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Carcinogenicity of night shift work
In June, 2019, a Working Group of 27 scientists from 16 countries met at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon, France, to finalise their evaluation of the carcinogenicity of night shift work. This assessment will be published in volume 124 of the IARC Monographs. In 2007, shift work involving circadian disruption was classified as “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A), on the basis of sufficient evidence in experimental animals and limited evidence of breast cancer in humans. In this updated evaluation, the Working Group chose the name “night shift...
Workplace violence and development of burnout symptoms
A prospective cohort study on 1823 social educators Purpose: Burnout and workplace violence (WPV) have been associated in cross-sectional studies, but longitudinal studies with solid methods and adequate sample sizes are lacking. This study investigates whether WPV increases burnout symptoms during a 12-month period. Methods: Questionnaire data were collected on 1823 social educators at baseline and 12-month follow-up, coupled with additionally 12 monthly text-message surveys on exposure to WPV. Using general linear modelling for repeated measures, we estimated change over time in burnout symptoms...
Association Between Reported Long Working Hours and History of Stroke in the CONSTANCES Cohort
Background and Purpose: Long working hours (LWHs) are a potential risk factor for stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate this association in a large general population cohort. Methods: We used the French population-based cohort, CONSTANCES (Cohorte des Consultants des Centres d'Examens de Santé), to retrieve information on age, sex, smoking, and working hours from the baseline, self-administered questionnaire. Other cardiovascular risk factors and previous occurrence of stroke were taken from a parallel medical interview. We defined LWH as working time >10 hours daily for...
Shift work and mental health: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Background: Shift work is common. However, research findings are mixed regarding the impact of shift work on mental health. This systematic review sought to provide a comprehensive summary of existing research examining the association between different types of shift work and mental health. The review included large-scale, non-occupation-specific research. Methods: Four electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science and SCOPUS were searched to identify studies that reported on the statistical association between shift work and mental health and that used population-based samples. Two reviewers...
Organisational climate and employee health outcomes: A systematic review
Organisational climate, particularly safety climate, has been documented as a crucial element in promoting occupational health and safety. However, most previous studies have focused more on safety issues (e.g., injuries and accidents) rather than health outcomes (e.g., illnesses, stress, etc). A comprehensive review is also lacking in relation to understanding the organisational climate–health relationship between different levels of analysis, different data sources and different analytical procedures. We conducted a systematic review to investigate previous scholarly contributions to organisational...
Psychosocial Work Conditions and Mental Health: Examining Differences Across Mental Illness and Well-Being Outcomes
Objectives: Psychosocial work conditions are determinants of mental illness among worker populations. However, while the focus on negative aspects of mental health has generated important contributions to the development of workplace interventions, there is less evidence on the factors that support the positive aspects of mental well-being. This study aimed to examine the association between psychosocial work conditions and mental health outcomes among a representative sample of Canadian workers; and to assess whether the relationships are consistent across measures of mental illness versus mental...
Stressful by design: Exploring health risks of ride-share work
Introduction: For-hire driving work, such as taxi driving, is characterized by long hours of sedentary behaviour, passenger assault, lack of benefits or support, and isolating working conditions that jeopardize good health. The for-hire driving industry has recently expanded to include a new group of ride-share drivers from digital platforms such as Uber and Lyft; this has substantially increased the number of people engaged in for-hire driving. However, there is very little existing research on ride-share drivers' health and safety in relation to their work, and no research on the Canadian...
The impact of night shift work on breast cancer
Results from the Burden of Occupational Cancer in Canada Study Background: We estimated the proportion and number of female breast cancer cases in Canada attributable to night shift work, a probable cause of breast cancer. Methods: Levin's equation was used to calculate population attributable fractions (PAFs) among Canadian women who ever worked night/rotating shifts from 1961 to 2000, accounting for labor turnover and survival to the year 2011. The calculated PAFs were applied to 2011 Canadian breast cancer incidence statistics to obtain the number of attributable cases. Results: Approximately...
Working conditions and workers' health
This report uses European Working Conditions Survey data to examine working conditions and their implications for worker's health. Ensuring the sustainability of work in the context of ageing populations implies a greater number of people in employment who can remain in the workforce for longer. The report examines the interplay between work demands – which carry an increased risk of exhaustion – and work resources – which support workers in greater engagement and well-being. The findings indicate that physical risks have not increased but remain important, while emotional...
Évolution 2010-2018 du burnout en Belgique et intérêt de l’utilisation conjointe de deux outils de diagnostic
Le projet se structure en différentes étapes : - Établir une revue de la littérature scientifique des cinq dernières années sur le burnout et les troubles mentaux associés (stress, dépression, workaholisme, fatigue chronique, fibromyalgie, brown-out, bore-out) ; - Faire le point sur des concepts fortement médiatisés comme le bore-out ou le brownout; - Mesurer l'ampleur du burnout dans la population belge ; - Adapter l'outil à l'intention des médecins permettant d'aider à la détection...
Le stress au travail : du paradigme des risques psychosociaux à celui de la qualité de vie au travail
Une recherche-action utilisant trois modèles classiques du stress au travail nous a permis de vérifier l'impact sur les résultats obtenus du choix du modèle et du paradigme : risques psychosociaux versus qualité de vie au travail. Quatre cent trente-six salariés de la grande distribution ont répondu à un questionnaire incluant ces trois mesures du stress, les conséquences (satisfaction, fatigue) et une cause possible (tensions de rôle). Nos résultats valident les hypothèses de différences significatives...
Occupational Safety and Health Among Young Workers in the Nordic Countries: A Systematic Literature Review
This review aimed to identify risk factors for occupational accidents and illnesses among young workers in the Nordic countries and to attain knowledge on specific vulnerable groups within the young working force that may need special attention. We conducted a systematic review from 1994 to 2014 using five online databases. Of the 12,528 retrieved articles, 54 met the review criteria and were quality assessed, in which data were extracted focusing on identifying occupational safety, health risk factors, and vulnerable groups among the young workers. The review shows that mechanical factors such...
Long working hours and depressive symptoms: moderating effects of gender, socioeconomic status, and job resources
Purpose Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have found inconsistent associations between working hours and depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible moderators of this association, using data from a large-scale cross-sectional survey. Methods A total of 16,136 Japanese employees (men 83.5%; women 16.5%) responded to a self-administered questionnaire inquiring about overtime working hours during the previous month and depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale), as well as moderating factors including gender, age, marital status,...
Short rest between shifts (quick returns) and night work is associated with work-related accidents
Purpose The aim of this study was to examine whether less than 11 h between shifts (i.e., quick returns, QRs) and night shifts is associated with self-reported work-related accidents, near accidents or dozing off at work in a sample of nurses. Methods The study was based on cross-sectional data from 1784 nurses (response rate = 60%; mean age = 40.1 years, SD = 8.4; 91% female). Negative binomial regression analyses were conducted to investigate the association between the shift exposures, and eight different self-reported work-related items on accidents...
Breaking Point: Violence Against Long-Term Care Staff
Direct resident care in long-term care facilities is carried out predominantly by personal support workers and registered practical nurses, the majority of whom are women. They experience physical, verbal, and sexual violence from residents on a regular basis. To explore this widespread problem, fifty-six staff in seven communities in Ontario, Canada, were consulted. They identified such immediate causes of violence as resident fear, confusion, and agitation and such underlying causes as task-driven organization of work, understaffing, inappropriate resident placement, and inadequate time for relational...
Workplace bullying among healthcare professionals in Sweden: a descriptive study
Workplace bullying is a taboo event which occurs worldwide, although the prevalence varies significantly between and within countries. Nurses have been regarded an occupational risk group for bullying at the work place. Bullying in health and social care contexts is sometimes reported as frequent and, other times, as not occurring, which sparked our interest in mapping the occurrence of bullying in the health and social care system in Sweden. Thus, the purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence of bullying, and to discuss cultural traditions and environmental factors that affect bullying...
Compassion Fatigue in Palliative Care Nursing. A Concept Analysis
Parue dans le Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing, cette étude visait à définir la fatigue de compassion dans le contexte des soins infirmiers palliatifs. À la suite de la réalisation d'une revue de la littérature, les auteurs ont été en mesure de proposer une définition du concept. Pour les soins infirmiers palliatifs, la fatigue de compassion a été définie comme étant l'état dans lequel l'empathie et la compassion sont perdues. Cet état est démontré par des...
A systematic review and meta-analysis of workplace mindfulness training randomized controlled trials
This meta-analytic review responds to promises in the research literature and public domain about the benefits of workplace mindfulness training. It synthesizes randomized controlled trial evidence from workplace-delivered training for changes in mindfulness, stress, mental health, well-being, and work performance outcomes. Going beyond extant reviews, this article explores the influence of variability in workforce and intervention characteristics for reducing perceived stress. Meta-effect estimates (Hedge's g) were computed using data from 23 studies. Results indicate beneficial effects following...
Revue systématique sur les effets du télétravail chez les gestionnaires
Le télétravail représente une option envisageable pour diminuer la surcharge de travail des cadres du réseau de la santé et des services sociaux québécois. Cet arrangement de travail permettrait de se centrer sur des tâches exigeant un plus haut degré de concentration, tout en demeurant disponible pour les équipes de travail. La présente évaluation des technologies et des modes d'intervention (ETMI) a pour but d'identifier les effets du télétravail pour les cadres et de statuer si cette pratique...
Night and rotational work exposure within the last 12 months and risk of incident hypertension
Objectives: Shift work, such as alternating day and nights, causes chronobiologic disruptions which may cause an increase in hypertension risk. However, the relative contributions of the components of shift work ? such as shift type (eg, night work) and rotations (ie, switching of shift times; day to night) ? on this association are not clear. To address this question, we constructed novel definitions of night work and rotational work and assessed their associations with risk of incident hypertension. Methods: A cohort of 2151 workers at eight aluminum manufacturing facilities previously studied...
Role stressors in Australian transport and logistics workers
Psychosocial implications Psychosocial injury is an important issue for the transport and logistics sector. Indeed, these workers typically face multiple role stressors that compromise mental health and, in turn, have a deleterious effect on safety outcomes. The present study investigated the interactive effects of three roles stressors on employee strain (psychological strain and sleep disturbances) and employee morale (job dissatisfaction and turnover intentions) in 443 Australian road transport and logistics workers. Regression analyses using PROCESS revealed significant three-way interactions...
Strategies to improve the implementation of workplace-based policies or practices targeting tobacco, alcohol, diet, physical activity and obesity
Implementation strategies are meant to improve the adoption and integration of evidence-based health interventions into routine policies and practices within specific settings. This review examined whether using these strategies improved the implementation of policies and practices in the workplace promoting: •Healthy eating •Physical activity •Weight control •Tobacco cessation •Prevention of risky alcohol consumption The review authors also wanted to know if these strategies changed employees' health behaviours, caused any unintended effects, and were good value for...
Does paid vacation leave protect against depression among working Americans
A national longitudinal fixed effects analysis Objectives: The United States is the only advanced economy globally that does not guarantee its workers paid vacation leave. Although empirical studies have linked paid vacation leave to happiness and stress, no study has investigated the association between paid vacation leave and depression. Using a nationally-representative longitudinal sample of 3380 working men and women aged 45–52 years from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, this study explored whether paid vacation leave may protect against depression. Methods: Multivariate...
Organizational change and employee mental health
A prospective multilevel study of the associations between organizational changes and clinically relevant mental distress Objective: The goal of this paper was to elucidate the relationship between exposure to separate, multiple or repeated organizational change at both individual- and work-unit level and subsequent clinically relevant mental distress amongst employees two years after change had taken place. Methods: A full panel, prospective design was utilized. Data were collected at two time-points two years apart, by self-administered, online questionnaires. Organizational change was measured...
Long-term occupational trajectories and suicide
A 22-year follow-up of the GAZEL cohort study Objective: Most suicides occur among individuals of working age. Risk is elevated in some occupational groups, however relations between long-term occupational trajectories and suicide are not well known. We describe career-long occupational trajectories and examine their influence on suicide. Methods: Data come from GAZEL, a French cohort study set among employees of a large national utilities company. Occupational grade was obtained from company records from the time of hiring (1953?1988). Groupbased trajectory models were used to define occupational...
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