au travail destinée aux préposés aux bénéficiaires travaillant dans les organisations gériatriques au Québec...
Carcinogenicity of night shift work
In June, 2019, a Working Group of 27 scientists from 16 countries met at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon, France, to finalise their evaluation of the carcinogenicity of night shift work. This assessment will be published in volume 124 of the IARC Monographs. In 2007, shift work involving circadian disruption was classified as “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A), on the basis of sufficient evidence in experimental animals and limited evidence of breast cancer in humans. In this updated evaluation, the Working Group chose the name “night shift...
Association Between Reported Long Working Hours and History of Stroke in the CONSTANCES Cohort
Background and Purpose: Long working hours (LWHs) are a potential risk factor for stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate this association in a large general population cohort. Methods: We used the French population-based cohort, CONSTANCES (Cohorte des Consultants des Centres d'Examens de Santé), to retrieve information on age, sex, smoking, and working hours from the baseline, self-administered questionnaire. Other cardiovascular risk factors and previous occurrence of stroke were taken from a parallel medical interview. We defined LWH as working time >10 hours daily for...
Shift work and mental health: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Background: Shift work is common. However, research findings are mixed regarding the impact of shift work on mental health. This systematic review sought to provide a comprehensive summary of existing research examining the association between different types of shift work and mental health. The review included large-scale, non-occupation-specific research. Methods: Four electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science and SCOPUS were searched to identify studies that reported on the statistical association between shift work and mental health and that used population-based samples. Two reviewers...
Ségrégation professionnelle entre les femmes et les hommes : quels liens avec le temps partiel ?
La ségrégation professionnelle entre les femmes et les hommes et la concentration du temps partiel dans les métiers féminisés questionnent sur les rôles respectifs des facteurs liés à la demande et à l'offre de travail. Les femmes et les hommes exercent-ils des métiers différents en raison de leurs préférences et attitudes différenciées ou plutôt en raison de mécanismes de sélection sur le marché du travail ? Les femmes exercent-elles de façon privilégiée...
The impact of night shift work on breast cancer
Results from the Burden of Occupational Cancer in Canada Study Background: We estimated the proportion and number of female breast cancer cases in Canada attributable to night shift work, a probable cause of breast cancer. Methods: Levin's equation was used to calculate population attributable fractions (PAFs) among Canadian women who ever worked night/rotating shifts from 1961 to 2000, accounting for labor turnover and survival to the year 2011. The calculated PAFs were applied to 2011 Canadian breast cancer incidence statistics to obtain the number of attributable cases. Results: Approximately...
Healthy working time arrangements for healthcare personnel and patients
A systematic literature review Background: A number of working time arrangements have been linked to negative consequences for both health personnel and their patients. A common hypothesis put forth to explain these findings suggests that certain working time arrangements lead to negative patient consequences due to the adverse impact they have on employee health. The purpose of this study is to use systematic reviews to investigate whether employee health explains the relationship between working time arrangements and patient safety. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed including...
Rest breaks from work: Overview of regulations, research and practice
This report addresses the rarely discussed issue of rest breaks at work across the European Union. Based on input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents, it reveals some of the complexities involved in defining whether such breaks should be paid or unpaid, how long they should be and where they should be taken. The report compares different approaches among Member States, gives examples of judicial rulings, highlights some types of work that attract special consideration and looks into causal relationships between breaks, health and performance at work. When rest breaks are of an appropriate...
L’intensification du travail, et l’intensification des changements dans le travail : quels enjeux pour les travailleurs expérimentés ?
Cet article examine, sur la base de recherches en ergonomie, en psychologie du travail et en démographie du travail, les enjeux de la confrontation entre deux tendances en cours : le vieillissement structurel de la population au travail d'une part, l'intensification du travail et celle des changements dans le travail d'autre part. Cette analyse comporte un rappel des constats sur ces évolutions elles-mêmes, et une synthèse des connaissances sur les difficultés que l'intensification du travail, ou celle des changements, peut provoquer pour les travailleurs...
Long working hours and depressive symptoms: moderating effects of gender, socioeconomic status, and job resources
Purpose Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have found inconsistent associations between working hours and depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible moderators of this association, using data from a large-scale cross-sectional survey. Methods A total of 16,136 Japanese employees (men 83.5%; women 16.5%) responded to a self-administered questionnaire inquiring about overtime working hours during the previous month and depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale), as well as moderating factors including gender, age, marital status,...
Short rest between shifts (quick returns) and night work is associated with work-related accidents
Purpose The aim of this study was to examine whether less than 11 h between shifts (i.e., quick returns, QRs) and night shifts is associated with self-reported work-related accidents, near accidents or dozing off at work in a sample of nurses. Methods The study was based on cross-sectional data from 1784 nurses (response rate = 60%; mean age = 40.1 years, SD = 8.4; 91% female). Negative binomial regression analyses were conducted to investigate the association between the shift exposures, and eight different self-reported work-related items on accidents...
Job satisfaction and mental health of temporary agency workers in Europe: a systematic review and research agenda
The current systematic literature review aimed to analyse the associations between temporary agency work (TAW), job satisfaction, and mental health in Europe, as well as to outline a future research agenda. Twenty-eight scientific articles were identified by searching different data bases (i.e. PSYNDEX, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science) for the time span from January 2000 to December 2016. Our review reveals first that TAW is not consistently negatively related to job satisfaction. However, job insecurity and working conditions are important mediators in the relation of TAW and lowered job...
Organisation et contraintes du temps de travail : une typologie en six catégories
En 2016, un peu moins de la moitié des salariés du secteur privé et des agents du secteur public ont des semaines de travail dites « standard ». Ce type de semaine est travaillé du lundi au vendredi selon des journées essentiellement « standard » (entre 7h et 20h) et rarement le week-end. Il concerne en grande partie les professions intermédiaires et les cadres et professions intellectuelles supérieures. Au sein de la fonction publique, ce type de semaine est plus courant parmi les fonctionnaires que parmi les contractuels...
Revue systématique sur les effets du télétravail chez les gestionnaires
Le télétravail représente une option envisageable pour diminuer la surcharge de travail des cadres du réseau de la santé et des services sociaux québécois. Cet arrangement de travail permettrait de se centrer sur des tâches exigeant un plus haut degré de concentration, tout en demeurant disponible pour les équipes de travail. La présente évaluation des technologies et des modes d'intervention (ETMI) a pour but d'identifier les effets du télétravail pour les cadres et de statuer si cette pratique...
Night and rotational work exposure within the last 12 months and risk of incident hypertension
Objectives: Shift work, such as alternating day and nights, causes chronobiologic disruptions which may cause an increase in hypertension risk. However, the relative contributions of the components of shift work ? such as shift type (eg, night work) and rotations (ie, switching of shift times; day to night) ? on this association are not clear. To address this question, we constructed novel definitions of night work and rotational work and assessed their associations with risk of incident hypertension. Methods: A cohort of 2151 workers at eight aluminum manufacturing facilities previously studied...
Short time between shifts and risk of injury among Danish hospital workers
A register-based cohort study Objectives: Short time between consecutive work shifts (quick returns, ie, ≤11 hours between shifts) is associated with sleepiness and fatigue, both of which have been linked to risk of injury. This paper aims to study quick returns between work shifts and risk of injury among Danish hospital workers. Method: The study population included 69 200 employees, primarily working at hospitals, corresponding to 167 726 person years at risk between 2008–2015. Information on working hours was obtained from payroll data in the Danish Working Hour Database and linked...
Comparison of rest-break interventions during a mentally demanding task
Research is scarce on ways to enhance the effect of rest breaks during mentally demanding tasks. The present study investigated the effectiveness of two rest-break interventions on well-being during an academic lecture. Sixty-six students (53 females, mean age 22.5 years) enrolled in two different university classes of 4-hr duration participated in the study. Two measures of well-being (fatigue and vigor) were assessed immediately before, after, and 20 minutes after the break. A control condition without a break as well as an unstructured break was compared with breaks either encompassing physical...
Impact of shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm
A one-year longitudinal study in junior physicians Background: Cumulative epidemiological evidence suggests that shift work exerts harmful effects on human health. However, the physiological mechanisms are not well understood. This study aimed to examine the impact of shift work on the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, i.e. diurnal cortisol rhythm. Methods: Seventy physicians with a mean age 30 years participated in this one-year longitudinal study. Working schedules, either shift work or regular schedules with day shift, were assessed at baseline. Salivary cortisol samples...
Do Working Hours Affect Health? Evidence from Statutory Workweek Regulations in Germany
This study estimates the causal effect of working hours on health. We deal with the endogeneity of working hours through instrumental variables techniques. In particular, we exploit exogenous variation in working hours from statutory workweek regulations in the German public sector as an instrumental variable. Using panel data, we run two-stage least squares regressions controlling for individual-specific unobserved heterogeneity. We find adverse consequences of increasing working hours on subjective and several objective health measures. The effects are mainly driven by women and parents of minor...
Comparison of hemodynamic responses between normotensive and untreated hypertensive men under simulated long working hours
This study examined hemodynamic responses of normotensive and hypertensive participants under the simulated long working hours in an experimental laboratory. The findings showed that long working hours increases the blood pressure of individuals especially those with hypertension; suggesting that such individuals may suffer more severe damage related to long working hours. Source: Ikeda, H., Liu, X., Oyama, F., Wakisaka, K. et Takahashi, M. (2018). Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health . http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3752
Indoor, outdoor, and night work and blood concentrations of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone
Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine blood concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) among indoor, outdoor, permanent and rotating night workers and the association with hours spent outdoors on and off work days. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 425 workers (162 indoor, 112 outdoor, 118 rotating night and 33 permanent night workers) throughout all seasons. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were analyzed by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS) and an automated...
Adverse effect of long work hours on incident diabetes in 7065 Ontario workers followed for 12 years
Objective: According to the International Diabetes Federation, the most important challenge for prevention is now to identify social and environmental modifiable risk factors of diabetes. In this regard, long work hours have recently been linked with diabetes, but more high-quality prospective studies are needed. We evaluated the relationship between long work hours and the incidence of diabetes among 7065 workers over a 12-year period in Ontario, Canada. Research: design and methods Data from Ontario respondents (35–74 years of age) to the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey were prospectively...
Night work and risk of common mental disorders
Analyzing observational data as a non-randomized pseudo trial Finnish night workers had higher odds of developing common mental disorders (CMD) compared with day workers and they showed higher recovery rates from CMD when moving back to day work. Awareness should therefore be raised promoting the importance of good sleep hygiene. However, workplace policies should take into account the degree of individual resilience to adverse health effects of night work. Source: Beltagy, M. S., Pentti, J., Vahtera, J. et Kivimäki, M. (2018). Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health . http...
Implications of work effort and discretion for employee well-being and career-related outcomes
An integrative assessment How does work effort affect employee outcomes? The authors bridge distinct literatures on the well-being versus career-related implications of work effort by analyzing the relation of overtime work and work intensity to both types of outcomes. They also extend examination of the role of discretion in modifying the effects of work effort from well-being to career-related outcomes. Using data from the fifth and sixth European Working Conditions Surveys, the authors show that greater work effort relates strongly to reduced well-being and modestly to inferior career-related...
Effects of night-time on-call work on heart rate variability before bed and sleep quality in visiting nurses
Purpose: In Japan, many visiting nurses work carrying cell phones to respond to calls from users even at night (on-call work). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether on-call work affected heart rate variability (HRV) before bed and decreased sleep quality in visiting nurses even if their sleep was not interrupted due to actual calls. Methods: Thirty-one visiting nurses (mean age, 49.8 years; standard deviation, 6.3 years) were asked to record their 2.5-min resting HRV before bed, and to undergo one-channel sleep electroencephalography (EEG) and subjective sleep evaluations upon waking...
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