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Rest breaks from work: Overview of regulations, research and practice
This report addresses the rarely discussed issue of rest breaks at work across the European Union. Based on input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents, it reveals some of the complexities involved in defining whether such breaks should be paid or unpaid, how long they should be and where they should be taken. The report compares different approaches among Member States, gives examples of judicial rulings, highlights some types of work that attract special consideration and looks into causal relationships between breaks, health and performance at work. When rest breaks are of an appropriate...
Systematic literature review on the effects of occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions at the workplace
Objectives: The aim of this review was to assess the evidence that occupational safety and health (OSH) legislative and regulatory policy could improve the working environment in terms of reduced levels of industrial injuries and fatalities, musculoskeletal disorders, worker complaints, sick leave and adverse occupational exposures. Methods: A systematic literature review covering the years 1966?2017 (February) was undertaken to capture both published and gray literature studies of OSH work environment interventions with quantitative measures of intervention effects. Studies that met specified...
Do Working Hours Affect Health? Evidence from Statutory Workweek Regulations in Germany
This study estimates the causal effect of working hours on health. We deal with the endogeneity of working hours through instrumental variables techniques. In particular, we exploit exogenous variation in working hours from statutory workweek regulations in the German public sector as an instrumental variable. Using panel data, we run two-stage least squares regressions controlling for individual-specific unobserved heterogeneity. We find adverse consequences of increasing working hours on subjective and several objective health measures. The effects are mainly driven by women and parents of minor...
Worsening Workers' Health by Lowering Retirement Age: The Malign Consequences of a Benign Reform
In 2003, the retirement age of Swiss construction workers was lowered from 65 to 60. This reform has been intended to improve their health. Our study shows the opposite outcome. The human capital theory suggests that investments in employees’ productivity by the employer and the employees themselves depend on the time remaining until their retirement. Hence, we hypothesize that pension reforms that reduce employees’ working horizon decrease investments in work-related human capital, which translates into a higher prevalence of sickness absences, a longer absence duration, and worse...
Réglementer l’incidence sur la santé et la sécurité au travail de l’économie des plateformes en ligne
L'essor de l'économie en ligne constitue un défi pour la santé et la sécurité au travail (SST). Le travail sur des plateformes en ligne — c'est-à-dire assuré par l'intermédiaire, sur ou au moyen de plateformes en ligne — est caractérisé par une large gamme de formules de travail, y compris le travail occasionnel, le travail indépendant économiquement dépendant, le travail à la tâche, le télétravail et le «crowdwork». Le présent rapport...
The Evolution of Workplace Mental Health in Canada (2007-2017)
The focus of the project was to examine the evolution of Canadian workplace mental health policies and strategies over the past ten years (2007-2017). There were several major streams of activities for our project, including conducting reviews of the empirical and gray literature; key informant interviews, and a national survey. Evolution was examined across several key thematic domains: Legal and Standards; Business; Education and Training; Media; Research; and, Sector-Specific Evolution. Significant developments were observed across each thematic area. Source: https://www.workplacestrategiesformentalhealth...
Les travailleurs invisibles
Les risques pour la santé des travailleurs des agences de location de personnel La croissance du marché de l'emploi atypique contribue à la précarisation des conditions de vie et de travail d'un nombre important de travailleurs. Bien que toutes les formes d'emploi atypique ne soient pas nécessairement précaires, elles offrent généralement une moins bonne protection sociale et des salaires moins élevés. Le travail par l'intermédiaire des agences de location de personnel, une forme d'emploi atypique,...
Addressing Occupational Violence
An overview of conceptual and policy considerations viewed through a gender lens This report reviews the international literature and a selection of regulatory instruments with respect to occupational violence - work-related violence involving incidents in which a person is physically, psychologically or sexually assaulted, threatened, harassed, bullied or mobbed in circumstances relating to their work. This definition covers a broad range of actions and behaviours that can create a risk to the health and safety of employees. This report provides an overview of policy strategies addressing the...
Regulating the intangible - Searching for safety culture in the Norwegian petroleum industry
The way organizational culture can influence safety has been a topic in safety research and accident investigations for decades. This has led to an increasing interest from regulators to include the concept of safety culture into the sphere of risk regulation. In the Norwegian petroleum regulations, a requirement for a “sound health, safety and environment culture” was introduced in 2002. The article presents a qualitative study of the perceived effects of this requirement on safety, seen from the perspective of both the regulator and the regulated companies. The study shows that introducing...
A systematic literature review of the effectiveness of occupational health and safety regulatory enforcement
Background: We aimed to determine the strength of evidence on the effectiveness of legislative and regulatory policy levers in creating incentives for organizations to improve occupational health and safety processes and outcomes. Methods: A systematic review was undertaken to assess the strength of evidence on the effectiveness of specific policy levers using a “best-evidence” synthesis approach. Results: A structured literature search identified 11,947 citations from 13 peer-reviewed literature databases. Forty-three studies were retained for synthesis. Strong evidence was identified...
Systematic review of qualitative literature on occupational health and safety legislation and regulatory enforcement planning and implementation
Objective: The ability of occupational health and safety (OHS) legislation and regulatory enforcement to prevent workplace injuries and illnesses is contingent on political, economic, and organizational conditions. This systematic review of qualitative research articles considers how OHS legislation and regulatory enforcement are planned and implemented. Methods: A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed, English language articles published between 1990 and 2013 yielded 11 947 articles. We identified 34 qualitative articles as relevant, and 18 passed our quality assessment and proceeded to meta-ethnographic...
Medical repatriation of migrant farm workers in Ontario
A descriptive analysis BACKGROUND: Approximately 40 000 migrant farm workers are employed annually in Canada through temporary foreign worker programs. Workers experiencing health conditions that prevent ongoing work are normally repatriated to their home country, which raises concerns about human rights and health equity. In this study, we present data on the reasons for medical repatriation of migrant farm workers in Ontario. METHODS: In this retrospective descriptive study, we examined medical repatriation data from Foreign Agricultural Resource Management Services, a non-profit corporation...
Law on work-related stress in need of updating
A study has suggested Sweden's Work Environment Act fails to tell employers what their obligations are towards their employees to prevent work-related stress and stress-related illness. Until recently there had not been a single conviction of an employer violating laws which outlaw working environments likely to cause ‘psychosocial' illnesses. The study says the legislation is too vague and outdated, and the organisation that could clarify the rules has failed to do so. Source: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/ewco/2014/02/SE1402029I.htm
Vieillissement et politiques de l'emploi : France 2014
Mieux travailler avec l'âge L'espérance de vie n'a jamais été aussi élevée qu'aujourd'hui tandis que la fécondité est en diminution dans la majorité des pays de l'OCDE. Pour faire face à ces tendances démographiques, il faut adapter les dépenses publiques de protection sociale et assurer leur viabilité à long terme, en particulier en favorisant l'emploi des seniors. Avec le recul de l'âge légal de la retraite, les seniors vont travailler plus longtemps et...
Occupational Health Policy and Immigrant Workers in the Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Sector
Background Immigrant workers make up an important portion of the hired workforce in the Agricultural, Forestry and Fishing (AgFF) sector, one of the most hazardous industry sectors in the US. Despite the inherent dangers associated with this sector, worker protection is limited. Methods This article describes the current occupational health and safety policies and regulatory standards in the AgFF sector and underscores the regulatory exceptions and limitations in worker protections. Immigration policies and their effects on worker health and safety are also discussed. Emphasis is placed on policies...
Working to rule, or working safely? Part 1: A state of the art review
The paper reviews the literature from 1986 on the management of those safety rules and procedures which relate to the workplace level in organisations. It contrasts two different paradigms of how rules and their development and use are perceived and managed. The first is a top-down classical, rational approach in which rules are seen as static, comprehensive limits of freedom of choice, imposed on operators at the sharp end and violations are seen as negative behaviour to be suppressed. The second is a bottom-up constructivist view of rules as dynamic, local, situated constructions of operators...
The economics of health and safety at work: an interdiciplinary review of the theory and policy
This paper engages in an interdisciplinary survey of the current state of knowledge related to the theory, determinants and consequences of occupational safety and health (OSH). It first describes the fundamental theoretical construct of compensating wage differentials, which is used by economists to understand the optimal provision of OSH in a perfectly competitive labour market. The plethora of incentives faced by workers and firms in job and insurance markets that determine the ultimate level of OSH are discussed in detail. The extensive empirical evidence from the hedonic wage and stated choice...
Télétravail à domicile : risques psychosociaux
La CARSAT Nord-Picardie publie un guide pratique sur les risques professionnels spécifiquement rencontrés par les télétravailleurs à domicile et les solutions à apporter. Dans une première partie, les obligations réglementaires liées au télétravail à domicile sont rappelées : le volontariat, l’obligation pour l’employeur de prendre en charge tous les coûts découlant de l’exercice du télétravail, la nécessité de définir des plages horaires....
Recommandations pour la surveillance médicoprofessionnelle des travailleurs postés et/ou de nuit
Les recommandations de bonne pratique (RBP) sont définies dans le champ de la santé comme des propositions développées pour aider le praticien et le patient à rechercher les soins les plus appropriés dans des circonstances cliniques données. Elles sont le résultat de synthèses de l'état de l'art et des données de la science à un temps donné. Concernant le travail posté et/ou de nuit, le bénéfice escompté de ces RBP est l'amélioration et l'harmonisation de...
New Zealand mining disaster: Sweeping away of old laws left industry "in limbo"
New laws to improve worker participation in health and safety matters and toughen up directors' duties should be given early attention, according to an official report into the Pike River mining tragedy in New Zealand two years ago. The Pike River coal mine, which lies on the west coast of the South Island, exploded on 19 November 2010, due to the ignition of a large volume of methane gas. Twenty-nine men underground died immediately, or soon afterwards, either from the blast or from the toxic atmosphere. Over the next nine days the mine exploded three more times before it was sealed. The Royal...
Pénibilité : tous concernés !
Le législateur a porté l'âge légal de départ en retraite à 62 ans à partir de 2017. Cet allongement de la vie professionnelle est toutefois conditionné à la capacité des salariés à tenir leur emploi jusqu'à cet âge, voire jusqu'à 67 ans pour une retraite garantie à taux plein. Pour cela il est indispensable de prévenir l'usure professionnelle de tous les salariés, d'améliorer l'employabilité des seniors et de définir des modalités...
An Evaluation of the Impact of the WorkSafeNB Focus Firms Intervention on reported Safety Behaviour and Injury Outcomes
WorkSafe New Brunswick implemented the Focus Firms initiative in 2002 to reduce workplace injuries and build health and safety infrastructure in workplaces with poor safety records. The study evaluated the impact of the Focus Firms Initiative on safety performance at participating firms. Source : http://www.worksafebc.com/contact_us/research/research_results/res_60_10_1140.asp http://www.worksafebc.com/contact_us/research/funding_decisions/assets/pdf/2010/RS2010-DG01.pdf
A new estimate of the impact of OSHA inspections on manufacturing injury rates, 1998–2005
Background : A prior study indicated that the effect of OSHA inspections on lost workday injuries had declined from 1979 through 1998. This study provides an updated estimate for 1998–2005. Methods : Injury data from the Pennsylvania workers' compensation program were linked with employment data from unemployment compensation records to calculate lost-time rates for single-establishment manufacturing firms with more than 10 employees. These rates were linked to OSHA inspection findings. The RAND Human Subjects Protection Committee determined that this study was exempt from review Results...
Prevention is the Best Medicine
Prevention is the Best Medicine is a toolkit designed for settlement agencies and others to teach newcomers to Ontario about (1) occupational health and safety (OHS), and (2) workers' compensation. The toolkit contains everything needed to deliver instructional sessions on these two separate, but related, topics within an Ontario context. Included are sample lesson plans and slide show presentations for workshop leaders, as well as handouts for participating newcomers. Source : http://www.iwh.on.ca/pbm
TEMPO : Travail, EMploi POpulations
L’ambition du projet TEMPO : mettre le travail au centre des négociations Face à ces nouvelles obligations le réseau Anact se donne pour objectif de mieux faire prendre en compte les questions du travail dans les prochains accords pénibilité et égalité professionnelle. Il fait le choix d’accompagner un nombre significatif d’entreprises pour faire prévaloir une démarche fondée sur l’articulation entre travail et populations rendant ainsi l’approche plus cohérente. Pour cela, le réseau...
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